Amarakosha

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The Amarakosha is a thesaurus of Sanskrit written by the ancient Indian scholar Amarasimha. The word "Amarkosha" (Sanskrit: अमरकोश, IAST: Amarakośa) derives from the Sanskrit words amara ("immortal") and kosha ("treasure, casket, pail, collection, dictionary"). It is also known as Namalinganushasana (Sanskrit: नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्, IAST: Nāmaliṅgānuśāsanam) from nama-linga-anu-shasana "instruction concerning nouns and gender".

Author[edit]

Main article: Amara Sinha

Amarasimha was one of the Navaratnas ("nine gems") at the court of Chandragupta II, a Gupta king who reigned around AD 400. Some sources indicate that he belonged to the period of Vikramaditya of 7th century.[1]

Textual organisation[edit]

The Amarakosha consists of verses that can be easily memorized. It is divided into three khāṇḍas or chapters. The first, svargādi-khāṇḍa ("heaven and others") has words pertaining to gods and heavens. The second, bhūvargādi-khāṇḍa ("earth and others") deals with words about earth, towns, animals and humans. The third, sāmānyādi-khāṇḍa ("common") has words related to grammar and other miscellaneous words.

Svargadhikanda, the first Kandam of Amarakosham begins with the verse 'Svaravyam swarganakathridivatrishalaya..' describing various names of Heaven viz. Sva, Avya, swarga, Naka, Tridiva, Tridasalaya etc. The second verse 'Amara, nirjara, deva,’ describes various words that are equivalent to word God. The fifth and sixth verses give various names of Gautama Buddha reinforcing the claim that the author is a Buddhist.

The second Kandam, Bhuvargadhikanda, of Amarakosham is divided into ten Vargas or parts. The ten Vargas are Bhuvarga (Earth), Puravarga (Towns or Cities), Shailavarga (Mountains), Vanoshadivarga (Forests and medicines), Simhadivarga (Lions and other animals), Manushyavarga (Mankind), Bramhavarga (Brahmin), Kshatriyavarga (Kshatriyas), Vysyavarga (Vysyas) and Sudravarga (Sudras).

The Third Kandam, Samanyadhikanda contains Adjectives, Verbs, words related to prayer and business etc. The first verse Kshemankaroristatathi Shivathathi Shivamkara gives the Nanarthas of the word Shubakara or propitious as Kshemankara, Aristathathi, Shivathathi and Shivamkara.

Commentaries[edit]

"Amarakoshodghaatana" by "Kshiirasvaamin",
"Tiikaasarvasvam" by "Vandhyaghatiiya Sarvaananda",
"Raamaasramii"(Vyaakhyaasudha) by "Bhaanuji Diikshita",
"Padachandrikaa" by "Raayamukuta"
"Kaashikavivaranapanjikha" by Jinendra Bhudhi
"paarameshwari by parameswaran moosad in malaylam

Translations[edit]

"Gunaratha" of Ujjain translated it to Chinese in 7th century .

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Amarakosha compiled by B.L.Rice, edited by N.Balasubramanya, 1970, page X