alpha-Methyldopamine

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α-Methyldopamine
Methyldopamine.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-(2-aminopropyl)benzene-1,2-diol
Clinical data
Legal status
?
Identifiers
CAS number 555-64-6 YesY
ATC code ?
PubChem CID 17005
ChemSpider 16110 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL28278 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C9H13NO2 
Mol. mass 167,21 g/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

α-Methyldopamine (α-Me-DA), also known as 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (3,4-DHA), is a neurotoxin and research chemical of the catecholamine and amphetamine chemical classes. The basis of this idea is in the observation that MDA and MDMA may not themselves be responsible for their neurotoxicity, as an intracerebroventricular injection (injection directly into the brain itself) does not appear to cause neurotoxicity. While many studies cite excitotoxicity, or oxidative stress as likely mechanisms, which may be an effect of the chemical itself, this has led to the search for other mechanisms for the observed toxicity of serotonin neurons and subsequent reduction in 5-HT (Serotonin) and 5-HIAA (its major metabolite in the body) in vivo following administration. A common theory follows that a metabolite in the periphery must be responsible, and several have been cited as responsible. Although, alpha-methyldopamine is widely cited as the source of this neurotoxicity in a number of lay sources, McCann, et al. (1991), demonstrated that the major metabolites alpha-methyldopamine (α-MeDA) and 3-O-methyl-α-methyldopamine (3-O-Me-α-MeDA) did not produce neurotoxicity.[1]

It was first demonstrated, in 1978, by Conway, et al. and possibly others that, while alpha-methyldopamine caused acute decreases in the levels of neuronal dopamine, in some areas of the brain in excess of 75%, levels returned to baseline within 12 hours, indicating that alpha-methyldopamine would not be responsible for the toxic effects observed.[2]

However, the story complicates as alpha-methyldopamine readily oxidizes to the o-quinone and reacts with endogenous antioxidants in the body, such as glutathione (GSH). It was demonstrated by Miller, et al. (1997), that 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine produced similar effects to the parent compound, but did not induce neurotoxicity. Another related compound however, 2,5-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine, did in fact induce neurotoxicity, providing initial evidence that this metabolite may be the source of neuronal toxicity following the administration of MDA and MDMA, and the subsequent reduction in 5-HT (Serotonin) axons.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McCann, Una D.; Ricaurte, George A. (1991). "Major metabolites of (±)3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) do not mediate its toxic effects on brain serotonin neurons". Brain Research 545 (1–2): 279–82. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(91)91297-E. PMID 1860050. 
  2. ^ Conway, Elizabeth L.; Louis, William J.; Jarrott, Bevyn (1978). "Acute and chronic administration of α-methyldopa: Regional levels of endogenous and α-methylated catecholamines in rat brain". European Journal of Pharmacology 52 (3–4): 271–80. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(78)90279-0. PMID 729639. 
  3. ^ Miller, R.Timothy; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J (1997). "2,5-bis-(Glutathion-S-yl)-α-methyldopamine, a putative metabolite of (±)-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, decreases brain serotonin concentrations". European Journal of Pharmacology 323 (2–3): 173–80. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(97)00044-7. PMID 9128836.