Alveolar trill

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The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar trills is r, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r. It is commonly called the rolled R, rolling R, or trilled R. Quite often, r is used in phonemic transcriptions (especially those found in dictionaries) of languages like English and German that have rhotic consonants that are not an alveolar trill. This is partly due to ease of typesetting and partly because r is the letter used in the orthographies of these languages.

In the majority of Indo-European languages, this sound is at least occasionally allophonic with an alveolar tap [ɾ], particularly in unstressed positions. Exceptions to this include Albanian, Spanish, Cypriot Greek, and a number of Armenian and Portuguese dialects, which treat them as distinct phonemes.

People with ankyloglossia may find it exceptionally difficult to articulate this consonant due to the limited mobility of their tongues.[1][2]

Voiced alveolar trill[edit]

Voiced alveolar trill
r
IPA number 122
Encoding
Entity (decimal) r
Unicode (hex) U+0072
X-SAMPA r
Kirshenbaum r<trl>
Braille ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
Sound

Most commonly, the alveolar trill is voiced.

Features[edit]

Features of the alveolar trill:

Occurrence[edit]

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ашəара [aʃʷara] 'measure' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe речӀы [retʃʼə] 'crushing'
Afrikaans rooi [rɔɪ] 'red'
Albanian rrush [ruʃ] 'grape' Contrasts with /ɾ/.
Arabic رأس [rɑʔs] 'head' Written ر. See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[3] ռումբ About this sound [rumb]  'cannonball'
Asturian xenru [ˈʃẽ̞nru] 'son-in-law'
Basque errota [erot̪a] 'mill'
Bulgarian награда [nɐɡrada] 'award'
Czech chlor [xlɔ̝ːr] 'chlorine' Contrasts with /r̝/; may be syllabic. See Czech phonology
Dutch Many dialects rood About this sound [roːt]  'red' In free variation with [ɾ]. Pronunciation of /r/ varies regionally. See Dutch phonology
English Scottish curd [kʌrd] 'curd' Only some dialects. Corresponds to [ɾ ~ ɹ] in others. See English phonology
Esperanto tri About this sound [tri]  'three' See Esperanto phonology
Estonian narr [nɑrː] 'fool'
Finnish purra [purːɑ] 'to bite' See Finnish phonology
French African French rouge [ruʒ] 'red' May be a tap instead. See Standard and Quebec French phonologies
Corsica
Rural Acadian
Rural France
Rural Quebec
Southern France
Galician ría [ˈri.a] 'ria', 'estuary' Contrasts with /ɾ/. Does not occur in coda position.
German Northern Schmarrn About this sound [ʃmaːrn]  'nonsense' Only some speakers. May be a tap instead.
Standard[4] Apical.[4] May be dental or a tap instead. See German phonology
Southern May be a tap instead.
Greek Standard[5] άρτος [ˈartos] 'bread' (archaic) or 'Communion bread' Allophone of /r/. Usual in clusters, otherwise a tap or an approximant. See Modern Greek phonology
Cypriot[6][7] βορράς [voˈrːas] 'north' Contrasts with /ɾ/.
Hebrew Mizrahi ראשׁ [roʃ] 'head' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi घर [ɡʱər] 'house' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Icelandic rós [ˈroːus] 'rose' Contrasts with /r̥/. See Icelandic phonology
Ilokano gurruod [ɡʊˈruʔod] 'thunder'
Italian[8] terra [ˈtɛrra] 'earth' See Italian phonology
Japanese Some dialects 羅針 rashin [raɕĩɴ] 'compass' More commonly [ɾ]. Use of [r] is known in Japanese as makijita (Japanese: 巻き舌, 'rolling tongue'). See Japanese phonology
Kele[9] [ⁿrikei] 'leg'
Kyrgyz[10] ыр [ɯr] 'song'
Latvian[11] rags [räks̪] 'horn' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian игра [iɡra] 'play' See Macedonian phonology
Malay Standard arah [arah] 'direction' See Malay phonology
Marathi Standard [rəbər] 'rubber' See Marathi phonology
Ngwe Njoagwi dialect [lɛ̀rɛ́] 'eye'
Persian رستم Rostam [ˈrostʌm] 'Rostam' Allophone of [ɾ] in word-initial positions. See Persian phonology
Polish[12] krok About this sound [krɔk]  'step' Contrasts with /r̝/ for few speakers. See Polish phonology
Portuguese Some dialects[13] honrar [õˈraɾ] 'to honor' Older rhotic corresponding to guttural R of most dialects; contrasts with /ɾ/. Does not occur in coda position. See Portuguese phonology
Scots wir [wir] 'our'
Serbo-Croatian рт / rt [r̩t] 'cape' May be syllabic. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[14] krk [kr̩k] 'neck' May be a tap, particularly when not syllabic.
Spanish[15] perro [ˈpe̞ro̞] 'dog' Contrasts with /ɾ/. See Spanish phonology
Swedish Most dialects rov About this sound [ruːv]  'prey' See Swedish phonology
Tajik арра [ʌrrʌ] 'saw'
Thai Standard Thai พรุ่งนี้ [pʰrûŋ.níː] 'tomorrow'
Titan[9] [ⁿrakeiʔin] 'girls'
Ubykh [bəqˤʼərda] 'to roll around' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian рух [rux] 'motion' See Ukrainian phonology
Welsh Rhagfyr [ˈr̥aɡvɨr] 'December' Contrasts with /r̥/. See Welsh phonology
West Frisian rûp [rup] 'carterpillar'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[16] r-ree [rəˀə] 'habitual-go out' Underlyingly two sequences of /ɾ/.
Post-alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[17] roba [ˈr̠ɔβ̞ə] 'clothes' Contrasts with /ɾ/. See Catalan phonology
Gokana[18] bele [bēr̠ē] 'we' Allophone of /l/, medially between vowels within the morpheme,[18] and finally in the morpheme
before a following vowel in the same word.[18] It can be a postalveolar tap or simply [l] instead.[18]
Russian[19] играть [ɪˈɡr̠ätʲ] 'to play' Contrasts with a palatalized dental trill. See Russian phonology
Dental
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Standard[4] Schmarrn [ʃmaːr̪n] 'nonsense' Apical.[4] May be alveolar or a tap instead. See German phonology
Hungarian[20] arra [ɒr̪ːɒ] 'that way' See Hungarian phonology
Romanian[21] repede [ˈr̪e̞pe̞d̪e̞] 'quickly' Apical. See Romanian phonology
Russian рьяный [ˈr̪ʲjän̪ɨ̞j] 'zealous' Apical, palatalized. It contrasts with a post-alveolar trill. See Russian phonology

Voiceless alveolar trill[edit]

Voiceless alveolar trill
Sound

Some languages possess a voiceless alveolar trill, which differs only in the vibrations of the vocal cord. This is rare, and usually occurs alongside the voiced version as a similar phoneme or an allophone. It is postulated to have occurred in Ancient Greek, where it was spelled ; this sound has since merged with /r/ in Modern Greek.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolar trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over the articulator so that it vibrates.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, post-alveolar or dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, behind the alveolar ridge or behind upper front teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Icelandic hrafn [ˈr̥apn̥] 'raven' Contrasts with /r/. For some speakers it may actually be a voiceless tap. Also illustrates [n̥]. See Icelandic phonology
Lezgian[22] крчар krčar [ˈkʰr̥t͡ʃar] 'horns' Allophone of /r/ between voiceless obstruents.
Moksha нархне [ˈnar̥nʲæ] "these grasses" Contrasts with /r/: нарня [ˈnarnʲæ] "short grass". It has the palatalized counterpart /r̥ʲ/: марьхне [ˈmar̥ʲnʲæ] "these apples", but марьня [ˈmarʲnʲæ] "little apple".
Nivkh [example needed] Contrasts with /r/.
Welsh Rhagfyr [ˈr̥aɡvɨr] 'December' Contrasts with /r/. See Welsh phonology

Voiced alveolar raised non-sonorant trill [edit]

Raised alveolar trill
Sound

In Czech there are two contrasting alveolar trills. Besides the typical trill, written r, there is another, written ř, in words such as rybáři [ˈrɪbaːr̝ɪ] 'fishermen' and the common surname Dvořák. Its manner of articulation is similar to [r] but the tongue is raised; it is partially fricative, with the frication sounding rather like [ʒ], though not so retracted. Thus in the IPA it is written as r plus the raising diacritic, . (Before the 1989 IPA Kiel Convention, it had a dedicated symbol ɼ). The Kobon language of Papua New Guinea also has a fricative trill, although the degree of frication is variable. Some Norwegian dialects near Narvik are suspected to also contain this sound.[23]

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced alveolar raised non-sonorant trill:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Czech čtyři About this sound [ˈt͡ʃtɪr̝ɪ]  'four' Contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. See Czech phonology
Kobon [example needed]
Polish Some dialects[24] rzeka [ˈr̝ɛkä] 'river' Contrasts with /r/ and /ʐ/. Present in areas from Starogard Gdański to Malbork[24] and those south, west and northwest of them,[24] area from Lubawa to Olsztyn to Olecko to Działdowo,[24] south and east from Wieleń,[24] around Wołomin,[24] southeast from Ostrów Mazowiecka[24] and west from Siedlce,[24] from Brzeg to Opole and those north of them,[24] and roughly from Racibórz to Nowy Targ.[24] Most speakers, as well as standard Polish merge it with /ʐ/,[24] and speakers maintaining the distinction (which is mostly the elderly) sporadically do that too.[24] See Polish phonology
Silesian Jablunkov[25] [example needed] Contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. Merges with /ʐ/ in most Polish dialects.
Gmina Istebna[25]
Slovak Northern dialects[24] [example needed] Only in few dialects near the Polish border.[24]

Voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill [edit]

Voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill
r̝̊

It isn't known to occur as a phoneme in any language, but it does occur allophonically in Czech.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trilled fricative, which means it's a trill and a non-sibilant fricative pronounced simultaneously.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Czech třista [ˈt̪r̝̊ɪs̪t̪ä] 'three hundred' Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants. See Czech phonology
Polish Some dialects przyjść [ˈpr̝̊ɘjɕt͡ɕ] 'to come' Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants for speakers that don't merge it with /ʐ/. Present in areas from Starogard Gdański to Malbork and those south, west and northwest of them, area from Lubawa to Olsztyn to Olecko to Działdowo, south and east from Wieleń, around Wołomin, southeast from Ostrów Mazowiecka and west from Siedlce, from Brzeg to Opole and those north of them, and roughly from Racibórz to Nowy Targ. Most speakers, as well as standard Polish pronounce it the same as /ʂ/, and speakers maintaining the distinction (which is mostly the elderly) sporadically do that too. See Polish phonology
Silesian Jablunkov [example needed] Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants. It's pronounced the same as /ʂ/ in most Polish dialects.
Gmina Istebna

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chaubal & Dixit (2011:270–272)
  2. ^ Mayo Clinic (2012)
  3. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:19)
  4. ^ a b c d Mangold (2005:53)
  5. ^ Arvaniti (2007:14–18)
  6. ^ Arvaniti (2010:3–4)
  7. ^ "βορράς", Cypriot Greek Lexicographic Database (Ερευνητικό Πρόγραμμα Συντυσές), 2011, retrieved 5 March 2014 
  8. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  9. ^ a b Ladefoged (2005:165)
  10. ^ Kara (2003:11)
  11. ^ Nau (1998:6)
  12. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  13. ^ In much of Africa, some communities of non-Portuguese European immigrants (it may be weakly trilled in the former ones), inland northern Portugal, and places near Hispanic countries.
  14. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  15. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  16. ^ Merrill (2008:109)
  17. ^ Recasens & Pallarès (1995:288)
  18. ^ a b c d L.F. Brosnahan, Outlines of the phonology of the Gokana dialect of Ogoni, retrieved 2013-11-24 
  19. ^ Skalozub (1963:?); cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:?)
  20. ^ Siptár & Törkenczy (2000:75–76)
  21. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici, Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie, retrieved April 19, 2013 [dead link]
  22. ^ Haspelmath (1993:35)
  23. ^ [1] Template:Authentication needed
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Gwary polskie - Frykatywne rż (ř), Gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl, retrieved 2013-11-06 
  25. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)

Bibliography[edit]