Alpinia officinarum

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Alpinia officinarum
Alpinia officinarum - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-156.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Alpinia
Species: A. officinarum
Binomial name
Alpinia officinarum
Hance
Synonyms

Languas officinarum (Hance) P.H.Hô

Alpinia officinarum, known as lesser galangal, is a plant in the ginger family, cultivated in Southeast Asia. It originated in China, where its name ultimately derives. It can grow several feet high, with long leaves and reddish-white flowers. The rhizomes, known as galangal, are valued for their spicy flavor and aromatic scent. These are used throughout Asia in curries and perfumes, and were previously used widely in Europe. They are also used as an herbal remedy.

Lesser galangal is often misled the name for Kaempferia galanga that is used in Indonesia, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries.

Etymology[edit]

The genus is named for Prospero Alpini, a 17th-century Italian botanist who specialized in exotic plants. The word "galangal" comes from the Arabic form of a Chinese word for ginger, liang-tiang.[1][2]

Description[edit]

This herbaceous plant can grow up to ten feet in height, though three to five feet is more common. The leaves are lanceolate (long and thin), and the flowers are white with streaks of red, growing from a spike at the top. The plant's rhizomes, the part known as galangal, are thin and tough, and they are the principal reason the plant is cultivated. They have orange flesh with a brown coating, and have an aromatic odor and a pungent flavor. These are smaller than greater galangal.[1][2]

Uses[edit]

The galangal rhizomes were widely used in ancient and medieval Europe, where they were reputed to smell of roses and taste of spice.[1] Its use in Europe has dramatically declined, however, and is now mainly used in Eastern Europe. It is used in Russia for flavoring vinegar and the liqueur Nastoika. It is still used as a spice and medicine in Lithuania and Estonia.[2]

In Asia the rhizomes are ground to powder for use in curries, drinks, and jellies.[1] In India an extract is used in perfumes, and Tatars prepare a tea with it.[2]

Alpinia officinarum contains high concentrations of the flavonol galangin,[3] which has been shown to slow the increase and growth of breast tumor cells.[4][5] Historically, the rhizomes were reputed to have stimulant and digestive effects.[1]

Distribution[edit]

Lesser galangal is native to China, growing mainly on the southeastern coast, and it grows in Hainan, Japan, and Thailand.[1] It is also cultivated in India. Hong Kong is the commercial center for the sale and distribution of the lesser galangal.[1]

Other species[edit]

The term "lesser galangal" properly refers to Alpinia officinarum. Cyperus longus is known as "galingal", and has similar uses. Its rhizomes are spicy and starchy, and are used in cooking.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Gualtiero Simonetti (1990). Stanley Schuler, ed. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Herbs and Spices. Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-73489-X. 
  2. ^ a b c d Grieve, M. "Galangal". From A Modern Herbal, 1931.
  3. ^ Ciolino, H. P.; Yeh, G. C. (1999). "The flavonoid galangin is an inhibitor of CYP1A1 activity and an agonist/antagonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor". British Journal of Cancer 79 (9/10): 1340–1346. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6690216.  edit
  4. ^ So, F. V.; Guthrie, N.; Chambers, A. F.; Moussa, M.; Carroll, K. K. (1996). "Inhibition of human breast cancer cell proliferation and delay of mammary tumorigenesis by flavonoids and citrus juices". Nutrition and Cancer 26 (2): 167–181. doi:10.1080/01635589609514473. PMID 8875554.  edit
  5. ^ So, F.; Guthrie, N.; Chambers, A. F.; Carroll, K. K. (1997). "Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by flavonoids in the presence and absence of excess estrogen". Cancer Letters 112 (2): 127–133. doi:10.1016/S0304-3835(96)04557-0. PMID 9066718.  edit

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