Alveolar trill

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"r (IPA)" redirects here. For the 'r' sound (as in English red) sometimes transcribed /r/ for convenience, see Alveolar approximant ([ɹ]).

The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar trills is r, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r. It is commonly called the rolled R, rolling R, or trilled R. Quite often, r is used in phonemic transcriptions (especially those found in dictionaries) of languages like English and German that have rhotic consonants that are not an alveolar trill. This is partly due to ease of typesetting and partly because r is the letter used in the orthographies of these languages.

In the majority of Indo-European languages, this sound is at least occasionally allophonic with an alveolar tap [ɾ], particularly in unstressed positions. Exceptions to this include Albanian, Spanish, Cypriot Greek, and a number of Armenian and Portuguese dialects, which treat them as distinct phonemes.

People with ankyloglossia may find it exceptionally difficult to articulate this consonant due to the limited mobility of their tongues.[1][2]

Voiced alveolar trill[edit]

Voiced alveolar trill
r
IPA number 122
Encoding
Entity (decimal) r
Unicode (hex) U+0072
X-SAMPA r
Kirshenbaum r
Braille ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
Sound

Most commonly, the alveolar trill is voiced.

Features[edit]

Features of the alveolar trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over the articulator so that it vibrates.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, post-alveolar or dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, behind the alveolar ridge or behind upper front teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ашəара [aʃʷara] 'measure' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe речӀы [retʃʼə] 'crushing'
Afrikaans rooi [rɔɪ] 'red'
Albanian rrush [ruʃ] 'grape' Contrasts with /ɾ/.
Arabic رأس [rɑʔs] 'head' Written ر. See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[3] ռումբ About this sound [rumb]  'cannonball'
Asturian xenru [ˈʃẽ̞nru] 'son-in-law'
Basque errota [erot̪a] 'mill'
Bulgarian награда [nɐɡrada] 'award'
Czech chlor [xlɔ̝ːr] 'chlorine' Contrasts with /r̝/; may be syllabic. See Czech phonology
Dutch Many dialects rood About this sound [roːt]  'red' In free variation with [ɾ]. Pronunciation of /r/ varies regionally. See Dutch phonology
English Scottish curd [kʌrd] 'curd' Only some dialects. Corresponds to [ɾ ~ ɹ] in others. See English phonology
Esperanto tri About this sound [tri]  'three' See Esperanto phonology
Estonian narr [nɑrː] 'fool'
Finnish purra [purːɑ] 'to bite' See Finnish phonology
French African French rouge [ruʒ] 'red' May be a tap instead. See Standard and Quebec French phonologies
Corsica
Rural Acadian
Rural France
Rural Quebec
Southern France
Galician ría [ˈri.a] 'ria', 'estuary' Contrasts with /ɾ/. Does not occur in coda position.
German Northern Schmarrn About this sound [ʃmaːrn]  'nonsense' Only some speakers. May be a tap instead.
Standard[4] Apical.[4] May be dental or a tap instead. See German phonology
Southern May be a tap instead.
Greek Standard[5] άρτος [ˈartos] 'bread' (archaic) or 'Communion bread' Allophone of /r/. Usual in clusters, otherwise a tap or an approximant. See Modern Greek phonology
Cypriot[6][7] βορράς [voˈrːas] 'north' Contrasts with /ɾ/.
Hebrew Mizrahi ראשׁ [roʃ] 'head' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi घर [ɡʱər] 'house' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Icelandic rós [ˈroːus] 'rose' Contrasts with /r̥/. See Icelandic phonology
Ilokano gurruod [ɡʊˈruʔod] 'thunder'
Italian[8] terra [ˈtɛrra] 'earth' See Italian phonology
Japanese Some dialects 羅針 rashin [raɕĩɴ] 'compass' More commonly [ɾ]. Use of [r] is known in Japanese as makijita (Japanese: 巻き舌, 'rolling tongue'). See Japanese phonology
Kele[9] [ⁿrikei] 'leg'
Kyrgyz[10] ыр [ɯr] 'song'
Latvian[11] rags [räks̪] 'horn' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian игра [iɡra] 'play' See Macedonian phonology
Malay Standard arah [arah] 'direction' See Malay phonology
Marathi Standard [rəbər] 'rubber' See Marathi phonology
Ngwe Njoagwi dialect [lɛ̀rɛ́] 'eye'
Persian رستم Rostam [ˈrostʌm] 'Rostam' Allophone of [ɾ] in word-initial positions. See Persian phonology
Polish[12] krok About this sound [krɔk]  'step' Contrasts with /r̝/ for few speakers. See Polish phonology
Portuguese Some dialects[13] honrar [õˈraɾ] 'to honor' Older rhotic corresponding to guttural R of most dialects; contrasts with /ɾ/. Does not occur in coda position. See Portuguese phonology
Scots wir [wir] 'our'
Serbo-Croatian[14] рт / rt [r̩t] 'cape' May be syllabic. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[15] krk [kr̩k] 'neck' May be a tap, particularly when not syllabic.
Slovene[16] r [ríːʃ] 'rice' Often simply a tap.
Spanish[17] perro [ˈpe̞ro̞] 'dog' Contrasts with /ɾ/. See Spanish phonology
Swedish Most dialects rov About this sound [ruːv]  'prey' See Swedish phonology
Tajik арра [ʌrrʌ] 'saw'
Thai Standard Thai พรุ่งนี้ [pʰrûŋ.níː] 'tomorrow'
Titan[9] [ⁿrakeiʔin] 'girls'
Ubykh [bəqˤʼərda] 'to roll around' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian рух [rux] 'motion' See Ukrainian phonology
Welsh Rhagfyr [ˈr̥aɡvɨr] 'December' Contrasts with /r̥/. See Welsh phonology
West Frisian rûp [rup] 'carterpillar'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[18] r-ree [rəˀə] 'habitual-go out' Underlyingly two sequences of /ɾ/.
Post-alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[19] roba [ˈr̠ɔβ̞ə] 'clothes' Contrasts with /ɾ/. See Catalan phonology
Gokana[20] bele [bēr̠ē] 'we' Allophone of /l/, medially between vowels within the morpheme,[20] and finally in the morpheme
before a following vowel in the same word.[20] It can be a postalveolar tap or simply [l] instead.[20]
Russian[21] играть [ɪˈɡr̠ätʲ] 'to play' Contrasts with a palatalized dental trill. See Russian phonology
Dental
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Standard[4] Schmarrn [ʃmaːr̪n] 'nonsense' Apical.[4] May be alveolar or a tap instead. See German phonology
Hungarian[22] arra [ɒr̪ːɒ] 'that way' See Hungarian phonology
Romanian[23] repede [ˈr̪e̞pe̞d̪e̞] 'quickly' Apical. See Romanian phonology
Russian[21] рьяный [ˈr̪ʲjän̪ɨ̞j] 'zealous' Apical, palatalized. Often a tap.[21] It contrasts with a post-alveolar trill. See Russian phonology

Voiced alveolar raised non-sonorant trill [edit]

Raised alveolar trill
IPA number 122 429
Encoding
X-SAMPA r_r
Sound

In Czech there are two contrasting alveolar trills. Besides the typical trill, written r, there is another, written ř, in words such as rybáři [ˈrɪbaːr̝ɪ] 'fishermen' and the common surname Dvořák. Its manner of articulation is similar to [r] but the tongue is raised; it is partially fricative, with the frication sounding rather like [ʒ], though not so retracted. Thus in the IPA it is written as r plus the raising diacritic, . (Before the 1989 IPA Kiel Convention, it had a dedicated symbol ɼ). The Kobon language of Papua New Guinea also has a fricative trill, although the degree of frication is variable.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced alveolar raised non-sonorant trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill fricative, which means it's a trill and a non-sibilant fricative pronounced simultaneously.
  • Its place of articulation is lamino-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge,
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Czech[24][25][26][27] čtyři About this sound [ˈt͡ʃtɪr̝ɪ]  'four' May be a non-sibilant fricative[25] or a tap fricative instead.[27] It contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. See Czech phonology
Kashubian[28] [example needed] Only some northern[28] and north-western[28] speakers.
Kobon [example needed]
Norwegian[29] Areas around Narvik[30] [example needed] Common allophone of the sequence /ɾs/.[30]
Trøndersk[30] Occasional allophone of the sequence /ɾs/.[30]
Polish Some dialects[31] rzeka [ˈr̝ɛkä] 'river' Contrasts with /r/ and /ʐ/. Present in areas from Starogard Gdański to Malbork[31] and those south, west and northwest of them,[31] area from Lubawa to Olsztyn to Olecko to Działdowo,[31] south and east from Wieleń,[31] around Wołomin,[31] southeast from Ostrów Mazowiecka[31] and west from Siedlce,[31] from Brzeg to Opole and those north of them,[31] and roughly from Racibórz to Nowy Targ.[31] Most speakers, as well as standard Polish merge it with /ʐ/,[31] and speakers maintaining the distinction (which is mostly the elderly) sporadically do that too.[31] See Polish phonology
Silesian Gmina Istebna[32] [example needed] Contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. Merges with /ʐ/ in most Polish dialects.
Jablunkov[32]
Slovak Northern dialects[31] [example needed] Only in few dialects near the Polish border.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chaubal & Dixit (2011:270–272)
  2. ^ Mayo Clinic (2012)
  3. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:19)
  4. ^ a b c d Mangold (2005:53)
  5. ^ Arvaniti (2007:14–18)
  6. ^ Arvaniti (2010:3–4)
  7. ^ "βορράς", Cypriot Greek Lexicographic Database (Ερευνητικό Πρόγραμμα Συντυσές), 2011, retrieved 5 March 2014 
  8. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  9. ^ a b Ladefoged (2005:165)
  10. ^ Kara (2003:11)
  11. ^ Nau (1998:6)
  12. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  13. ^ In much of Africa, some communities of non-Portuguese European immigrants (it may be weakly trilled in the former ones), inland northern Portugal, and places near Hispanic countries.
  14. ^ Kordić (2006:5), Landau et al. (1999:66)
  15. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  16. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  17. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  18. ^ Merrill (2008:109)
  19. ^ Recasens & Pallarès (1995:288)
  20. ^ a b c d L.F. Brosnahan, Outlines of the phonology of the Gokana dialect of Ogoni, retrieved 2013-11-24 
  21. ^ a b c Skalozub (1963:?); cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:221)
  22. ^ Siptár & Törkenczy (2000:75–76), Szende (1999:104)
  23. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici, Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie, retrieved April 19, 2013 [dead link]
  24. ^ Dankovičová (1999:70-71)
  25. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:228-230 and 233)
  26. ^ Lodge (2009:46)
  27. ^ a b Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012:226)
  28. ^ a b c Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". 
  29. ^ Fabiánová (2011:34-35)
  30. ^ a b c d Fabiánová (2011:35)
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Gwary polskie - Frykatywne rż (ř), Gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl, retrieved 2013-11-06 
  32. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)

Bibliography[edit]

  • "Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia)", Mayo Clinic (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research), May 16, 2012, retrieved 22 October 2013 
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art", Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv 
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2010), "A (brief) review of Cypriot Phonetics and Phonology", The Greek Language in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Present Day, University of Athens, pp. 107–124 
  • Chaubal, Tanay V.; Dixit, Mala Baburaj (2011), "Ankyloglossia and its Management", Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology 15 (3): 270–272, doi:10.4103/0972-124X.85673, PMID 22028516 
  • Dąbrowska, Anna (2004), Język polski, Wrocław: wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, ISBN 83-7384-063-X 
  • Dankovičová, Jana (1999), "Czech", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 70–74, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Fabiánová, Martina (2011), Srovnání české a norské fonetiky 
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Kara, Dávid Somfai (2003), Kyrgyz, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3895868434 
  • Kordić, Snježana (2006), Serbo-Croatian, Languages of the World/Materials; 148, Munich & Newcastle: Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-161-8 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. 
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, ISBN 978-3411040667 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Nau, Nicole (1998), Latvian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-228-2 
  • Pretnar, Tone; Tokarz, Emil (1980), Slovenščina za Poljake: Kurs podstawowy języka słoweńskiego, Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski 
  • Recasens, Daniel; Pallarès, Maria Dolors (2001), De la fonètica a la fonologia: les consonants i assimilacions consonàntiques del català, Barcelona: Editorial Ariel, ISBN 978-84-344-2884-3 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Šimáčková, Šárka; Podlipský, Václav Jonáš; Chládková, Kateřina (2012), "Czech spoken in Bohemia and Moravia", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 42 (2): 225–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000102 
  • Siptár, Péter; Törkenczy, Miklós (2000), The Phonology of Hungarian, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823841-6 
  • Skalozub, Larisa (1963), Palatogrammy i Rentgenogrammy Soglasnyx Fonem Russkogo Literaturnogo Jazyka, Izdatelstvo Kievskogo Universiteta 
  • Szende, Tamás (1999), "Hungarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 104–107, ISBN 0-521-65236-7