Alveolar lateral nasal click
|Alveolar lateral nasal click|
The alveolar lateral nasal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈ǁ̃〉 or 〈ᵑǁ〉; a symbol abandoned by the IPA but still preferred by some linguists is 〈ʖ̃〉 or 〈ᵑʖ〉.
Features of the alveolar lateral nasal click:
- The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (aka velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. The release of the forward closure produces the 'click' sound. Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream.
- Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
|ǃKung||nǁan||[ᵑǁàŋ] = [ʖ̃àŋ]||marama bean|
|Zulu||inxeba||[iᵑǁɛ́ːɓa] = [iʖ̃ɛ́ːɓa]||wound|
|Hadza||konxa||[koᵑǁa] = [koʖ̃a]||to be a pair|
|!Xóõ||ǁnáã||[ᵑǁɑ́ɑ̃] = [ʖ̃ɑ́ɑ̃]||grewia berry|
Glottalized alveolar lateral nasal click
alveolar lateral nasal click
All Khoisan languages, and a few Bantu languages, have glottalized nasal clicks. These are formed by closing the glottis so that the click is pronounced in silence; however, any preceding vowel will be nasalized.
|Khoekhoe||tsoatsoaǁaposa||[tsȍàtsòȁᵑǁˀàpòsa̋] = [tsȍàtsòȁʖ̃ˀàpòsa̋]||resolute, principled|
|Hadza||slaxxa||[ɬaᵑǁˀa] = [ɬaʖ̃ˀa]||a split, fork|
|Xhosa||inkxumo||[iᵑǁˀumo] = [iʖ̃ˀumo]||a support|