Alpinia

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Alpinia
Alpinia zerumbet
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Zingiberaceae
Subfamily: Alpinioideae
Tribe: Alpinieae
Genus: Alpinia
Roxb., 1810
Species

See text.

Alpinia is a genus of flowering plants in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is named for Prospero Alpini, a 17th-century Italian botanist who specialized in exotic plants.[1] Species are native to Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands, where they occur in tropical and subtropical climates.[2] Several species are cultivated as ornamental plants.[3] Species of the genus are known generally as ginger-lilies.[3][4]

Description[edit]

These herbs lack true stems, but have pseudostems usually up to about 3 meters long which are composed of the overlapping leaf sheaths.[2][3] A few species have been known to reach 8 meters.[5] They grow from thick rhizomes. The leaves are lance-shaped to oblong. The inflorescence takes the form of a spike, a panicle, or a raceme. It may be hooded in bracts and bracteoles. The flower has a shallowly toothed calyx which is sometimes split on one side. The flower corolla is a cylindrical tube with three lobes at the mouth, the middle lobe larger and hoodlike in some taxa. There is one fertile stamen and two staminodes, which are often joined into a petal-like labellum, a structure that is inconspicuous in some species and quite showy in others. The fruit is a rounded, dry or fleshy capsule.[2][3] The plants are generally aromatic due to their essential oils.[6]

Ecology[edit]

Most Alpinia are plants of forest understory habitat. Most are pollinated by large bees, but some are pollinated by birds and bats.[5]

Species[edit]

This is the largest genus in the ginger family,[5] with about 230 species.[2][3][5]

Species include:[7]

  • Alpinia abundiflora
  • Alpinia acrostachya
  • Alpinia acuminata
  • Alpinia aenea
  • Alpinia affinis
  • Alpinia agiokuensis
  • Alpinia alata
  • Alpinia albertisii
  • Alpinia albipurpurea
  • Alpinia allugas
  • Alpinia amentacea
  • Alpinia angustifolia
  • Alpinia annabellae
  • Alpinia antillarum
  • Alpinia apoensis
  • Alpinia aquatica
  • Alpinia arctiflora
  • Alpinia arfakensis
  • Alpinia arundelliana
  • Alpinia assimilis
  • Alpinia athroantha
  • Alpinia aurantiaca
  • Alpinia auriculata
  • Alpinia bambusifolia
  • Alpinia beamanii
  • Alpinia biakensis
  • Alpinia bicalyculata
  • Alpinia bifida
  • Alpinia bilamellata
  • Alpinia bisculata
  • Alpinia blepharocalyx
  • Alpinia blumei
  • Alpinia boia
  • Alpinia boninsimensis
  • Alpinia borneensis
  • Alpinia borraginoides
  • Alpinia brachyantha
  • Alpinia brachypoda
  • Alpinia bracteata
  • Alpinia brevilabris
  • Alpinia brevis
  • Alpinia brevituba
  • Alpinia burkillii
  • Alpinia caerulea – Australian native ginger
  • Alpinia calcarata – heen araththa, cardamom ginger
  • Alpinia calcicola
  • Alpinia calycodes
  • Alpinia campanaria
  • Alpinia cannaefolium
  • Alpinia capitellata
  • Alpinia cardamomum-medium
  • Alpinia carinata
  • Alpinia carnea
  • Alpinia carolinensis
  • Alpinia celebica
  • Alpinia cernua
  • Alpinia chaunocolea
  • Alpinia chinensis
  • Alpinia chrysorachis
  • Alpinia coeruleoviridis
  • Alpinia colossea
  • Alpinia comosa
  • Alpinia conchigera – lesser alpinia
  • Alpinia condensata
  • Alpinia conferta
  • Alpinia congesta
  • Alpinia conghuaensis
  • Alpinia conglomerata
  • Alpinia copelandii
  • Alpinia corallina
  • Alpinia coriacea
  • Alpinia coriandriodora
  • Alpinia cornu-cervi
  • Alpinia cristata
  • Alpinia crocodocalyx
  • Alpinia cumingii
  • Alpinia cylindrocephala
  • Alpinia dasystachys
  • Alpinia decurva
  • Alpinia decurvata
  • Alpinia dekockii
  • Alpinia densespictata
  • Alpinia densibractetata
  • Alpinia densiflora
  • Alpinia diffissa
  • Alpinia divaricata
  • Alpinia dolichocephala
  • Alpinia domatifera
  • Alpinia dyeri
  • Alpinia edanoi
  • Alpinia elmeri
  • Alpinia elwesii
  • Alpinia emaculata
  • Alpinia engleriana
  • Alpinia eremochlamys
  • Alpinia eremochlamys
  • Alpinia euastra
  • Alpinia eubractea
  • Alpinia eustales
  • Alpinia exostylis
  • Alpinia flabellata
  • Alpinia flava
  • Alpinia flexistamen
  • Alpinia fluvitialis
  • Alpinia formosana
  • Alpinia foxworthyi
  • Alpinia fraseriana
  • Alpinia fusiformis
  • Alpinia gagnepainii
  • Alpinia galanga – greater galangal
  • Alpinia gigantea
  • Alpinia glabra
  • Alpinia glabrescens
  • Alpinia glacicaerulea
  • Alpinia globosa – round Chinese cardamom
  • Alpinia gracilis
  • Alpinia gracillima
  • Alpinia graminea
  • Alpinia grandiceps
  • Alpinia grandis
  • Alpinia guinanensis
  • Alpinia haenkei
  • Alpinia hagena
  • Alpinia hainanensis
  • Alpinia hamiltoniana
  • Alpinia hansenii
  • Alpinia havilandii
  • Alpinia hemsleyanan
  • Alpinia henryi
  • Alpinia hibinoi
  • Alpinia himantoglossa
  • Alpinia hirsuta
  • Alpinia hokutensis
  • Alpinia homeana
  • Alpinia hookeriana
  • Alpinia hulstijnii
  • Alpinia humilis
  • Alpinia hylandii
  • Alpinia illustris
  • Alpinia intermedia
  • Alpinia involucrata
  • Alpinia iriomotensis
  • Alpinia janowskii
  • Alpinia japonica
  • Alpinia javanica – Javanese alpinia
  • Alpinia jianganfeng
  • Alpinia jingxiensis
  • Alpinia kainantensis
  • Alpinia katsumadae
  • Alpinia kelungensis
  • Alpinia kermesina
  • Alpinia kiungensis
  • Alpinia kiushiana
  • Alpinia koidzumiana
  • Alpinia korthalsii
  • Alpinia koshunensis
  • Alpinia kumatahe
  • Alpinia kusshakuensis
  • Alpinia kwangsiensis
  • Alpinia laosensis
  • Alpinia latilabris
  • Alpinia lauterbachii
  • Alpinia laxiflora
  • Alpinia laxisecunda
  • Alpinia leptostachya
  • Alpinia ligulata
  • Alpinia linguiformis
  • Alpinia longepetiola
  • Alpinia luteo-carpa
  • Alpinia maclurei
  • Alpinia macrantha
  • Alpinia macrocarpa
  • Alpinia macrocephala
  • Alpinia macroscaphis
  • Alpinia macrostemon
  • Alpinia macroura
  • Alpinia maculata
  • Alpinia malaccensis – rathkihiriya
  • Alpinia manii
  • Alpinia manostachys
  • Alpinia martinii
  • Alpinia maxii
  • Alpinia mediomaculata
  • Alpinia melanocarpa – black-fruited alpinia
  • Alpinia menghaiensis
  • Alpinia mesanthera
  • Alpinia microlophon
  • Alpinia missionis
  • Alpinia modesta
  • Alpinia mollis
  • Alpinia mollissima
  • Alpinia molucana
  • Alpinia monopleura
  • Alpinia multispicata
  • Alpinia murdochii
  • Alpinia musaefedia
  • Alpinia mutica – small shell ginger, orchid ginger, narrow-leaved alpinia
  • Alpinia myriocratera
  • Alpinia nanchuanensis
  • Alpinia napoensis
  • Alpinia neesana
  • Alpinia nidus-vespae
  • Alpinia nieuwenhuizii
  • Alpinia nigra
  • Alpinia novae-hiberniae
  • Alpinia novae-pommeraniae
  • Alpinia nupiocratera
  • Alpinia nutans – dwarf cardamom, ginger lily, shell ginger
  • Alpinia oblongifolia
  • Alpinia oceanica
  • Alpinia odontonema
  • Alpinia officinarum – lesser galangal, Chinese ginger
  • Alpinia oligantha
  • Alpinia orchioides
  • Alpinia orthostachys
  • Alpinia ovata
  • Alpinia ovoidocarpa
  • Alpinia oxymitra
  • Alpinia oxyphylla – sharp-leaf galangal
  • Alpinia padacanca
  • Alpinia pahangensis
  • Alpinia papuana
  • Alpinia parviflora
  • Alpinia pectinata
  • Alpinia penduliflora
  • Alpinia penicillata
  • Alpinia petiolata – stalked-leaved alpinia
  • Alpinia philippinensis
  • Alpinia phoenicea
  • Alpinia pininga
  • Alpinia pinnanensis
  • Alpinia platychilus
  • Alpinia plectophylla
  • Alpinia plumieri
  • Alpinia polyantha
  • Alpinia porphyrea
  • Alpinia porphyrocarpa
  • Alpinia porrecta
  • Alpinia pricei
  • Alpinia psilogyna
  • Alpinia pterocalyx
  • Alpinia ptychanthera
  • Alpinia pulcherrima
  • Alpinia pumila
  • Alpinia punicea
  • Alpinia purpurata – red ginger
  • Alpinia pyramidata – Java galangal
  • Alpinia quadriloba
  • Alpinia racimigera
  • Alpinia racemosa
  • Alpinia rafflesiana – Raffles' alpinia
  • Alpinia rechingeri
  • Alpinia regia
  • Alpinia reticosa
  • Alpinia rheedii
  • Alpinia rigida
  • Alpinia rolfei
  • Alpinia romblonensis
  • Alpinia romburghiana
  • Alpinia rosacea
  • Alpinia roscoeana
  • Alpinia rosea
  • Alpinia rosella
  • Alpinia roxburghii
  • Alpinia rubella
  • Alpinia rubra
  • Alpinia rubricaulis
  • Alpinia rubromaculata
  • Alpinia salamonensis
  • Alpinia samoensis
  • Alpinia sanderae
  • Alpinia sandsii
  • Alpinia sasakii
  • Alpinia satsumensis
  • Alpinia schultzei
  • Alpinia schumanniana
  • Alpinia secunda
  • Alpinia secundiflora
  • Alpinia seimundii
  • Alpinia sericea
  • Alpinia sericiflora
  • Alpinia serrulata
  • Alpinia shimadae
  • Alpinia siamensis
  • Alpinia sibuyanensis
  • Alpinia silvicola
  • Alpinia simsii
  • Alpinia singuliflora
  • Alpinia smithiae
  • Alpinia speciosa – shellflower, shellplant
  • Alpinia spicata
  • Alpinia squarrosa
  • Alpinia stachyodes
  • Alpinia stapfiana
  • Alpinia stenobracteolata
  • Alpinia stenostachys
  • Alpinia striata
  • Alpinia strobilacea
  • Alpinia strobiliformis
  • Alpinia subfusicarpa
  • Alpinia submutica
  • Alpinia subspicata
  • Alpinia subverticillata
  • Alpinia suishaensis
  • Alpinia takaminei
  • Alpinia tamacuensis
  • Alpinia tomentosa
  • Alpinia tonkinensis
  • Alpinia tonrokuensis
  • Alpinia trachyascus
  • Alpinia tricolor
  • Alpinia tubulata
  • Alpinia unilateralis
  • Alpinia uraiensis
  • Alpinia uviformis
  • Alpinia valetoniana
  • Alpinia vanoverberghii
  • Alpinia velutina
  • Alpinia versicolor
  • Alpinia viridiflora
  • Alpinia vittata – variegate-ginger
  • Alpinia vitiensis
  • Alpinia vulcanica
  • Alpinia walang
  • Alpinia warburgii
  • Alpinia wenzelii
  • Alpinia werneri
  • Alpinia womerslyi
  • Alpinia wrayi
  • Alpinia zerumbet – shell ginger
  • Alpinia zingiberina

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Simonetti, G. (1990). Stanley Schuler, ed. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Herbs and Spices. Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-73489-X. 
  2. ^ a b c d Alpinia. Flora of China.
  3. ^ a b c d e Alpinia. Flora of North America.
  4. ^ Alpinia. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
  5. ^ a b c d Kress, W. J., et al. (2005). The molecular phylogeny of Alpinia (Zingiberaceae): a complex and polyphyletic genus of gingers. American Journal of Botany 92(1), 167-78.
  6. ^ Victório, C. P. (2011). Therapeutic value of the genus Alpinia, Zingiberaceae. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 21(1), 194-201.
  7. ^ Alpinia. The Plant List.