alpha-Linolenic acid

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Not to be confused with linoleic acid.
This article is about alpha-linolenic acid. For other uses, see Linolenic acid.
α-Linolenic acid
ALAnumbering.svg
Linolenic-acid-3D-vdW.png
Identifiers
CAS number 463-40-1 YesY
PubChem 5280934
ChemSpider 4444437 YesY
UNII 0RBV727H71 YesY
DrugBank DB00132
ChEBI CHEBI:27432 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL8739 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula C18H30O2
Molar mass 278.43 g mol−1
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid found in seeds (chia, flaxseed, see also table below), nuts (notably walnuts), and many common vegetable oils. In terms of its structure, it is named all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid.[2] In physiological literature, it is given the name 18:3 (n−3).

α-Linolenic acid is a carboxylic acid with an 18-carbon chain and three cis double bonds. The first double bond is located at the third carbon from the methyl end of the fatty acid chain, known as the n end. Thus, α-linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated n−3 (omega-3) fatty acid. It is an isomer of gamma-linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated n−6 (omega-6) fatty acid.

History[edit]

α-Linolenic acid was first isolated by Rollett[3] as cited in J. W. McCutcheon's synthesis in 1942,[4] and referred to in Green and Hilditch's 1930s survey.[5] It was first artificially synthesized in 1995 from C6 homologating agents. A Wittig reaction of the phosphonium salt of [(Z-Z)-nona-3,6-dien-1-yl]triphenylphosphonium bromide with methyl 9-oxononanoate, followed by saponification, completed the synthesis.[6]

Dietary sources[edit]

Seed oils are the richest sources of α-linolenic acid, notably those of chia, perilla, flaxseed (linseed oil), rapeseed (canola), and soybeans. α-Linolenic acid is also obtained from the thylakoid membranes in the leaves of Pisum sativum (pea leaves).[7] Plant chloroplasts consisting of more than 95 percent of photosynthetic thylakoid membranes are highly fluid due to large abundance of linolenic acid, that shows up as sharp resonances in high resolution carbon-13 NMR spectra, invariably.[8] Some studies state that ALA remains stable during processing and cooking.[9] However, other studies state that ALA might not be suitable for baking, as it will polymerize with itself, a feature exploited in paint with transition metal catalysts. Some ALA may also oxidize at baking temperatures.[10] %ALA in the table below is for the oil extracted from each item.

Common name Alternate name Linnaean name % ALA ref.
Chia chia sage Salvia hispanica 64% [11]
Kiwifruit seeds Chinese gooseberry Actinidia chinensis 62% [11]
Perilla shiso Perilla frutescens 58% [11]
Flax linseed Linum usitatissimum 55% [11]
Lingonberry cowberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea 49% [11]
Camelina camelina Camelina sativa 35-45%
Purslane portulaca Portulaca oleracea 35% [11]
Sea buckthorn seaberry Hippophae rhamnoides L. 32% [12]
Hemp cannabis Cannabis sativa 20% [11]
Rapeseed canola Brassica napus 10% [2]
Soybean soya Glycine max 8% [2]
  average val

Potential role in nutrition and health[edit]

Flax is a rich source of α-linolenic acid.

α-Linolenic acid, an n−3 fatty acid, is a member of the group of essential fatty acids (EFAs), so called because they cannot be produced within the body and must be acquired through diet. Most seeds and seed oils are much richer in an n−6 fatty acid, linoleic acid. Exceptions include flaxseed (must be ground for proper nutrient absorption) and walnuts. Linoleic acid is also an EFA, but it, and the other n−6 fatty acids, compete with n−3s for positions in cell membranes and have very different effects on human health. (See Essential fatty acid interactions.)

α-Linolenic acid can only be obtained by humans through their diets because the absence of the required 12- and 15-desaturase enzymes makes de novo synthesis from stearic acid impossible. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n−3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n−3) are readily available from fish and algae oil and play a vital role in many metabolic processes. These can also be synthesized by humans from dietary α-linolenic acid, but with an efficiency of only a few percent.[13] Because the efficacy of n−3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) synthesis decreases down the cascade of α-linolenic acid conversion, DHA synthesis from α-linolenic acid is even more restricted than that of EPA.[14][15]

A large 2006 study found no association between total α-linolenic acid intake and overall risk of prostate cancer.[16] Multiple studies[17][18] have shown a relationship between α-linolenic acid and an increased risk of prostate cancer. This risk was found to be irrespective of source of origin (e.g., meat, vegetable oil).[19] A recent (2009) meta-analysis, however, found evidence of publication bias in earlier studies, and concluded that if ALA contributes to increased prostate cancer risk, the increase in risk is quite small.[20]

Stability and hydrogenation[edit]

α-Linolenic acid is relatively more susceptible to oxidation and will become rancid more quickly than many other oils. Oxidative instability of α-linolenic acid is one reason why producers choose to partially hydrogenate oils containing α-linolenic acid, such as soybean oil.[21] Soybeans are the largest source of edible oils in the U.S., and 40% of soy oil production is partially hydrogenated.[22][23]

However, when partially hydrogenated, part of the unsaturated fatty acids become unhealthy trans fats. Consumers are increasingly avoiding products that contain trans fats, and governments have begun to ban trans fats in food products. These regulations and market pressures have spurred the development of low-α-linolenic acid soybeans. These new soybean varieties yield a more stable oil that doesn't require hydrogenation for many applications, thus providing trans fat-free products, such as frying oil.[24]

Several consortia are bringing low-α-linolenic acid soy to market. DuPont's effort involves silencing the FAD2 gene that codes for Δ6-desaturase, giving a soy oil with very low levels of both α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid.[25] Monsanto Company has introduced to the market Vistive, their brand of low α-linolenic acid soybeans, which is less controversial than GMO offerings, as it was created via conventional breeding techniques.

Cardiovascular[edit]

There is some evidence ALA consumption might have a slight preventative effect against cardiovascular diseases.[26] The effect only registers through fish consumption; ALA taken in capsule form has no effect.[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Loreau, O; Maret, A; Poullain, D; Chardigny, JM; Sébédio, JL; Beaufrère, B; Noël, JP (2000). "Large-scale preparation of (9Z,12E)-1-(13)C-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, (9Z,12Z,15E)-1-(13)C-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic acid and their 1-(13)C all-cis isomers". Chemistry and physics of lipids 106 (1): 65–78. doi:10.1016/S0009-3084(00)00137-7. PMID 10878236. 
  2. ^ a b c Beare-Rogers (2001). "IUPAC Lexicon of Lipid Nutrition" (pdf). Archived from the original on 12 February 2006. Retrieved 22 February 2006. 
  3. ^ Rollett, A. (1909). "Zur kenntnis der linolensäure und des leinöls". Z. Physiol. Chem. 62 (5–6): 422. doi:10.1515/bchm2.1909.62.5-6.422. 
  4. ^ J. W. McCutcheon (1955), Linolenic acid, Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol. 3: 351 
  5. ^ Green, TG; Hilditch, TP (1935). "The identification of linoleic and linolenic acids". Biochem. J. 29 (7): 1552–63. PMC 1266662. PMID 16745822. 
  6. ^ Sandri, J.; Viala, J. (1995). "Direct preparation of (Z,Z)-1,4-dienic units with a new C6 homologating agent: synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid". Synthesis 3 (3): 271–275. doi:10.1055/s-1995-3906. 
  7. ^ Chapman, David J.; De-Felice, John and Barber, James (May 1983). "Growth temperature effects on thylakoid membrane lipid and protein content of pea chloroplasts 1". Plant Physiol 72 (1): 225–228. doi:10.1104/pp.72.1.225. PMC 1066200. PMID 16662966. 
  8. ^ YashRoy R.C. (1987) 13-C NMR studies of lipid fatty acyl chains of chloroplast membranes. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics vol. 24(6), pp. 177-178.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230822408_13-C_NMR_studies_of_lipid_fatty_acyl_chains_of_chloroplast_membranes?ev=prf_pub
  9. ^ "Processing and cooking effects on lipid content and stability of alpha-linolenic acid in spaghetti containing ground flaxseed.". 
  10. ^ "OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF FLAXSEED LIPIDS DURING BAKING". 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Seed Oil Fatty Acids – SOFA Database Retrieval
  12. ^ Li, Thomas S. C. (1999). "Sea buckthorn: New crop opportunity". "Perspectives on new crops and new uses". Alexandria, VA: ASHS Press. pp. 335–337. Archived from the original on 22 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-28. 
  13. ^ Breanne M Anderson and David WL Ma (2009). "Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equal?". Lipids in Health and Disease 8 (33): 33. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-8-33. 
  14. ^ Shiels M. Innis (2007). "Fatty acids and early human development". Early Human Development 83 (12): 761–766. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2007.09.004. PMID 17920214. 
  15. ^ Burdge, GC; Calder, PC (2005). "Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human adults". Reproduction, nutrition, development 45 (5): 581–97. doi:10.1051/rnd:2005047. PMID 16188209. 
  16. ^ Koralek DO, Peters U, Andriole G, et al. (2006). "A prospective study of dietary α-linolenic acid and the risk of prostate cancer (United States)". Cancer Causes Control 17 (6): 783–791. doi:10.1007/s10552-006-0014-x. PMID 16783606. 
  17. ^ Ramon, JM; Bou, R; Romea, S; Alkiza, ME; Jacas, M; Ribes, J; Oromi, J (2000). "Dietary fat intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study in Spain". Cancer causes & control : CCC 11 (8): 679–85. doi:10.1023/A:1008924116552. PMID 11065004. 
  18. ^ Brouwer, IA; Katan, MB; Zock, PL (2004). "Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis". The Journal of nutrition 134 (4): 919–22. PMID 15051847. 
  19. ^ De Stéfani, E; Deneo-Pellegrini, H; Boffetta, P; Ronco, A; Mendilaharsu, M (2000). "Alpha-linolenic acid and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 9 (3): 335–8. PMID 10750674. 
  20. ^ Simon, JA; Chen, YH; Bent, S (2009). "The relation of alpha-linolenic acid to the risk of prostate cancer". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89 (5): 1558S–1564S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736E. PMID 19321563. 
  21. ^ Kinney, Tony. "Metabolism in plants to produce healthier food oils (slide #4)" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-01-11. 
  22. ^ Fitzgerald, Anne and Brasher, Philip. "Ban on trans fat could benefit Iowa". Truth About Trade and Technology. Retrieved 2007-01-03. [dead link]
  23. ^ Kinney, Tony. "Metabolism in plants to produce healthier food oils (slide #2)" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-01-11. 
  24. ^ Monsanto. "ADM to process Monsanto's Vistive low linolenic soybeans at Indiana facility". Archived from the original on 2006-12-11. Retrieved 2007-01-06. 
  25. ^ Kinney, Tony. "Metabolism in plants to produce healthier food oils" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-01-11. 
  26. ^ Pan A, Chen M, Chowdhury R, et al. (December 2012). "α-Linolenic acid and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (Systematic review) 96 (6): 1262–73. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.044040. PMC 3497923. PMID 23076616. 
  27. ^ Reiner MF, Stivala S, Camici GG, Beer JH (March 2014). "[The effects of Omega-3 fatty acids in clinical medicine]". Praxis (Bern 1994) (Review) (in German) 103 (6): 329–35. doi:10.1024/1661-8157/a001593. PMID 24618312.