Alpine County, California

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Alpine County, California
County
County of Alpine
A road sign denoting the Alpine County line along California State Route 89 during a snowstorm in May 2008.
A road sign denoting the Alpine County line along California State Route 89 during a snowstorm in May 2008.
Flag of Alpine County, California
Flag
Official seal of Alpine County, California
Seal
Location in the state of California
Location in the state of California
California's location in the United States
California's location in the United States
Country  United States of America
State  California
Region Sierra Nevada
Incorporated March 16, 1864[1]
County seat Markleeville
Largest community Markleeville (population and area)
Area
 • Total 743 sq mi (1,920 km2)
 • Land 738 sq mi (1,910 km2)
 • Water 4.8 sq mi (12 km2)
Population (2010)
 • Total 1,175
 • Density 1.6/sq mi (0.61/km2)
Time zone Pacific Standard Time (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST) Pacific Daylight Time (UTC-7)
Area code(s) 209, 530
Website www.alpinecountyca.gov

Alpine County, officially the County of Alpine, is a county located in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,175.[2] making it the least populous county in California. The county seat is Markleeville.[3] There are no incorporated cities in the county.

Alpine County is located in the Sierra Nevada, between Lake Tahoe and Yosemite National Park.

History[edit]

County Courthouse (1928) in Markleeville
Architect: Frederic J. DeLongchamp

Alpine County was created on March 16, 1864 during a silver boom in the wake of the nearby Comstock Lode discovery.[1] It was named due to its resemblance to the Swiss Alps.[4] The county was formed from parts of Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Mono and Tuolumne Counties.[1] At its formation, the county had a population of about 11,000 with its county seat in Silver Mountain City. By 1868 however, the local silver mines had proven unfruitful, and the population fell to about 1,200. The county seat was moved to Markleeville in 1875.[1]

After the silver rush, Alpine County's economy consisted almost entirely of farming, ranching, and logging. By the 1920s, the population had fallen to just 200 people. With the construction of the Bear Valley and Kirkwood ski resorts in the late 1960s, the population increased to the present level.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 743 square miles (1,920 km2), of which 738 square miles (1,910 km2) is land and 4.8 square miles (12 km2) (0.7%) is water.[5]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected areas[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Public transportation[edit]

There is limited, call ahead, public transportation provided by agreement with neighboring Douglas County, Nevada (There are a few trailhead shuttles, designed for hikers).

Airport[edit]

Alpine County Airport is a general aviation airport located in the Eastern Sierras about 4 miles (6.4 km) from the town of Markleeville. The airport consists of a simple airstrip with an apron for small light aircraft to park. The airport has no buildings, no lights, and is very rarely used. The airport is popular with astronomers due to the clear, dark skies.

Crime[edit]

The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.

Demographics[edit]

2011[edit]

Places by population, race, and income[edit]

2010[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1870 685
1880 539 −21.3%
1890 667 23.7%
1900 509 −23.7%
1910 309 −39.3%
1920 243 −21.4%
1930 241 −0.8%
1940 323 34.0%
1950 241 −25.4%
1960 397 64.7%
1970 484 21.9%
1980 1,097 126.7%
1990 1,113 1.5%
2000 1,208 8.5%
2010 1,175 −2.7%
Est. 2013 1,159 −1.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[15]
1790-1960[16] 1900-1990[17]
1990-2000[18] 2010-2013[2]

The 2010 United States Census reported that Alpine County had a population of 1,175. The racial makeup of Alpine County was 881 (75.0%) White, 0 (0.0%) African American, 240 (20.4%) Native American, 7 (0.6%) Asian, 0 (0.0%) Pacific Islander, 19 (1.6%) from other races, and 28 (2.4%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 84 persons (7.1%).[19]

2000[edit]

As of the census[20] of 2000, there were 1,208 people, 483 households, and 295 families residing in the county. The population density was 2 people per square mile (1/km²). There were 1,514 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile (1/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 73.7% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 18.9% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.4% from other races, and 5.1% from two or more races. 7.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 12.1% were of German, 12.1% Irish, 9.3% English, 6.5% American and 5.7% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.0% spoke English, 3.1% Spanish and 2.0% Washo as their first language.

There were 483 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.9% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.9% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.96.

In the county the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 110.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 117.2 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $41,875, and the median income for a family was $50,250. Males had a median income of $36,544 versus $25,800 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,431. About 12.0% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.

Almost half of the population in the county is Mormon.[21]


Politics[edit]

Alpine County vote
by party in presidential elections
Year GOP DEM Others
2012 36.5% 236 60.1% 389 3.4% 22
2008 36.4% 252 61.0% 422 2.6% 18
2004 44.4% 311 53.2% 373 2.4% 17
2000 48.0% 281 45.2% 265 6.8% 40
1996 43.0% 264 42.0% 258 15.0% 92
1992 35.2% 222 34.1% 215 30.8% 194
1988 55.4% 306 41.7% 230 2.9% 16
1984 56.7% 264 41.6% 194 1.7% 8
1980 55.1% 254 28.9% 133 16.1% 74
1976 50.3% 225 42.3% 189 7.4% 33
1972 63.5% 366 33.9% 195 2.6% 15
1968 59.3% 150 32.8% 83 7.9% 20
1964 57.7% 124 42.3% 91 0.0% 0
1960 76.7% 132 23.3% 40 0.0% 0
1956 79.7% 114 20.3% 29 0.0% 0
1952 88.1% 148 11.9% 20 0.0% 0
1948 76.8% 106 18.1% 25 5.1% 7
1944 68.5% 98 31.5% 45 0.0% 0
1940 66.5% 125 33.0% 62 0.5% 1
1936 46.5% 74 53.5% 85 0.0% 0
1932 47.3% 53 50.0% 56 2.7% 3
1928 94.2% 49 5.8% 3 0.0% 0
1924 88.1% 52 8.5% 5 3.4% 2
1920 91.4% 64 8.6% 6 0.0% 0

Alpine is historically a Republican-leaning county in Presidential and congressional elections. The county narrowly voted for George W. Bush in 2000, but went comfortably for John Kerry in 2004, the first time Alpine voted Democratic in a presidential election since 1936, when Franklin Roosevelt carried every county in California. Barack Obama received an even wider margin of victory over John McCain in 2008.[22]

In November 2008, Alpine was one of just three counties in California's interior in which voters rejected Proposition 8, the ballot initiative to amend the California Constitution to reject the legal extension of the title of marriage to same-sex couples. Alpine voters rejected Proposition 8 by 56.4 percent to 43.6 percent. The other interior counties in which Proposition 8 failed to receive a majority of votes were neighboring Mono County and Yolo County.[23]

According to the California Secretary of State, as of April, 2008, there are 776 registered voters in Alpine County. Of those, 282 (36.3%) are registered Democratic, 272 (35.1%) are registered Republican, 49 (6.3%) are registered with other political parties, and 173 (22.3%) declined to state a political party.

Alpine County is in California's 4th congressional district, represented by Republican Tom McClintock.[24] In the State Assembly, the county is in the 5th Assembly District, represented by Republican Frank Bigelow.[25] In the State Senate, the county is in the 1st Senate District, represented by Republican Ted Gaines.[26]

Due to its low population density, Alpine County votes entirely by mail, the only county in California to do so.[27] In the June 2014 primary elections, about 22% of registered voters went to the polls. In Alpine County, the number was almost 70%, the highest of any county in the state.[28]

Voter registration statistics[edit]

Communities[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Only larceny-theft cases involving property over $400 in value are reported as property crimes.
  2. ^ Other = Some other race + Two or more races
  3. ^ Native American = Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander + American Indian or Alaska Native
  4. ^ Percentage of registered voters with respect to total population. Percentages of party members with respect to registered voters follow.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Alpine County General Plan". Adopted May 18, 1999 (Revised February 2009). p. 7. Retrieved 2011-03-10. 
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  4. ^ William Bright; Erwin Gustav Gudde (30 November 1998). 1500 California place names: their origin and meaning. University of California Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-520-21271-8. Retrieved 20 January 2012. 
  5. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B02001. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice, State of California. Table 11: Crimes – 2009. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  8. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B03003. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
  9. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19301. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  10. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19013. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  11. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19113. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  12. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  13. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B01003. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  14. ^ Data unavailable
  15. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  18. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  19. ^ "2010 Census P.L. 94-171 Summary File Data". United States Census Bureau. 
  20. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  21. ^ The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports
  22. ^ Map of 2008 Election Results by State and County; The New York Times
  23. ^ County-by-County Map, California Propositions: The Los Angeles Times
  24. ^ "California's 4th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 1, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Members Assembly". State of California. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Senators". State of California. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  27. ^ "No voters at these polls". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 17, 2013. 
  28. ^ California's least-populous county takes voting seriously by Seems Metha, LA TImes, 17 June 2014
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k California Secretary of State. February 10, 2013 - Report of Registration. Retrieved 2013-10-31.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 38°35′N 119°48′W / 38.58°N 119.80°W / 38.58; -119.80