François Victor Alphonse Aulard
He was born at Montbron in Charente. He entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1867 and obtained the degree of doctor of letters in 1877 with a Latin thesis on Gaius Asinius Pollio and a French one on Giacomo Leopardi (whose works he subsequently translated into French He made a study of parliamentary oratory during the French Revolution, and published two volumes on Les orateurs de la Constituante (1882) and on Les orateurs de la Legislative et de la Convention (1885). With these works, which were reprinted in 1905, he entered a new field, where he soon came an acknowledged master.
Applying to the study of the French Revolution the rules of historical criticism which had produced such rich results in the study of ancient and medieval history, he devoted himself to profound research in the archives, and to the publication of numerous important contributions to the political, administrative and moral history of that period.
Appointed professor of the history of the French Revolution at the Sorbonne in 1885, he formed the minds of students who in their turn did valuable work. To him we owe the Recueil des actes du Comité de salut public (27 vols. 1889-1923); La Société des Jacobins:Recueil de documents sur l'histoire des club des Jacobins de Paris (6 vols., 1889-1897); Paris pendant la reaction thermidorienne et sous le directoire: Recueil de documents pour l'histoire de l'esprit public a Paris (5 vols., 1898-1902), which was followed by a collection on Paris sous le consulat (2 vols., 1903-1904).
For the Société de l'Histoire de la Revolution Française, which brought under his editorship the important periodical entitled La Revolution française. He produced the Registre des libérations du consulat provisoire (1894), and L'Etat de la France en l'an VIII et en l'an IX, with the reports of the effects (1897), besides editing various works or memoirs written by men of the Revolution, such as JC Bailleul, Chaumette, Fournier (called the American), Hérault de Séchelles, and Louvet de Couvrai.
These large collections of documents were a fraction of his output. He wrote a Histoire politique de la Revolution française (1901), and a number of articles which were collected in volumes under the title Etudes et leçons sur la Révolution française (9 vols., 1893-1924). In a volume entitled Taine, historien de la Révolution française (1908), Aulard attacked the method of the eminent philosopher in criticism that was severe, perhaps unjust, but certainly well-informed. This was, as it were, the "manifesto" of the new school of criticism applied to the political and social history of the Revolution (see Les Annales révolutionnaires, June 1908).
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, in turn gives the following reference:
- Albert Mathiez, "M. Aulard, historien et professeur", in Revolution française (July 1908).
Also see Georges Belloni, Aulard historien de la Revolution francaise (Paris, 1949).