Alteromonas

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Alteromonas
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Alteromonadales
Family: Alteromonadaceae
Genus: Alteromonas
Baumann et al. 1972
Type species
Alteromonas macleodii
Species

A. addita
A. genovensis
A. hispanica
A. litorea
A. macleodii
A. marina
A. simiduii
A. stellipolaris
A. tagae

Alteromonas is a genus of Proteobacteria[1] found in sea water, either in the open ocean or in the coast. It is gram-negative. Its cells are curved rods with a single polar flagellum.

Etymology[edit]

The etymology of the genus is L. adj. alter -tera -terum, another, different; L. fem. n. monas (μονάς / μονάδα), a noun with a special meaning in microbiology used to mean unicellular organism; N.L. fem. n. Alteromonas, another monad.[2]

Members of the genus Alteromonas can be referred to as alteromonads (viz. Trivialisation of names).

Authority[edit]

The genus was described by Baumann et al. in 1972,[3] but was emended by Novick and Tyler 1985 to accommodate Alteromonas luteoviolacea (now Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea),[4] Gauthier et al. 1995, who split the genus in two (Pseudoalteromonas)[5] and Van Trappen et al. in 2004 to accommodate Alteromonas stellipolaris[6]

Species[edit]

The genus contains 8 species (but there are 21 basonyms), namely[2]

  • A. macleodii ( Baumann et al. 1972, species. (Type species of the genus).; N.L. gen. n. macleodii, of MacLeod, named after R.A. MacLeod, a Canadian microbiologist who pioneered studies on the biochemical bases of the Na+ requirement of marine bacteria.)[7]
  • A. addita ( Ivanova et al. 2005, sp. nov.; L. fem. part. adj. addita, added, joined to the genus.)
  • A. genovensis ( Vandecandelaere et al. 2008, sp. nov.; N.L. fem. adj. genovensis, pertaining to Genova (Genoa), Italy, where the seawater electroactive biofilms originated.)[7]
  • A. hispanica ( Martínez-Checa et al. 2005, sp. nov.; L. fem. adj. hispanica, Spanish.)
  • A. litorea ( Yoon et al. 2004, sp. nov.; L. fem. adj. litorea, of the shore.)
  • A. marina ( Yoon et al. 2003, sp. nov.; L. fem. adj. marina, of the sea, marine.)
  • A. simiduii ( Chiu et al. 2007, sp. nov.; N.L. gen. n. simiduii, of Simidu, named after Usio Simidu, a Japanese microbiologist, for his work on marine microbiology.)[8]
  • A. stellipolaris ( Van Trappen et al. 2004, sp. nov.; L. fem. n. stella, star; N.L. fem. adj. polaris, polar; N.L. fem. adj. stellipolaris, related to the polar star, referring to the Polarstern (AWI, Bremerhaven), the name of the vessel that was used to collect the sample from which the organisms were isolated.)[9]
  • A. tagae ( Chiu et al. 2007, sp. nov.; N.L. gen. n. tagae, of Taga, named after Nobuo Taga, a pioneering Japanese marine microbiologist.)[8]

Former alteromonads[edit]

Many alteromonads, were reclassified as members of Pseudoalteromonas in 1995[5]

  • P. atlantica (Akagawa-Matsushita et al. 1992, sp. nov.; L. fem. adj. atlantica, pertaining to the Atlantic Ocean.)[10]
  • P. aurantia (Gauthier and Breittmayer 1979, species.; N.L. fem. adj. aurantia, orange-colored.)[11]
  • P. carrageenovora (Akagawa-Matsushita et al. 1992, sp. nov.; N.L. n. carrageenum, carrageen, another name for carrageenan; L. v. vorare, to devour; N.L. fem. adj. carrageenovora, carrageenan decomposing.)[10]
  • P. citrea (Gauthier 1977, species.; L. fem. adj. citrea, of or pertaining to the citrus-tree, intended to mean lemon-yellow.)[11]
  • P. denitrificans (Enger et al. 1987, sp. nov.; N.L. part. adj. denitrificans, denitrifying.)[12]
  • P. distincta (Romanenko et al. 1995, sp. nov.; L. fem. adj. distincta, separate, distinct.)[13]
  • P. elyakovii (Ivanova et al. 1997, sp. nov.; N.L. gen. masc. n. elyakovii, of Ekyakov, named after G.B. Elyakov for his work in microbial biotechnology.)[14]
  • P. espejiana (Chan et al. 1978, species.; N.L. fem. adj. espejiana, named after Espejo, a Chilean microbiologist who isolated one of the first lipid-containing bacteriophages.)[11]
  • P. fuliginea (Romanenko et al. 1995, sp. nov.; L. fem. adj. fuliginea, like soot, sooty.)[13]
  • P. haloplanktis ((ZoBell and Upham 1944) Reichelt and Baumann 1973, species.; Gr. n. hals halos, sea; Gr. adj. planktos -ê -on, wandering, roaming; N.L. fem. adj. haloplanktis, sea-wandering.)[11]
  • P. luteoviolacea ((ex Gauthier 1976) Gauthier 1982, sp. nov., nom. rev.; L. adj. luteus, yellow; L. adj. violaceus -a -um, violet-colored, violet; N.L. fem. adj. luteoviolacea, yellow-violet.)[11]
  • P. nigrifaciens ((ex White 1940) Baumann et al. 1984, nom. rev., comb. nov.; L. adj. niger -gra -grum, black; L. v. facio, to make; N.L. part. adj. nigrifaciens, making black, blackening.)[15]
  • P. rubra (Gauthier 1976, species.; L. fem. adj. rubra, red.)[11]
  • P. tetraodonis (Simidu et al. 1990, sp. nov.; N.L. gen. n. tetraodonis, of Tetraodon, a genus of plectognathic fishes (Tetraodontidae).)[16]
  • P. undina (Chan et al. 1978, species.; L. fem. n. undina, undine, water nymph.)[11]

Other former alteromonads:

  • Shewanella colwelliana (Weiner et al. 1988, sp. nov.; N.L. fem. adj. colwelliana, pertaining to Colwell, named after Rita Colwell for her contributions to marine microbiology.)[17]
  • Marinomonas communis (Baumann et al. 1972, species.; L. fem. adj. communis, common.)[11]
  • Shewanella hanedai (Jensen et al. 1981, sp. nov.; N.L. gen. n. hanedai, of Haneda; named after Y. Haneda, a Japanese biologist who pioneered studies on bioluminescence.)[18]
  • Shewanella putrefaciens ((ex Derby and Hammer 1931) Lee et al. 1981, nom. rev., comb. nov.; L. part. adj. putrefaciens, making rotten, putrefying.)[19]
  • Marinomonas vaga (Baumann et al. 1972, species.; L. fem. adj. vaga, wandering.)[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Classification of Genera AC entry in LPSN [Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int J Syst Bacteriol 47 (2): 590–2. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-2-590. ISSN 0020-7713. PMID 9103655. ]
  2. ^ a b Alteromonas entry in LPSN [Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int J Syst Bacteriol 47 (2): 590–2. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-2-590. ISSN 0020-7713. PMID 9103655. ]
  3. ^ Baumann, Linda; Baumann, Paul; Mandel, M.; Allen, Richard D (April 1972). "Taxonomy of Aerobic Marine Eubacteria". Journal of Bacteriology (Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology) 110 (1): 402–429. ISSN 1098-5530. OCLC 38751488. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  4. ^ NOVICK (N.J.) and TYLER (M.E.): Isolation and characterization of Alteromonas luteoviolacea strains with sheathed flagella. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 111-113.
  5. ^ a b GAUTHIER (G.), GAUTHIER (M.) and CHRISTEN (R.): Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Alteromonas, Shewanella and Moritella using genes coding for small-subunit rRNA sequences and division of the genus Alteromonas into two genera, Alteromonas (emended) and Pseudoalteromonas gen. nov., and proposal of twelve new species combinations. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 755-761
  6. ^ VAN TRAPPEN (S.), TAN (T.L.), YANG (J.), MERGAERT (J.) and SWINGS (J.): Alteromonas stellipolaris sp. nov., a novel, budding, prosthecate bacterium from Antarctic seas, and emended description of the genus Alteromonas. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1157-1163.
  7. ^ a b Vandecandelaere, I.; Nercessian, O.; Segaert, E.; Achouak, W.; Mollica, A.; Faimali, M.; De Vos, P.; Vandamme, P. (2008). "Alteromonas genovensis sp. Nov., isolated from a marine electroactive biofilm and emended description of Alteromonas macleodii Baumann et al. 1972 (Approved Lists 1980)". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58 (11): 2589–2596. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65691-0.  edit
  8. ^ a b Chiu, H. -H.; Shieh, W. Y.; Lin, S. Y.; Tseng, C. -M.; Chiang, P. -W.; Wagner-Dobler, I. (2007). "Alteromonas tagae sp. Nov. And Alteromonas simiduii sp. Nov., mercury-resistant bacteria isolated from a Taiwanese estuary". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 57 (6): 1209–1216. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64762-0.  edit
  9. ^ Van Trappen, S.; Tan, T. -L.; Yang, J.; Mergaert, J.; Swings, J. (2004). "Alteromonas stellipolaris sp. nov., a novel, budding, prosthecate bacterium from Antarctic seas, and emended description of the genus Alteromonas". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54 (4): 1157–1163. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02862-0. 
  10. ^ a b Akagawa-Matsushita, M.; Matsuo, M.; Koga, Y.; Yamasato, K. (1992). "Alteromonas atlantica sp. nov. And Alteromonas carrageenovora sp. nov., Bacteria That Decompose Algal Polysaccharides". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 42 (4): 621–627. doi:10.1099/00207713-42-4-621. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Skerman, V. B. D.; McGowan, V.; Sneath, P. H. A. (1980). "Approved Lists of Bacterial Names". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 30: 225–420. doi:10.1099/00207713-30-1-225. 
  12. ^ Enger, O.; Nygaard, H.; Solberg, M.; Schei, G.; Nielsen, J.; Dundas, I. (1987). "Characterization of Alteromonas denitrificans sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 37 (4): 416–421. doi:10.1099/00207713-37-4-416. 
  13. ^ a b "Validation of the Publication of New Names and New Combinations Previously Effectively Published Outside the IJSB: List No. 55". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 45 (4): 879–880. 1995. doi:10.1099/00207713-45-4-879. 
  14. ^ "Validation of the Publication of New Names and New Combinations Previously Effectively Published Outside the IJSB: List No. 61". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 47 (2): 601–602. 1997. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-2-601. 
  15. ^ Baumann, P.; Baumann, L.; Bowditch, R. D.; Beaman, B. (1984). "Taxonomy of Alteromonas: A. Nigrifaciens sp. Nov., nom. Rev.; A. Macleodii; and A. Haloplanktis". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 34 (2): 145–149. doi:10.1099/00207713-34-2-145. 
  16. ^ Simidu, U.; Kita-Tsukamoto, K.; Yasumoto, T.; Yotsu, M. (1990). "Taxonomy of Four Marine Bacterial Strains That Produce Tetrodotoxin". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 40 (4): 331–336. doi:10.1099/00207713-40-4-331. PMID 2275851. 
  17. ^ Weiner, R. M.; Coyne, V. E.; Brayton, P.; West, P.; Raiken, S. F. (1988). "Alteromonas colwelliana sp. nov., an Isolate from Oyster Habitats". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 38 (3): 240–244. doi:10.1099/00207713-38-3-240. 
  18. ^ Jensen, M. J.; Tebo, B. M.; Baumann, P.; Mandel, M.; Nealson, K. H. (1980). "Characterization ofAlteromonas hanedai (sp. Nov.), a nonfermentative luminous species of marine origin". Current Microbiology 3 (5): 311–315. doi:10.1007/BF02601812.  edit
  19. ^ "Validation of the Publication of New Names and New Combinations Previously Effectively Published Outside the IJSB: List No. 6". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 31 (2): 215–218. 1981. doi:10.1099/00207713-31-2-215. 

External links[edit]