Alston, Cumbria

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Coordinates: 54°48′36″N 2°26′28″W / 54.810°N 2.441°W / 54.810; -2.441

Alston
Alston.jpg
Alston town centre
Alston is located in Cumbria
Alston
Alston
 Alston shown within Cumbria
Population 1,128 
OS grid reference NY716462
Civil parish Alston Moor
District Eden
Shire county Cumbria
Region North West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town ALSTON
Postcode district CA9
Dialling code 01434
Police Cumbria
Fire Cumbria
Ambulance North West
EU Parliament North West England
UK Parliament Penrith and The Border
List of places
UK
England
Cumbria

Alston is a small town in Cumbria, England on the River South Tyne. It is the highest market town in England, at about 1,000 feet (300 m) above sea level. Despite being at such an altitude and in remote location the town is easily accessible via the many roads which link the town to Weardale valley, Hartside Pass (and towns in Cumbria such as Penrith) as well as the Tyne valley. Alston lies within the North Pennines, a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The town has beautiful views of the surrounding fells and the South Tyne Valley, within which the town is situated.

Geography[edit]

Alston is the highest market town in England, being about 1,000 feet above sea level. It lies within the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, more than 15 miles (24 km) from the nearest town, and is surrounded by moorland.[1] Nearby villages include Garrigill and Nenthead.

The town lies on the confluence of the River South Tyne and the River Nent. The landscape of the area is built up from limestone, sandstone and shale. The area is rich in minerals, in particular lead deposits, and the landscape has been heavily influenced by the effects of varying methods of mining over the centuries.

Alston from the west

History[edit]

Early settlements[edit]

The earliest evidence of population in the area comes from pottery fragments, a gold basket-earring and flint tools found in one of two barrows excavated in 1935 (2 miles or 3 kilometres NNW of Alston at Kirkhaugh), these were dated between 2000 BC and 1700 BC.

Evidence of Roman activity in the area comes from the earth remains of Whitley Castle, thought to be the Roman fort (Castra) of Epiacum[2] built and rebuilt by the Sixth and Twentieth Legions between the 2nd and 3rd centuries. The fort's main purpose was to extract and protect lead and silver deposits in the upper reaches of the south Tyne valley.

The name of the town is recorded in 1164–71 as Aldeneby and in 1209 as Aldeneston,[3] and seems to mean "the settlement or farmstead belonging to [a Viking man named] Halfdan".

Sovereignty[edit]

In the 10th century, Alston Moor was part of The Liberty of Tynedale, which was an estate of the Scottish Kings within England, a situation that resulted in many years of confusion over the sovereignty of the area.

In 1085, the Barons de Veteriponte became the first recorded Lords of the Manor; they held the moor on behalf of the kings of Scotland while the kings of England retained the mineral rights. This was confirmed in a hearing during 1279 that concluded that the miners of the area were distinct from the local population, thus paying their dues to the English crown instead of to Scotland. As a result the miners lived in their own self-regulated communities under English protection.

In 1269 John de Balliol, the king of Scotland, invaded the north of England; as a result Edward I moved to reclaim the Scottish estates and Tynedale, which included Alston Moor, was taken under direct control of the English crown where it remains.

Despite the town being on the Tyne and being historically part of Tynedale, the area has never been part of either Hexhamshire or Northumberland but part of Cumberland and later Cumbria. This was probably because the mines in the area were at one time administered from Carlisle.

Mining[edit]

Historically the area has been mined for lead, silver, zinc, coal and fluorspar. The nearby Roman fort of Whitley Castle (Epiacum) was sited to control and protect the lead mines there.

In the 13th century, the area was known as the silver mines of Carlisle—silver was found in a high proportion (up to 40 troy ounces per long ton or 1.2 g/kg of smelted lead) and was used to create coinage in the Royal Mint established in Carlisle for the purpose. Most mining was very small scale until the mid-18th century,

The biggest mine owner in the area was the London Lead Company; this Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) organisation with enlightened employment policies established an interest in the area during the early 18th century. In 1745, it began construction of a school, a library, a sanitary house, a surgeon's house, a market hall with clock tower, a laundry and a 'ready-money' shop in Nenthead, four miles away.

The last mines closed in the 1950s but as of 2005 Ayle colliery was still active. A nearby museum is dedicated to preserving the heritage of the mines in the North Pennines as well as teaching visitors about the history of the mineral mining, especially of lead.

Modern industry[edit]

The area is no longer actively mined although the mining history is exploited for tourism purposes.

Farming[edit]

The surrounding moorland is mainly used for sheep farming; however many farmers also have other enterprises, such as Bed and Breakfast accommodation. During winter months farming can be tough, due to the severe weather in the area.

Tourism[edit]

Tourism is now an important source of income for the area. Alston and the surrounding area is part of the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) and European Geopark.[4] Alston is noted for its cobbled streets and 17th-century stone buildings.[5] The Pennine Way, the UK's first National Trail, passes through Alston.

Shopping is remarkably good for such a small place. Shops include a whole foods shop, a Co-op supermarket, a Spar convienence store, a vegetable shop, a butcher, a newsagent's which also sells hardware, a computer shop and cybercafe, an outdoor clothing shop, an organic bakery and a number of craft, gift and antique shops.

There are a number of public houses in Alston including The Cumberland Inn, The Turks Head and the famous Angel Inn.[6]

Steam trains on the narrow-gauge South Tynedale Railway run from April to October, offering a short journey though pleasant scenery.

Metal working[edit]

For much of the 20th century, between 1940 and its closure in 1980, a foundry employed around 200 people. The closure of this foundry increased unemployment in the area from 8.9% to over 25%. Currently the area's main employer is Precision Products,[7] a company that was started in 1947 by William (Bilbo) Ball. The company produces stainless steel and super-alloy castings, employing around 65 workers.

Population[edit]

The population census figures show that at its peak during 1831 the population of the parish of Alston Moor was 6,858 people. Today that figure is about 2,000. The population of the town of Alston was 1128 according to the 2001 Census.[citation needed] The community has its own website which is a result of the Cybermoor Project (cybermoor.org), which has brought the Internet to almost every home on Alston Moor, and broadband to many. The problem of the area's relative remoteness compared to other areas of England was solved by utilising IEEE 802.11 technology to construct the network infrastructure.

Landmarks and buildings of note[edit]

Town Hall[edit]

The Town Hall is a focal point for the community, being a venue for many local social events. It also contains the tourist information centre and some local administration offices. Until the late 1980s the Town Hall also contained the public library and a branch of the Trustee Savings Bank. The bank closed down but the library moved to premises in the Market Place, then moved back to the Town Hall in September 2008. Construction of the neo-gothic building started in 1857 when Hugh Lee Pattinson laid the foundation stone. The architecture was designed by A.B. Higham and the estimated costs were £2000, although the final costs were closer to £3000; these were paid for by public subscription.[8]

Market cross[edit]

Although the town does not hold a regular market it still maintains the legal right to do so. The market cross which acts as a focal point in the centre of town was constructed in 1983 to replace one constructed in 1863 after it was hit by a lorry.[9]

A regular producers' market now takes place in the Town Hall from April to September selling food and crafts produced in Cumberland, Northumberland, and Durham, celebrating Alston's position at the crux of these three counties.

Nent Force level[edit]

During the area's peak of prosperity in 1776 John Smeaton began construction of an underground drain (the "Nent Force Level") to de-water the mines of the Nent Valley and assist with the transport of extracted materials as well as to locate new mineral seams. The canal took 66 years to construct at a cost of £80,000, and became known as "Smeaton's Folly". In the 1830s mine manager and engineer said that it could be visited "in boats 30 feet in length, which are propelled in four feet of water by means of sticks projecting from the sides of the level; and thus may be enjoyed the singular novelty of sailing a few miles underground". It was intended to be 9 feet square but in the softer terrain was extended to 9'x16', dead level for 3.75 miles (6 km) to allow boat use, with a rise of 35 fathoms (64 m) at Lovelady Shield and then driven into the Nenthead ground. The amount of ore found was disappointing, though not insignificant.

Access to the Nent Force Level is currently extremely difficult although efforts have been made to develop a heritage centre to make this extraordinary piece of engineering accessible to the public.

Samuel King's School[edit]

As well as having a primary school, the town is host to England's smallest secondary school (an 11–16 comprehensive), Samuel King's School. Samuel King's serves the local communities such as Nenthead and Garrigill. Alston Moor has a second small primary school at Nenthead.[10]

Alston in the media[edit]

Filming locations[edit]

The Front Street and market cross of the town were used as a filming location in an adaptation of Jane Eyre. The town was adapted to resemble a seaside village where Oliver is born for the ITV TV miniseries Oliver Twist.

2005: Alston in crisis?[edit]

In August 2005, Alston made news regarding the town's apparent lack of women, with a claimed ratio of 10 men to every woman in the town. A group of young men from Alston, led by Vince Peart, set up the "Alston Moor Regeneration Society"[11] to persuade women to come to Alston. Articles appeared in The Daily Telegraph,[12] The Guardian[13] and the BBC.[14] A documentary was shown on Channel 4 on 11 October 2006. More than two years later, the Guardian reported that Alston shared first position with Bere Alston in Devon in the top 10 list of places in Britain where the imbalance was at its worst.[15]

Transport[edit]

The area is stationed on a number of routes including the long−distance footpath the Pennine Way, and the Sea to Sea (C2C) Cycle Route.

The town's rail link to Haltwhistle was completed in 1852 by the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway Company. The closure of the line was decided in the Beeching Report in 1962, but closure was rejected due to lack of a direct road link. After a road was built, closure was again proposed in 1973 and the line closed on 1 May 1976. It is believed to be one of the last enacted closures of the Beeching Report (the other being the line from Bridport to Maiden Newton in Dorset).

Part of the route, between Alston and Lintley, three miles in length, is now operated as the narrow gauge South Tynedale Railway. The railway is particularly popular with tourists and passenger trains operate between April and October, with Santa Special trains operating on certain dates in December each year.[16]

Many of the bus services to and from Alston are operated by Wright Brothers Coaches, which has depots at Nenthead, three miles from Alston, and at Blucher near Newcastle upon Tyne, and operates an 82-mile route linking Newcastle with Keswick via Hexham, Haydon Bridge, Alston and Penrith from July to September each year. All local bus services are now under threat of end of service as the County Council wish to remove subsidies. This will leave only the Alston to Carlisle bus in operation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Alston and the North Pennines", Eden District Council, accessed 26 July 2010
  2. ^ Togodumnus (Kevan White). "Epiacvm". Roman-britain.org. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  3. ^ Mills, David. A Dictionary of British Place-Names. OUP Oxford. 2011.
  4. ^ "North Pennines". Northpennines.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  5. ^ "Alston, Cumbria". Thecumbriadirectory.com. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  6. ^ "Pub information: Alston pubs and bars; pubs in Alston, Cumbria". Beer in the Evening. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  7. ^ "Precision Products (Cumberland) Ltd.". Shawprocess.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "Unknown". [dead link]
  10. ^ "index". Samuelkings.cumbria.sch.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ "Expat: Brits abroad, UK citizens overseas". Telegraph. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  13. ^ David Ward (17 August 2005). "Wanted: women to live the high life with lovelorn lads of Alston - must like solitude". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  14. ^ "Men of Alston looking for love, online". BBC News. 18 August 2005. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  15. ^ Martin Wainwright (1 October 2007). "Men panic as lure of the city leaves villages with no women". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  16. ^ "South Tynedale Railway". Strps.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 

Further reading[edit]

A history of Alston Moor by Alastair Robertson ISBN 0-9547339-1-6

Old Alston by Peter Wilkinson ISBN 978-1-84033-463-0

The Nent Force Level and Brewery Shaft by Peter Wilkinson ISBN 0-9541845-0-5

Alston Moor, Cumbria: Buildings in a North Pennines landscape by Lucy Jessop and Matthew Whitfield, with Andrew Davison (English Heitage) 2013 ISBN 978-1-84802-117-4

External links[edit]