Alveolar flap

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Alveolar tap)
Jump to: navigation, search
Voiced alveolar tap
ɾ
IPA number 124
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɾ
Unicode (hex) U+027E
X-SAMPA 4
Kirshenbaum *
Braille ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
Sound

The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar flaps is [ɾ].

The terms tap and flap may be used interchangeably. Peter Ladefoged proposed for a while that it may be useful to distinguish between them; however, his usage has been inconsistent, contradicting itself even between different editions of the same text.[1] The last proposed distinction was that a tap strikes its point of contact directly, as a very brief stop, whereas a flap strikes the point of contact tangentially: "Flaps are most typically made by retracting the tongue tip behind the alveolar ridge and moving it forward so that it strikes the ridge in passing."[this quote needs a citation] However, later on, he no longer felt this was a useful distinction to make, and preferred to use the word flap in all cases.[citation needed]

For linguists who do make the distinction, the coronal tap is transcribed as a fish-hook "r", [ɾ], while the flap is transcribed as a small capital "d", [ᴅ], which is not recognized by the IPA. Otherwise, alveolars and dentals are typically called taps, and other articulations flaps. No language contrasts a tap and a flap at the same place of articulation.

This sound is often analyzed (and therefore transcribed) by native English speakers as an 'R-sound' in many foreign languages. For example, the 'Japanese R' in hara, akira, tora, etc. is actually an alveolar tap. In languages where this segment is present but not phonemic, it is often an allophone of either an alveolar stop ([t] or [d]) or a rhotic consonant like the alveolar trill or alveolar approximant.

When the alveolar tap is the only rhotic consonant in the language, it may for simplicity be transcribed /r/, i.e. the symbol technically representing the trill.

Voiced alveolar flap[edit]

Features[edit]

Features of the alveolar tap:

Occurrence[edit]

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian emër [ɛməɾ] 'name' Contrasts with /r/ in all positions.
Arabic Egyptian[2] رجل [ɾeɡl] 'foot' Contrasts with emphatic form. See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[3] րոպե About this sound [ɾopɛ]  'minute' Contrasts with /r/ in all positions.
Asturian yera [ˈʝe̞ɾa] 'I/it was' Contrasts with /r/.
Austro-Bavarian Rose [ɾoːzə] 'rose'
Basque lore [lo̞ɾe̞] 'flower' Contrasts with /r/.
Catalan[4] mira [ˈmiɾə] 'look' Contrasts with /r/. See Catalan phonology
Chechen рагI / r [ɾɑɣ] 'mountain range'
Dutch Many dialects Peru About this sound [peˈɾu]  'Peru' In free variation with [r] and [ʀ]. Pronunciation of /r/ varies regionally. See Dutch phonology
English RP[5] better [ˈbe̞ɾə] 'better' Intervocalic allophone of /t/ for some speakers. See English phonology and flapping
Cockney[6] Intervocalic allophone of /t/. In free variation with [ʔ ~ ~ ]. See flapping
Australian[7] [ˈbeɾə] Intervocalic allophone of /t/, and also /d/ among few Australians. Used more often in Australia than in New Zealand. See Australian English phonology and flapping
New Zealand[8] [ˈbeɾɘ]
Dublin About this sound [ˈbɛɾɚ]  Intervocalic allophone of /t/ and /d/, present in many dialects. In Local Dublin it can be [ɹ] instead, unlike New and Mainstream. See English phonology and flapping
North America[9]
Ulster
West Country
Irish three [θɾiː] 'three' Conservative accents. Corresponds to [ɹ ~ ɻ ~ ʁ] in other accents.
Scottish[10] Most speakers. Others use [ɹ ~ r].
Older RP[11] Allophone of /ɹ/.
Scouse[10]
South African[10] Broad speakers. Can be [ɹ ~ r] instead.
French African French rouge [ɾuʒ] 'red' May be a trill instead. See Standard and Quebec French phonologies
Corsica
Rural Acadian
Rural France
Rural Quebec
Southern France
Galician cordeiro [koɾˈðejɾo] 'lamb' Contrasts with /r/ in all positions.
German Northern Rübe [ˈɾÿːbə] 'beet' Only some speakers. May be a trill instead.
Standard[12] Apical.[12] May be dental or a trill instead. See German phonology
Southern May be a trill instead.
Gokana[13] bele [bēɾ̠ē] 'we' Postalveolar. Allophone of /l/, medially between vowels within the morpheme,[13] and finally in the morpheme before a following vowel in the same word.[13] It can be a postalveolar trill or simply [l] instead.[13]
Greek[14] μηρός mirós [miˈɾ̠o̞s] 'thigh' Somewhat retracted. Most common realization of /r/. See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew Mizrahi רבע [ˈɾevaʕ] 'quarter' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Sephardic
Ilokano tumakder [tʊmakˈdeɾ] 'to stand up'
Irish carr
tirim
[kaɾˠ]
[tʲɪɾʲɪmʲ]
'car'
'dry' (adj.)
Exists in velarised ("broad") and palatalised ("slender") forms. See Irish phonology
Japanese kokoro About this sound [ko̥koɾo]  'heart' May instead be an alveolar lateral flap. See Japanese phonology
Korean 바람 baram [paɾam] 'wind' See Korean phonology
Māori reo [ˈɾeo] 'language'
Norwegian Norge [ˈnɔɾɡə] 'Norway' See Norwegian phonology
Persian كشور [keʃvæɾ] 'country' See Persian phonology
Portuguese[15] prato [ˈpɾatu] 'dish' Dental to retroflex allophones, varying by dialect. Contrasts with /ʁ/, with its guttural allophones and, in all positions, with its archaic form [r]. See Portuguese phonology
Sicilian corna [ˈkɔɾna] 'horns'
Spanish[16] caro [ˈkaɾo̞] 'expensive' Contrasts with /r/. See Spanish phonology
Tagalog bihira [bɪˈhiɾɐ] 'rare' See Tagalog phonology
Turkish rkiye [ˈt̪yɾcijɛ] 'Turkey' See Turkish phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[17] ran [ɾaŋ] 'to see'
Dental or denti-alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Standard[12] Rübe [ˈɾ̪ÿːbə] 'beet' Apical dental.[12] May be alveolar or a trill instead. See German phonology
Uzbek[18] ёмғир yomg‘ir [ʝɒ̜mˈʁ̟ɨɾ̪] 'rain' Denti-alveolar.[18]

Voiceless alveolar flap[edit]

Voiceless alveolar tap
ɾ̥
ɾ̊
IPA number 124 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPA 4_0

The voiceless alveolar tap or flap is rare as a phoneme. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ɾ̥ and ɾ̊, combinations of the letter for the voiced alveolar tap/flap and a diacritic indicating voicelessness, either above or below the letter. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 4_0.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolar tap:

  • Its manner of articulation is tap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that the tongue makes very brief contact.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, post-alveolar or dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, behind the alveolar ridge or behind upper front teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Greek Cypriot αδερφός [ɐðe̞ɾ̥ˈfo̞s] 'brother' Allophone of /ɾ/ before voiceless consonants. May be a voiceless trill instead.
Icelandic hrafn [ˈɾ̥apn̪̊] 'raven' Realization of /r̥/ for some speakers. Also illustrates /n̥/. See Icelandic phonology
Portuguese European[19] assar [ɐˈsaɾ̥] 'to bake' Apparent allophone of /ɾ/; distribution unclear, but common in the coda in Jesus (2001)'s corpus. See Portuguese phonology

Voiced alveolar nasal flap[edit]

Voiced alveolar nasal flap
ɾ̃

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced alveolar nasal flap:

  • Its manner of articulation is flap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that the tongue makes very brief contact.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English[20] Estuary twenty [ˈtʰw̥ɛɾ̃i] 'twenty' Allophone of unstressed intervocallic /nt/ for some speakers. See English phonology,
North American English regional phonology and flapping
North American[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]