Altbier

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A Diebels Alt

Altbier (German for 'old-beer') is a style of beer originating in Germany. It was first brewed in the historical region of Westphalia and is a speciality of the city of Düsseldorf. Its name comes from its production using the technique of top fermentation, an older method than bottom fermentation characteristic of lager styles of beer. Altbier is considered an ale.

Characteristics[edit]

Altbier is usually a dark copper colour. It is brewed at a moderate temperature using a top-fermenting yeast which gives its flavour some fruitiness, but matured at a cooler temperature, which gives it a cleaner and crisper taste more akin to lager beer styles than is the norm for top-fermented beers, such as British pale ale.[1][2]

Altbier in Germany[edit]

Schumacher Alt

Altbier is the dominant beer variety in the Lower Rhine region and especially in the towns of Düsseldorf, Krefeld and Mönchengladbach. The first producer to use the name Alt to contrast its top fermenting beer with the bottom fermenting kinds was the Schumacher brewery of Düsseldorf which opened in 1838.[3]

The market leader in terms of volume sold is Diebels, a brand within the InBev brewing empire. Other mass-market brewers of Altbier include the Radeberger Gruppe under the brands Schlösser Alt and Hansa Alt. These are complemented by small breweries, predominantly based in Düsseldorf.

Some Altbier breweries have a tradition of producing a stronger version known as Sticke Alt, coming from a local dialect word meaning "secret", originally a special reserve beer intended for the brewers' own consumption. It is generally a seasonal or special occasion brew, and is stronger in taste and alcohol as well as darker than the brewery's standard output.

Producers in Düsseldorf[edit]

There are nine bars in Düsseldorf which brew Altbier on the premises:

  • Füchschen[4]
  • Kürzer[5]
  • Schumacher[6]
  • Schlüssel[7]
  • Uerige[8]
  • Alter Bahnhof (Gulasch Alt)[9]
  • Brauhaus Joh Albrecht (Johann Albrecht Alt)[10]
  • Vereinshaus Unterbach (Unterbacher Dröppke) (closed since 12/2013)[11][12]
  • Brauerei Möhker

Füchschen, Uerige, Schlüssel and Kürzer are all brewed and sold in the Old Town (Altstadt). Schumacher is located between the Altstadt and the main train station (Hauptbahnhof), although it also has a pub in the Altstadt, Goldener Kessel, directly across the street from Schlüssel.

Each brewpub produces a seasonal "Sticke" variant in small quantities, though the names vary: Schlüssel spells it "Stike", without the "c", while Schumacher calls its special beer "Latzenbier", meaning "slat beer", possibly because the kegs from which it was poured had been stored on raised shelves.[13] Füchschen's seasonal is its Weihnachtsbier (Christmas beer), available in bottles starting mid-November, and served in the brewpub on Christmas Eve.[14]

Producers outside Düsseldorf[edit]

Altbier brewed outside Düsseldorf includes that produced by Pinkus Müller brewery in Münster, the Diebels brewery in Issum, the Gleumes brewery in Krefeld, the Bolten brewery in Korschenbroich and the Warsteiner brewery in Warstein, which owns the brand "Frankenheim Alt", which was originally brewed in Düsseldorf. Altbier is somewhat similar to Cologne's native beer style Kölsch, being warm-fermented at a lower temperature than British ales, and Altbier proper is also brewed in Cologne's smallest brewery "Braustelle" as "Ehrenfelder Alt".[15]

Outside Germany[edit]

Altbier has been produced in the city of Venlo in the Netherlands since at least 1753. Venlo is on the border to Germany approximately 50 km (30 miles) from Düsseldorf. The beer was produced up until the Second World War but then had a hiatus until its revival in 1983. It is produced by the Lindeboom brewery, who bought the recipe in 2001.

Altbier is also brewed in small quantities in Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa.[16]

Versions of Altbier are brewed in the United States, though not always to traditional recipes. Great Basin Brewing Company produces and bottles Wild Horse Ale, which is billed as an alt-style ale.[17] "White Street Altbier" from White Street Brewing Co. in Wake Forest, North Carolina, showcases German malts and hops in the classic style. "Copper Alt" from Olde Mecklenburg Brewery in Charlotte, North Carolina, is based on the original Düsseldorf Altbier style. Arbor Brewing Company of Michigan produces "Olde Number 22" altbier as a seasonal specialty. River's Edge Brewery in Milford, MI brews a traditional version called Ctrl+Alt+Del. Hops and Grain in Austin, Texas brews an altbier called Alt-eration.[18] In Houston, Texas, 8th Wonder Brewery crafts an altbier year-round called Alternate Universe.[19] Union Craft Brewing Company out of Baltimore, Maryland brews "Balt Altbier".[20] Other American ales brewed in the Alt style include Double Bag Double Altbier (Long Trail Brewing Company), Alaskan Amber (Alaskan Brewing Company) and Sly Fox Grand Opening Alt (Sly Fox Brewery).

Kilannan Brewing Company near Owen Sound, Ontario has been brewing a flagship Altbier since 2012. Born in 1991, owner and brewmaster Spencer Wareham is among the youngest of brewery owners in Canada. Spencer attended brewing school in Chicago and Germany to perfect his craft. Kilannan also produces a traditional Kölsch (beer).

The Creemore Springs brewery in Ontario, Canada celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2012 by producing an Altbier in collaboration with the Schlüssel brewery of Düsseldorf.[21]

In 2014, Sierra Nevada Brewing Company collaborated with Victory Brewing Company to create the Alt Route alt bier as part of their Beer Camp Across America variety collaboration twelve pack.[22]

In 2014, Mainstream Brewing Company, located in Johannesburg South Africa created a Mainstream Altbier as part of their craft beer offering to South Africa. [23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter - Copper-bottom ales halt lager tide in Germany". Beerhunter.com. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  2. ^ "Düsseldorf Pub Guide: the best beer bars, pubs and brewpubs". Europeanbeerguide.net. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  3. ^ "Düsseldorf Breweries". Europeanbeerguide.net. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  4. ^ Füchschen
  5. ^ Langenfelder sagt: (2011-01-14). "Brauerei Kürzer (Altstadt) | My DuesselDorf – Typisch Düsseldorf!". My-duesseldorf.info. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  6. ^ Schumacher
  7. ^ Schlüssel
  8. ^ Uerige
  9. ^ "Home". Brauhaus-alterbahnhof.de. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  10. ^ "Brauhaus Joh. Albrecht". Brauhaus-joh-albrecht.de. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  11. ^ "Vereinshaus Unterbach". 1000getraenke.de. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  12. ^ Express – Vereinshaus Unterbach geschlossen
  13. ^ Horst Dornbusch, Altbier. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications
  14. ^ Fuchschen web page on Weihnachtsbier, visited 2007.04.26
  15. ^ "Brauerei/Biere - Helios". Braustelle. Retrieved 2014-06-01. 
  16. ^ Drayman's Brewery "Düssel Altbier", Draymans.com. Retrieved on 25 May 2013.
  17. ^ "Wild Horse Ale – Bottled, Not Broken". Craft Beer. 7 December 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  18. ^ "Our Beers > Alt-eration". Hops and Grain Brewery. Hops Grain LLC. Retrieved 2014-02-01. 
  19. ^ "8th Wonder Brews > Alternate Universe". 8th Wonder Brewery. 8th Wonder Brewery. Retrieved 2014-05-27. 
  20. ^ "Union Craft Brewing » Balt". unioncraftbrewing.com. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  21. ^ St. John, Jordan. "Creemore Springs fetes 25 years with new Altbier". QMI Agency. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  22. ^ http://beercamp.sierranevada.com/beer/victory_brewing_company
  23. ^ http://www.mainstreambeer.com/#beer