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An amanuensis (//) is a person employed to write or type what another dictates or to copy what has been written by another, and also refers to a person who signs a document on behalf of another under the latter's authority.
Origin and secretarial uses
The word originated in ancient Rome, for a slave at his master's personal service "within hand reach", performing any command; later it was specifically applied to an intimately trusted servant (often a freedman) acting as a personal secretary (amanuensis is what he does, not what he is).
A similar semantic evolution occurred at the French royal court, where the secrétaire de la main du roi, originally a lowly clerk specializing in producing, at royal command, the Sovereign's signature on more documents than he cared to put his pen to, developed into the secrétaires d'état, the first permanent portfolio ministers, to which the British Secretaries of State would be the counterpart.
It is also used in a specific sense in some academic contexts, for instance when an injured or disabled person is helped by an amanuensis at a written examination. A notable case in classical music was that of Eric Fenby, who assisted the blind composer Frederick Delius in writing down the notes that Delius dictated.
In the Netherlands it refers to a (technically schooled) physics or chemistry laboratory assistant responsible for preparing and assisting with laboratory demonstrations and maintaining the instruments. When employed as such in a school environment s/he will have the title of "TOA" ("technisch-onderwijsassistent", i.e. Technical Teaching Assistant).
In Norway, amanuensis is an academic rank of a lecturer without a doctorate, although this title is going out of use. Førsteamanuensis (Norwegian for "first amanuensis") is the equivalent of associate professor.
In Sweden, amanuens is used to denote roughly a teaching assistant at university who either continues with his own scientific work, or who works as an administrative assistant at the department where he or she studies. The title can also be used for a civil servant at archives or museums.
In Finland, amanuenssi is an administrative employee of a university or a research institution. In universities, amanuenses can be involved with student guidance counseling, organising course activities etc. In Finnish universities' schools of medicine, the title of "amanuenssi" is reserved for students working under guidance and supervision in hospitals, a mandatory part of medical studies.
The term is also used to describe one who assists an organist during a performance, by drawing and retiring stops, and by turning pages.
Modern religious uses
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Amanuensis is also used in New Thought and mystical religious movements — such as Church Universal and Triumphant — to describe the role of a person receiving dictation from one of the Ascended Masters. For example, Mark L. Prophet — religious leader and founder of the Summit Lighthouse (1958) — wrote down the apparent words of AM El Morya (also embodied as Thomas More) as the former claimed to have received them through dictation ("dictation" is claimed to be a form of direct communication from a non-incarnate Master to a guru or leader with the capacity to receive such messages). In doing so, Prophet served as El Morya's amanuensis.
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Certain employers use the term for (generally unskilled) manual labourers at the bottom of the hierarchy, for example as factotum. During the 19th and early 20th century, an amanuensis was the job title for male secretaries who were employed by the railroad or ship to be available for travelers who required services en route.
The title is also used for officer positions in some collegiate debate societies, including the Philodemic Society of Georgetown University. The Amanuensis records the official proceedings of these societies.
A similar term, handlanger, is used in German and Afrikaans.
- Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. (2003)
- Eric Fenby (1936) Delius as I Knew Him, G. Bell & Sons, Ltd., London
- Nationalenkylopedin, online encyclopedia
- Amanuenssi, University of Jyväskylä
- Non-English language sources
- Bokmålsordboken (official Norwegian language dictionary)
- Pauly-Wissowa (Encyclopaedia on classical antiquity, in German)
- Larousse (General Encyclopaedia in French)
- English language sources
- Aland, Kurt (1961). "The Problem of Anonymity and Pseudonymity in Christian Literature of the First Two Centuries" 12. Journal of Theological Studies. pp. 39–49.
- Bahr, Gordon J. (1966). "Paul and Letter Writing in the First Century" 28. Catholic Biblical Quarterly. pp. 465–477.
- Bahr, Gordon J. (1968). "The Subscriptions in the Pauline Letters". Journal of Biblical Literature 2: 27–41. doi:10.2307/3263419.
- Bauckham, Richard J. (1988). "Pseudo-Apostolic Letters". Journal of Biblical Literature 107 (3): 469–494. doi:10.2307/3267581.
- Carson, D.A. (2000). "Pseudonymity and Pseudepigraphy". In Evans, Craig A.; Porter, Stanley E. Dictionary of New Testament Background. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press. pp. 857–864.
- Cousar, Charles B. (1996). "The Letters of Paul". Interpreting Biblical Texts. Nashville: Abingdon.
- Deissmann, G. Adolf. Bible Studies. Trans. Alexander Grieve. 1901. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1988.
- Doty, William G. Letters in Primitive Christianity. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. New Testament. Ed. Dan O. Via, Jr. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.
- Gamble, Harry Y. “Amanuensis.” Anchor Bible Dictionary. Vol. 1. Ed. David Noel Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
- Haines-Eitzen, Kim (1998). "'Girls Trained in Beautiful Writing': Female Scribes in Roman Antiquity and Early Christianity". Journal of Early Christian Studies 6 (4): 629–646. doi:10.1353/earl.1998.0071.
- Longenecker, Richard N. “Ancient Amanuenses and the Pauline Epistles.” New Dimensions in New Testament Study. Eds. Richard N. Longenecker and Merrill C. Tenney. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1974. 281–97. idem, “On the Form, Function, and Authority of the New Testament Letters.” Scripture and Truth. Eds. D.A. Carson and John D. Woodbridge. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983. 101–14.
- Murphy-O’Connor, Jerome. Paul the Letter-Writer: His World, His Options, His Skills. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical, 1995.
- Richards, E. Randolph. The Secretary in the Letters of Paul. Tübingen: Mohr, 1991. idem, “The Codex and the Early Collection of Paul’s Letters.” Bulletin for Biblical Research 8 (1998): 151–66. idem, Paul and First-Century Letter Writing: Secretaries, Composition, and Collection. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2004.
- Robson, E. Iliff (1917). "Composition and Dictation in New Testament Books". Journal of Theological Studies 18: 288–301.
- Stowers, Stanley K. Letter Writing in Greco-Roman Antiquity. Library of Early Christianity. Vol. 8. Ed. Wayne A. Meeks. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1989.
- Wall, Robert W. “Introduction to Epistolary Literature.” New Interpreter’s Bible. Vol. 10. Ed. Leander E. Keck. Nashville: Abingdon, 2002. 369–91.
- The dictionary definition of amanuensis at Wiktionary