|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2013)|
Ahmadou Bamba, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba Mbacké (1853–1927) (Aamadu Bamba Mbàkke in Wolof, Shaykh Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥabīb Allāh (Arabic: أحمد بن محمد بن حبيب الله) also known as Khadīmu 'l-Rasūl (Arabic: خادِم الرسول) or "The Servant of the messenger", and as Sëriñ Tuubaa or "Cheikh of Tuubaa" in Wolof), was a Muslim Sufi religious leader in Senegal and the founder of the large Mouride Brotherhood (the Muridiyya).
Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba was a mystic and religious leader who produced a prodigious quantity of poems and tracts on meditation, rituals, work, and Qur'anic study. Politically, Ahmadou Bamba led a pacifist struggle against French colonialism while not waging outright war on the French as several prominent Tijani marabouts had done.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Facing colonial rule
- 3 Respected by Mourides
- 4 Recognition by the Muslim community
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Shaykh Aḥmadu Bàmba Mbàkke was born in the village of Mbacké (Mbàkke Bawol in Wolof) in the Kingdom of Baol, the son of a marabout from the Xaadir (Qadriyya) brotherhood, the oldest in Senegal. He was a disciple of a Qadiriyya leader Sheikh Saad Buh.
A religious prayer leader, poet and monk, Ahmadou Bamba founded the Mouride brotherhood in 1883 and the city of Touba. In one of his numerous writings, Matlabul Fawzeyni (the quest for happiness in both worlds), Sheikh Ahmadou Bamba describes the purpose of the city which he founded in 1887. In his concept, Touba should reconcile the spiritual and the temporal. Sheikh Ahmadou Bamba intended to have the spiritual capital of his brotherhood showing all the characteristics of a Muslim city.
Facing colonial rule
As his fame spread, the French colonial government worried about Bamba's growing power and potential to wage war against them. He had converted a number of traditional kings and their followers and no doubt could have raised a huge military force, as Muslim leaders like Umar Tall and Samory Touré had before him.
The French sentenced him to exile in Gabon (1895–1902) and later in Mauritania (1903–1907). However, these exiles fired stories and folk tales of Bamba's miraculous survival of torture, deprivation, and attempted executions, and thousands more flocked to his organization. On the ship to Gabon, forbidden from praying, Bamba is said[weasel words] to have broken his leg-irons, leapt overboard into the ocean and prayed on a prayer rug that appeared on the surface of the water, so devout was he. Or, when the French put him in a furnace, he simply sat down in it and drank tea with Muhammad. In a den of hungry lions, the lions slept beside him, etc.
By 1910, the French realized that Bamba was not interested in waging war against them, and was in fact quite cooperative, eventually releasing him to return to his expanded community. In 1918, he won the French Legion of Honor for enlisting his followers in the First World War and the French allowed him to establish his community in Touba, believing in part that his doctrine of hard work could be made to serve French economic interests. His movement was allowed to grow, and in 1926 he began work for the great mosque at Touba where he is buried. After his death in 1927, he has been succeeded by his descendants as hereditary leaders of the brotherhood with absolute authority over the followers.
Importance to Islam and anticolonialism
As the founder of Mouridism, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba is considered one of the greatest spiritual leaders in Senegalese history. Mouridism is today one of Senegal’s four Sufi movements, with four million devotees in Senegal alone and thousands more abroad majority of who are emigrants from Senegal. Followers of the Mouridism movement, an offshoot of traditional Sufi philosophy, aspire to live closer to God, in emulation of the Prophet Muhammad's example.
Amadou Bamba's teachings emphasized the virtues of pacifism, the importance of hard work and good manners, became in the 20th century one of the biggest influences on contemporary Senegalese life and culture.
In the political sphere, Ahmadou Bamba led a pacifist struggle against French colonialism while trying to restore a purer practice of Islam insulated from French colonial influence. In a period when successful armed resistance was impossible, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba led a spiritual struggle against colonial culture and politics. Although he did not wage outright war on them as several prominent Tijaan marabouts had done, he taught what he called the jihād al-'akbar or "greater struggle," which fought not through weapons but through learning and fear of God.
Respected by Mourides
Bamba's followers call him a "renewer" (mujaddid in Arabic) of Islam, citing a hadith that implies that God will send renewers of the faith every 100 years (the members of all the Senegalese brotherhoods claim that their founders were such renewers).
Claimed Meeting with the Islamic Prophet in a Dream
Cheikh Abdoul Ahad Mbacke, the third Caliph and son of Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba declared that Amadou Bamba had met the prophet Muhammed in his dream, a tale that has become an article of faith for Mouride believers. During the month of Ramadan 1895 Muhammed and his companions appeared to him in a dream in Bamba in Touba to confer upon him the rank of mujaddid of his age, and to test his faith. From this, Bamba is said to also have been conferred the rank of "Servant of the Prophet."
Salvation through work
As Bamba gathered followers, he taught that salvation comes through complete submission to God and hard work. The Mouride order has built, following this teaching, a large economic organisation, involved in many aspects of the Senegalese economy. Groundnut cultivation, the primary cash crop of the colonial period, was an early example of this. Young followers were recruited to settle marginal lands in eastern Senegal, found communities and create groundnut plantations. With the organisation and supplies provided by the Brotherhood, a portion of the proceeds were returned to Touba, while the workers, after a period of years, earned ownership over the plantations and towns. The modern Mourides contribute earnings to the brotherhood, which provides social services, loans, and business opportunities in return.
Amadou Bamba has only one surviving photograph, in which he wears a flowing white robe and his face is mostly covered by a scarf. This picture is venerated and reproduced in paintings on walls, buses, taxis, etc. all over Senegal.
The Magal pilgrimage
Every year, millions of Muslims from all over the world make a pilgrimage to Touba (Magal), worshipping at the mosque and honouring the memory of Sheikh Amadou Bamba. On one occasion during the pilgrimage, Mouride believers honour Amadou Bamba by facing the Atlantic ocean, to commemorate Bamba's legendary prayer on the water.
Means and strategy of the colonial administration
From the beginning of the 19th century, the policy imperialist of France ended with the defeat of all the resistances armed to Senegal and the installation with a policy of Christianization and assimilation of new colony to the cultural values of the metropolis. This will lead to a policy of distance or systematic elimination of the Moslem spiritual guides who dared to mark their distrust. Thus, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba, whose only wrong was to have dared to persist openly in the sermon for his religion (Islam) was, 32 years during the object of all kinds of deprivations and tests. In exile during 7 years in Gabon, 5 years in Mauritania, placed during 15 years under house arrest with Diourbel in Senegal, he did not cease, until his recall to ALLAH in 1927, to defend, by his teaching and his behavior, the message of Muhammed.
Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba facing colonial administration
The phobia of the colonial administration at the place of any Islamic movement made the judgements given to the Private Council often constitute lawsuits of intention to the religious chiefs. Stopped to Diéwol, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba is transferred to the office of the Governor of the colonial administration in Saint-Louis (Senegal). Thursday September 5, 1895, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba is translated in front of the Private Council of Saint-Louis which must rule on his case. Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba made a prayer of two rakkas in the office of the Governor before addressing the word to the Council to mean his firm intention to be subjected only to God. By this symbolic pray and this bold standpoint in the sanctuary of the deniers of Islam, Cheik Ahmadou Bamba came to impel a new form of nonviolent resistance to the aimings evangelists of the colonizer. As a result, the Private Council decided deportation of the Holy Man "in a place where its fanatic preachings would not have any effect". They decided to exile the Holy Man in the equatorial forest of Gabon, where he remained for seven years and nine months.
Recognition by the Muslim community
In all the stages which he crossed and everywhere where rebuilding of Islam led him, the work accomplished by Ahmadou Bamba took down positive appreciations unanimously. The universal dimension of this Servant of the Prophet, authenticates "Qutb"1 (pole of its time) was not long in appearing and one visited him from all the horizons, as it was the case of this Cherif of Médine, Mawlay Ahmad Tibri who made print specimens of "Masaalik-ul Jinaan" (a treaty of Sufism of the Sheik) or of this descendant of Abu Bakr Siddiq (Caliph of Islam) who came from Mecca visit to the Holy Man.
- "Cafe Touba - Dakar, Senegal | Local Food Guide". Eatyourworld.com. Retrieved 2013-03-24.
- "Hizbut (2006). Contrat de l’exil. Retrieved March 24, 2006". Retrieved 2013-03-24.
- "Touba (2006). Sermon de Cheikh Abdoul Ahad Mbacke. Retrieved March 24, 2006". Touba-internet.com. Retrieved 2013-03-24.
- "Hizbut (2006). Serviteur Privilegie. Retrieved March 24, 2006". Retrieved 2013-03-24.
- "Pilgrimage to Touba". BBC.
- Touba (2004). La mission du Cheikh. Retrieved March 15, 2006 , from http://www.touba-internet.com/bmb_martyr.htm#allevents
- Reuters report of Touba and the Mourides.
- "Senegal's powerful brotherhoods". BBC News. 2005-09-22. Retrieved 2008-08-09. By Elizabeth Blunt BBC News, 22 September 2005.
- Norimitsu Onishi (2002-05-02). "Industrious Senegal Muslims Run a 'Vatican'". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-09., the New York Times, Norimitsu Onishi, 2 May 2002.
- Susan Sachs (2003-07-28). "In Harlem's Fabric, Bright Threads of Senegal". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-09., the New York Times, Susan Sachs, 28 July 2003.
- Sect follows different brand of Islamic law. Reuters, May 22, 2007.
- Timeline of the events of Amadou Bamba's life from touba-internet.com.
- Cheikh Anta Babou . Fighting the Greater Jihad: Amadu Bamba and the Founding of the Muridiyya of Senegal, 1853-1913. Ohio University Press (2007) ISBN 978-0-8214-1766-9
- Christian Coulon. The grand Magal in Touba: A religious festival of the Mouride brotherhood of Senegal. African Affairs 98:195-210 (1999).
- John Glover. Sufism and Jihad in Modern Senegal: The Murid Order (Rochester Studies in African History and the Diaspora). University of Rochester Press (2007) ISBN 978-1-58046-268-6
- Mayke Kaag. Mouride Transnational Livelihoods at the Margins of a European Society: The Case of Residence Prealpino, Brescia, Italy. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Volume 34, Issue 2 March 2008, pages 271 - 285.
- Le Mouridisme by Pape N'Diaye, on afrology.com
- David Robinson: French 'Islamic' Policy and Practice in Late Nineteenth-Century Senegal in The Journal of African History, Vol. 29, No. 3 (1988), pp. 415–435.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ahmadou Bamba.|
- (French) The wird, its role and purpose by Shaykh Ahmadu Bamba (at-tawhid.net)
- Toubatoulouse.org to download khassaides, audio sounds and pictures
- The Online Murid Library (DaarayKamil.com)
- Passport to Paradise: Sufi Arts of Senegal and Beyond: exhibition and educational program from the Fowler Museum of Cultural History of the University of California at Los Angeles.
- La Non Violence de Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba
- International Sufi School Khidmatul Khadim
- Article on Shaykh Ahmadou Bamba as Peacemaker
- Official Home Page of the Muridiyya Khidmatul Khadim School
- A modest tribute from Tidjani Négadi (Oran University, Algeria)
- A rare book bridging NY and Touba, Senegal by Peter Bogardus.