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- This article deals with the physical schools based on an educational model that purports to be outside of, and more rigorous than, historically traditional ones, but one that is nevertheless still meant for those without cognitive disabilities or similar impairments. For the more general concept behind these schools, see the article alternative education.
An alternative school, in the United States and some other parts of the world, is an institution which provides alternative education. It is an educational establishment with a curriculum and methods that are nontraditional. These schools have a special curriculum offering a more flexible program of study than a traditional school.
A wide range of philosophies and teaching methods are offered by alternative schools; some have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, while others are more ad-hoc assemblies of teachers and students dissatisfied with some aspect of mainstream or traditional education.
In the United Kingdom, School refers to a private school that provides a learner centered informal education as an alternative to the regimen of traditional education in the United Kingdom. There's a long tradition of such schools which includes Summerhill, the founder of which, A. S. Neill, greatly influenced the spread of such schools, Dartington, and Kilquhanity School and a range of schools based on the ideas of Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner.
In 1970, there were only a few alternative schools in operation in the United States. They originated to serve a growing population of students who were not experiencing success in the traditional schools. Today there are thousands, and the number continues to grow. The term "alternative" is now used to describe nearly every type of school imaginable, but many share certain distinguishing characteristics:
- Average or smaller classroom size
- Close student-teacher relationship
- Student decision-making and skills gained daily
- More involvement with school activities and around the community
- Diverse curriculum
- Peer guidance and parental involvement
- Prepares for a successful future and students can obtain skills inside and outside the classroom
This type of school is not only intended to accommodate students who are considered at risk of failing academically, but also students of all academic levels and abilities who are better served by a non-traditional program. Many programs are specifically intended for students with special educational needs, but others address primarily social problems that affect students, such as teenage parenthood or homelessness.
Students are typically referred to as at-risk students, and may have one or more of any several reasons such as challenging behavior, a need for special remedial programs, emotional disabilities, or problems that destabilize the student's personal life, such as homelessness or, in the case of migrant farmworkers, moving very frequently.
Alternative schools in Canada share many of the same characteristics as American alternative schools. School boards, which are separate by municipality but funded by the province, choose whether or not they wish to have alternative schools and how they are operated.
Germany has a long tradition with Montessori and Waldorf Schools which are organized in their own national associations (with 994 Waldorf schools in the world there are 213 in Germany compared to 130 in the USA). These are based the concept of "Reformpädagogik" which is roughly equivalent to the anthroposophy concepts in progressive education. Other alternative schools are organized in the Bundesverband der Freien Alternativschulen (federal association of free alternative schools). These private schools only get limited funding which differs for each Bundesland in Germany.
Full public funding is given to "Laborschule" institutions which are schools attached to a research facility. They are supposed to explore alternative school concepts to be introduced to the general public school later on. The Laborschule Bielefeld had a great influence on alternative schools that do not adhere to the traditional concepts (Montessori, Waldorf, etc.). One result was the renewal of the democratic school concept.
In South Korea, alternative schools serve three big groups of youth in South Korea. The first group is students who could not succeed in formative Korean education. Many of these schools serve students who dropped out during their earlier school years, either voluntarily or by disciplinary action. The second group is young immigrants. As population of immigrants from Southeast Asia and North Korea is increasing, several educators started to see the necessity of the adaptive education, specially designed for these young immigrants. Because South Korea has been a monoethnic society throughout its history, there is not enough system and awareness to protect these students from bullying, social isolation, or academic failure.
For instance, the drop-out rate for North Korean immigrant students is ten times higher than that students from South Korean students because their major challenge is initially to adapt Korean society, not to get a higher test score. The other group is students who choose an alternative education because of its philosophy. Korean education, as in many other Asian countries, is based on testing and memorizing. Some students and parents believe this kind of education cannot nurture a student thoroughly and choose to go to an alternative school, that suggests a different way to learn for students. These schools usually stress the importance of interaction between other people and nature over written test results.
The major struggle in alternative schools in South Korea are recognition, lack of financial support, and quality gap between alternative schools. Although South Korean public's recognition to alternative education has deliberately changed, the progressive education still is not widely accepted. To enter a college, regular education is often preferred because of the nation's rigid educational taste on test result and record. For the same reason, South Korean government is not actively supporting alternative schools financially.
Hence, many alternative schools are at risk of bankruptcy, especially the schools that do not or cannot collect tuition from their students. Most Southeast Asian and North Korean immigrant families are financially in need, so they need assist from government's welfare system for their everyday life. It is clear that affording private education is a mere fantasy for these families. That phenomenon, at last, causes a gap among alternative schools themselves. Some schools are richly supported by upper-class parents and provide variety of in-school and after-school programs, and others rarely have resource to build few academic and extracurricular programs as such.
- Anarchistic free school
- Continuation high school
- Dartmoor School
- Democratic school
- Gifted education
- Liberal arts college
- Public alternative school
- Reform school
- Special education
- Virtual school
- Waldorf school
- Sudbury school
- Montessori school
- Khan Academy
- Western Governors University
- Avondale Secondary Alternative School
- the H-B Woodlawn Secondary Program
- Alternative teacher training college in Denmark
- Definition of alternative school, accessed August 9, 2007. Archived 2009-10-31.
- Definition of alternative school, accessed August 9, 2007.
- "alternative schooling". A Dictionary of Education. Ed. Elizabeth Wallace. Oxford University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-19-921207-1
- "Alternative school set to reopen". BBC News. 23 March 2009.
- We’ll Fund Montessori And Steiner Schools, Say Tories Daily Express July 9, 2009
- Alternative Schools Adapt, by Fannie Weinstein. The New York Times, June 8, 1986, section A page 14.
- Brenda Edgerton Conley (2002). Sudbury Schools, Democratic Schools, Montessori Schools, and Waldorf Schools. id=N7zxYYpyLLcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Alternative+schools#v=onepage&q&f=false "6". Alternative Schools: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-440-4. Retrieved August 5, 2009.
- Changing Perspectives on Alternative Schooling for Children and Adolescents With Challenging Behavior, Robert A. Gable et al. Preventing School Failure, Fall 2006. Volume 51, Issue 1, page 5.
- Claire V. Korn, Alternative American Schools: Ideals in Action (Ithaca: SUNY Press, 1991).