Alveolar lateral approximant

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Alveolar lateral approximant
l
IPA number 155
Encoding
Entity (decimal) l
Unicode (hex) U+006C
X-SAMPA l
Kirshenbaum l
Braille ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
Sound
Postalveolar lateral approximant
Dental lateral approximant

The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral approximants is l, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is l.

As a sonorant, lateral approximants are nearly always voiced. Voiceless lateral approximants, /l̥/, are common in Tibeto-Burman languages, but uncommon elsewhere. In such cases, voicing typically starts about halfway through the hold of the consonant. No language contrasts such a sound with a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ].

In a number of languages, including most varieties of English, the phoneme /l/ becomes velarized in certain contexts, a sound often called "dark l". Some languages, like many North American dialects of English may not have a "clear" /l/ at all.

Alveolar lateral approximant[edit]

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced alveolar lateral approximant:

Occurrence[edit]

Languages may have clear apical or laminal alveolars (such as Bulgarian, which has both), laminal denti-alveolars (such as French), or true dentals, which are uncommon. However, a true dental generally occurs allophonically before /θ/ in languages which have it, as in English health.

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz мгьал [mɡʲal] 'bread' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe кӀалэ [t͡ʃaːla] 'boy'
Albanian lis [lis] 'tree'
Arabic Standard[1] لا [laː] 'no' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] լուսին About this sound [lusin]  'moon'
Basque lan [lan] 'work'
Bulgarian или [ili] 'or'
Catalan[3][4] tela [ˈt̪ɛlə] 'fabric' Apical 'front alveolar'.[3][4] May also be velarized.[5] See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin lǎo [lɑʊ˨˩˦] 'old' See Mandarin phonology
Czech lis [lɪs] 'press' See Czech phonology
Dutch leven [ˈleːvə(n)] 'to live' See Dutch phonology
English let [lɛt] 'let' See English phonology
Finnish illalla [ilːɑlːɑ] 'at evening' See Finnish phonology
German Liebe [ˈliːbə] 'love' See German phonology
Greek άλμα álma [ˈalma] 'jump' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew לא [lo̞] 'no' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Italian[6][7][8] letto [ˈlɛt̪ːo] 'bed' Apical.[9] See Italian phonology
Kabardian щIалэ [ɕʼaːla] 'boy' Traditionally pronounced as [ɮ]
Kashubian[10] [example needed]
Kyrgyz[11] көпөлөк [køpøˈløk] 'butterfly' Velarized in back vowel contexts
Malay lagi [laɡi] 'again'
Marathi ग्न [ləɡˈnə] 'wedding' See Marathi phonology
Norwegian liv [liːv] 'life' Can be dental in eastern dialects. See Norwegian phonology
Polish[12] pole About this sound [ˈpɔlɛ]  'field' Contrasts with /ɫ/ for a small number of speakers, and when it does, it's always palatalized [lʲ]. See Polish phonology
Punjabi ਲਾਲ [läːl] 'red'
Romanian[13] alună [äˈlun̪ə] 'hazelnut' Apical. See Romanian phonology
Russian ключ About this sound [klʲʉt͡ɕ]  'key' Palatalized. Contrasts with pharyngealized denti-alveolar lateral. See Russian phonology
Slovak[14] mĺkvy About this sound [ˈml̩ːkʋi]  'silent' Syllabic form can be long or short
Slovene[15] letalo [lɛˈt̪àːlɔ] 'airplane'
Spanish[16] hablar [äˈβ̞läɾ] 'to speak' See Spanish phonology
Tibetan [la] 'mountain pass' Contrasts voiced and voiceless lateral approximants
Ukrainian[17] обличчя [oˈblɪt͡ʃːɐ] 'face' Contrasts with palatalized form; it is voiceless word-finally after voiceless consonants.[17] See Ukrainian phonology
West Frisian lyts [lit͡s] 'small' In complementary distribution with [ɫ]; occurs before [i] and [y]
Postalveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Italian[9] il cervo [il̠ʲ ˈt͡ʃɛrvo] 'the deer' Palatalized,[9] laminal.[9] Allophone of /l/ before /ʃ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/.[9] See Italian phonology
Dental or denti-alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Flemish lucht [l̪ʏçt̪] 'air' Laminal denti-alveolar, present in some dialects. See Dutch phonology
English Some dialects wealth [ˈwɛl̪θ] 'wealth' Dental. It's the allophone of /l/ before /θ ð/, present in dialects with no dark l and no L-vocalization. See English phonology
French[18] il [il̪] 'he' Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
Hungarian[19] elem [ˈɛl̪ɛm] 'battery' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Hungarian phonology
Italian[8][9][20] molto [ˈmol̪ːt̪o] 'much, a lot' Laminal denti-alveolar.[8][9] Allophone of /l/ before /t d s z t͡s d͡z/.[8][9][20] See Italian phonology
Macedonian[21] лево [l̪e̞vo̞] 'left' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Macedonian phonology
Mapudungun [l̪afken̪] 'sea, lake' Interdental
Norwegian Eastern liv [l̪iːv] 'life' Laminal denti-alveolar. Present in some dialects, in others it's alveolar. See Norwegian phonology
Pashto لس [ləs] 'ten'
Polish wolt [vɔl̪t̪] 'volt' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /l/ before dental and denti-alveolar consonants. See Polish phonology
Slovene bazalt [baˈz̪áːl̪t̪] 'basalt' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /l/ before /t d s z t͡s/ when it's not vocalized to [w]
Swedish Central Standard[22] allt [äl̪t̪] 'everything' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Swedish phonology
Tamil[23] புலி [puli] 'tiger' See Tamil phonology
Uzbek[24] [example needed] Laminal denti-alveolar. Velarized between a non-front rounded vowel and a consonant or juncture phoneme.[24]
Vietnamese[25] lửa [lɨə˧˩˧] 'fire' See Vietnamese phonology
Variable
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Cantonese lou5 [lou˩˧˦] 'old' Alveolar to sometimes dental. See Cantonese phonology
Korean 물집 muljip [mult͡ɕ̤ip̚] 'blister' Alveolar to postalveolar. See Korean phonology
Portuguese Most Brazilian dialects[26][27] lero-lero [ˈlɛɾu ˈlɛɾu] 'runaround'[28] Dental to sometimes alveolar. Always doubly articulated in other dialects.[29] See Portuguese phonology

Velarized alveolar lateral approximant [edit]

Dark L
ɫ
IPA number 209
Encoding
Entity (decimal) l​ˠ
Unicode (hex) U+006C U+02E0
X-SAMPA 5 or l_G or l_?\
Kirshenbaum l<vzd>
Sound

The velarized alveolar lateral approximant (dark l) is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. It is an alveolar, denti-alveolar or dental lateral approximant, with a secondary articulation of velarization or pharyngealization. The regular symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are (for a velarized lateral) and (for a pharyngealized lateral), though the dedicated letter ɫ, which covers both velarization and pharyngealization is perhaps more common. If the sound is dental or denti-alveolar, one could use a dental diacritic to indicate that: l̪ˠ, l̪ˤ, ɫ̪.

Velarization and pharyngealization are generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants so that dark l tends to be dental or denti-alveolar while clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position.[30]

Features[edit]

Features of the dark l:

Occurrence[edit]

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian halla [ˈhäɫä] 'aunt'
Arabic Standard[31] الله ʼAllah [ʔɑˈɫːɑːh] 'God' Also transcribed as . Many accents and dialects lack the sound and instead pronounce [l]. See Arabic phonology
Bashkir ҡала ǩala [ˈqɑˈɫɑ] 'city'
Bulgarian ъгъл ăgăl [ˈɤ̞̈ɡɐɫ] 'corner'
Catalan[5] Eastern dialects cel·la [ˈsɛɫːə] 'cell' Apical. Can be always dark in many dialects. See Catalan phonology
Western dialects alt [aɫ(t)] 'tall'
Dutch[32][33] bal [bɑɫ] 'ball' Postvocalic allophone of /l/. Can be always dark in some Netherlandic dialects. See Dutch phonology
Emiliano-Romagnolo l [sa:ɫ] 'salt'
English[34] Australian peel [pʰiːɫ] 'peel' Most often apical. Can be always dark in North America, Australia and New Zealand. See English phonology
Canadian
Dublin
General American
New Zealand
Received Pronunciation
South African
Scottish loch [ɫɔx] 'loch' Can be always dark, except in some borrowings from Scottish Gaelic
Greek Northern dialects[35] μπάλα lla [ˈbaɫa] 'ball' Allophone of /l/ before /a o u/. See Modern Greek phonology
Irish lá [ɫɑː] 'day' See Irish phonology
Kyrgyz[11] [example needed] Velarized. Appears in back vowel contexts, otherwise it's clear [l]
Norwegian Northern spelle [spæɫːe] 'to play' See Norwegian phonology
Ossetian Алани Alani About this sound [äˈɫäːni]  'Alania'
Scots fluir [fɫyːr] 'floor'
Serbo-Croatian[36][37] лак / lak [ɫâ̠k] 'easy' Apical; may be syllabic; contrasts with /ʎ/. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
St’át’imcets qao [qáɫ] 'bad'
Taos [kīǣˈwǣɫmã̄] 'be strong' See Taos phonology
Turkish kızıl [kɯzɯɫ] 'red' See Turkish phonology
Uzbek[24] [example needed] Apical; present between a non-front rounded vowel and a consonant or juncture phoneme. Non-velarized denti-alveolar elsewhere.[24]
Welsh Northern dialects lol [ɫɔɫ] 'nonsense'
West Frisian lân [ɫɔːn] 'land'
Dental or Denti-alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Belarusian[38] Беларусь [bʲɛɫ̪äˈrus̪ʲ] 'Belarus' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Catalan[5][39] altres [ˈaɫ̪t̪ɾəs̺] 'others' Velarized[5] laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /l/ before /t d/.[39] See Catalan phonology
English wealth [ˈwɛɫ̪θ] 'wealth' Velarized dental. It's the allophone of /l/ before /θ ð/. See English phonology
Icelandic[40] sigldi [s̺ɪɫ̪t̪ɪ] 'sailed' Velarized[40] laminal denti-alveolar; rare. See Icelandic phonology
Lithuanian[41] labas [ˈɫ̪äːbɐs̪] 'hi' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with [lʲ]
Macedonian[42] лук
luk
[ɫ̪uk] 'garlic' Laminal denti-alveolar. Present only before back vowels (/a o u/) and syllable-finally. See Macedonian phonology
Norwegian Southeastern[41] tale [ˈt̪ʰɑ̈ːɫ̪ə] 'speech', 'to speak' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /l/ after /ɑ ɑː ɔ oː/. See Norwegian phonology
Polish Eastern dialects[12] łapa [ˈɫ̪äpä] 'paw' Velarized laminal denti-alveolar. Corresponds to /w/ in standard Polish. See Polish phonology
Russian[43] малый [ˈmɑ̟ɫ̪ɨ̞j] 'small' Pharyngealized laminal denti-alveolar. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[44] Mallaig [ˈmäʊɫ̪ækʲ] 'Mallaig' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian столца / stolca [s̪t̪ǒ̞ːɫ̪t̪͡s̪a̠] 'chair' (gen. sg.) Velarized laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /l/ before /t d s z t͡s/; may be syllabic. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Variable
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Portuguese European[45] mil [miɫ̪] 'one thousand' When [lˠ ~ lʶ ~ lˤ ~ lˀ],[46] most often dental. Coda is now vocalized to [ ~ ʊ̯] in most of Brazil (as in rural parts of Alto Minho and Madeira).[47] Might be always dental, and always dark (especially before back/rounded and close/unrounded vowels), in most dialects. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects[48] Lituânia About this sound [ɫ̪it̪uˈɐ̃ɲ̟ɐ]  'Lithuania'
Older Brazilian[49][50][51][52] álcool [ˈäɫ̪ko̞ɫ̪] 'Alcohol', 'Ethanol'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thelwall (1990:38)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:20)
  3. ^ a b Wheeler (2005:10-11)
  4. ^ a b "Voiced Alveolar Lateral - Central | Els Sons del Català". 
    "Voiced Alveolar Lateral - Nord Occidental | Els Sons del Català". 
  5. ^ a b c d Recasens & Espinosa (2005:1 and 20)
  6. ^ Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005:132)
  7. ^ Canepari (1992:88-89)
  8. ^ a b c d Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Canepari (1992:89)
  10. ^ http://www.rastko.net/rastko-ka/content/view/227/26/
  11. ^ a b Kara (2003:11)
  12. ^ a b Rocławski (1976:130)
  13. ^ Chițoran (2001:10)
  14. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  15. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  16. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  17. ^ a b Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995:10)
  18. ^ Walker (1984:35)
  19. ^ Siptár & Törkenczy (2000:75–76)
  20. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005:133)
  21. ^ Lunt (1952:1)
  22. ^ Engstrand (2004:167)
  23. ^ Keane (2004:111)
  24. ^ a b c d Sjoberg (1963:13)
  25. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
  26. ^ Depalatalization and consequential iotization in the speech of Fortaleza. Page 2. (Portuguese)
  27. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:229)
  28. ^ Runaround generator
  29. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:92)
  30. ^ a b Recasens & Espinosa (2005:4)
  31. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  32. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  33. ^ Booij, Geert. 1999. The Phonology of Dutch. P.8
  34. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999:73)
  35. ^ Northern Greek Dialects Portal for the Greek Language
  36. ^ Kordić 2006, p. 5.
  37. ^ Diana Archangeli, Jeff Berry. "Dark and light /l/s in Georgian". University of Arizona. p. 5. 
  38. ^ Padluzhny (1989:50–51)
  39. ^ a b Rafel (1999:14)
  40. ^ a b Scholten (2000:22)
  41. ^ a b Mathiassen (1996:23)
  42. ^ Lunt (1952:11–12)
  43. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:168)
  44. ^ Ó Dochartaigh (1997)
  45. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:93)
  46. ^ "Um caso de português tonal no Brasil?" – Centro de Comunicação e Expressão – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Portuguese). Page 52.
  47. ^ MELO, Gladstone Chaves de. "A língua do Brasil". 4. Ed. Melhorada e aum., Rio de Janeiro: Padrão, 1981
  48. ^ (Italian) Accenti romanze: Portogallo e Brasile (portoghese) – The influence of foreign accents on Italian language acquisition
  49. ^ (Portuguese) The process of Norm change for the good pronunciation of the Portuguese language in chant and dramatics in Brazil during 1938, 1858 and 2007 Page 36.
  50. ^ TEYSSIER, Paul. "História da Língua Portuguesa", Lisboa: Livraria Sá da Costa, pp. 81-83.
  51. ^ Bisol (2005:211)
  52. ^ "Um caso de português tonal no Brasil?" – Centro de Comunicação e Expressão – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Portuguese). Page 49.

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