Alpha Pictoris

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Alpha Pictoris
Diagram showing star positions and boundaries of the Pictor constellation and its surroundings
Cercle rouge 100%.svg

Location of α Pictoris (circled)
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Pictor
Right ascension 06h 48m 11.45512s[1]
Declination −61° 56′ 29.0008″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 3.27[2]
Characteristics
Spectral type A8 Vn kA6[3]
U−B color index +0.13[2]
B−V color index +0.21[2]
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv) +20.6[4] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: –66.07[1] mas/yr
Dec.: +242.97[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 33.78 ± 1.78[1] mas
Distance 97 ± 5 ly
(30 ± 2 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV) 0.86[5]
Orbit[6]
Period (P) 1618+1407
−325
 days
Semi-major axis (a) 36+15
−2
 mas
Eccentricity (e) 0.39+0.35
−0.17
Inclination (i) 118 ± 3°
Longitude of the node (Ω) 24 ± 5°
Periastron epoch (T) 953+707
−640
Argument of periastron (ω)
(secondary)
92+22
−44
°
Details
Mass 2.04[5] M
Radius 1.6[7] R
Luminosity 13[8] L
Surface gravity (log g) 3.48[9] cgs
Temperature 7,530[9] K
Metallicity [Fe/H] –0.11[3] dex
Rotational velocity (v sin i) 206[10] km/s
Age 660[11][12] Myr
Other designations
CD-61°1478, Gl 248, HD 50241, HIP 32607, HR 2550, IRAS 06476-6153, LTT 2656, SAO 249647.[13]

Alpha Pictoris (α Pic, α Pictoris) is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Pictor. It has an apparent visual magnitude of 3.27,[2] which is bright enough to be viewed from urban areas in the southern hemisphere. This star is close enough for its distance to be measured using parallax shifts, which yields a value of roughly 97 light-years (30 parsecs) from the Sun, with a 5% margin of error.[1] Alpha Pictoris has the distinction of being the south pole star of the planet Mercury.[14]

Properties[edit]

With an estimated age of 660 million years,[11][12] this is a relatively young Lambda Boötis star.[15] The stellar classification of A8 Vn kA6[3] shows this peculiarity, with the kA6 notation indicating weaker than normal K-lines in the spectrum. The 'n' following the main sequence luminosity class of V indicates the absorption lines in the spectrum are broad and nebulous. This is caused by the rapid spin of the star, which has a high projected rotational velocity of 206 km/s.[10] Spectroscopy shows narrow, time-varying absorption features being caused by circumstellar gas moving toward the star. This is not the result of interstellar matter, but a shell of gas along the orbital plane. Alpha Pictoris is categorized as a rapidly rotating shell star that may have recently ejected mass from its outer atmosphere.[16][9]

Alpha Pictoris is larger than the Sun, with twice[5] the mass and a 60%[7] greater radius. It is radiating 13[8] times as much luminosity as the Sun from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 7,530 K.[9] At this heat, the star glows with the white hue of an A-type star.[17] The space velocity components of this star in the galactic coordinate system are U = -22, V = -20 and W = -9 km/s.[18]

Data from the Hipparcos mission indicate this may be an unresolved binary system with a companion orbiting at a semimajor axis of around 1 AU, or the same distance that the Earth orbits from the Sun.[15] Alpha Pictoris is an X-ray source, which is unusual for an A-type star since stellar models don't predict them to have magnetic dynamos. This emission may instead be originating from the companion.[9][19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007), "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction", Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (2): 653–664, arXiv:0708.1752, Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357 
  2. ^ a b c d Johnson, H. L.; Iriarte, B.; Mitchell, R. I.; Wisniewskj, W. Z. (1966). "UBVRIJKL photometry of the bright stars". Communications of the Lunar & Planetary Laboratory 4: 99–110. Bibcode:1966CoLPL...4...99J. 
  3. ^ a b c Gray, R. O. et al. (July 2006), "Contributions to the Nearby Stars (NStars) Project: Spectroscopy of Stars Earlier than M0 within 40 parsecs: The Northern Sample I", The Astronomical Journal 132 (1): 161–170, arXiv:astro-ph/0603770, Bibcode:2006AJ....132..161G, doi:10.1086/504637 
  4. ^ Wilson, R. E. (1953). General Catalogue of Stellar Radial. Washington D.C.: Carnegie Institude Publication 601. Bibcode:1953GCRV..C......0W. 
  5. ^ a b c Pizzolato, N.; Maggio, A.; Sciortino, S. (September 2000), "Evolution of X-ray activity of 1-3 Msun late-type stars in early post-main-sequence phases", Astronomy and Astrophysics 361: 614–628, Bibcode:2000A&A...361..614P 
  6. ^ Goldin, A.; Makarov, V. V. (September 2006), "Unconstrained Astrometric Orbits for Hipparcos Stars with Stochastic Solutions", The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 166 (1): 341–350, arXiv:astro-ph/0606293, Bibcode:2006ApJS..166..341G, doi:10.1086/505939 
  7. ^ a b Pasinetti Fracassini, L. E.; Pastori, L.; Covino, S.; Pozzi, A. (February 2001). "Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics". Astronomy and Astrophysics 367 (2): 521–524. arXiv:astro-ph/0012289. Bibcode:2001A&A...367..521P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20000451. 
  8. ^ a b Malagnini, M. L.; Morossi, C. (November 1990), "Accurate absolute luminosities, effective temperatures, radii, masses and surface gravities for a selected sample of field stars", Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series 85 (3): 1015–1019, Bibcode:1990A&AS...85.1015M 
  9. ^ a b c d e Hempel, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M. (2003). "High resolution spectroscopy of circumstellar material around A stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 408 (3): 971–979. Bibcode:2003A&A...408..971H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20030946. 
  10. ^ a b Royer, F.; Zorec, J.; Gómez, A. E. (February 2007). "Rotational velocities of A-type stars. III. Velocity distributions". Astronomy and Astrophysics 463 (2): 671–682. arXiv:astro-ph/0610785. Bibcode:2007A&A...463..671R. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20065224. 
  11. ^ a b Su, K. Y. L.; et al. (December 2006). "Debris Disk Evolution around A Stars". The Astrophysical Journal 653 (1): 675–689. arXiv:astro-ph/0608563. Bibcode:2006ApJ...653..675S. doi:10.1086/508649. 
  12. ^ a b Song, Inseok; Caillault, J.-P.; Barrado y Navascués, David; Stauffer, John R. (January 2001). "Ages of A-Type Vega-like Stars from uvbyβ Photometry". The Astrophysical Journal 546 (1): 352–357. arXiv:astro-ph/0010102. Bibcode:2001ApJ...546..352S. doi:10.1086/318269. 
  13. ^ "LTT 2656 – High proper-motion Star". SIMBAD Astronomical Object Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  14. ^ Moore, Patrick (2007), Moore on Mercury: the planet and the missions, Springer, p. 121, ISBN 1846282578 
  15. ^ a b Goldin, A.; Makarov, V. V. (November 2007). "Astrometric Orbits for Hipparcos Stochastic Binaries". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 173 (1): 137–142. arXiv:0706.0361. Bibcode:2007ApJS..173..137G. doi:10.1086/520513. 
  16. ^ Roberge, Aki; Weinberger, Alycia J. (March 2008). "Debris Disks around Nearby Stars with Circumstellar Gas". The Astrophysical Journal 676 (1): 509–517. arXiv:0711.4561. Bibcode:2008ApJ...676..509R. doi:10.1086/527314. 
  17. ^ "The Colour of Stars", Australia Telescope, Outreach and Education (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), December 21, 2004, retrieved 2012-01-16 
  18. ^ Gliese, W. (1969). "Catalogue of Nearby Stars". Veröffentlichungen des Astronomischen Rechen-Instituts Heidelberg 22: 1. Bibcode:1969VeARI..22....1G. 
  19. ^ Schröder, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M. (November 2007). "X-ray emission from A-type stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 475 (2): 677–684. Bibcode:2007A&A...475..677S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20077429.