Amasya

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Amasya
Municipality
Amasya and Yeşilırmak River
Amasya and Yeşilırmak River
Amasya is located in Turkey
Amasya
Amasya
Coordinates: 40°39′00″N 35°49′59″E / 40.65000°N 35.83306°E / 40.65000; 35.83306Coordinates: 40°39′00″N 35°49′59″E / 40.65000°N 35.83306°E / 40.65000; 35.83306
Country Turkey
Province Amasya
Government
 • Mayor Cafer Özdemir (AKP)
Area[1]
 • District 1,729.69 km2 (667.84 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 91,874
 • District 133,133
 • District density 77/km2 (200/sq mi)
Website www.amasya.gov.tr

Amasya is a city in northern Turkey and is the provincial capital of Amasya Province.

The city of Amasya (Turkish pronunciation: [aˈmasja]), the Amaseia or Amasia of antiquity,[3] stands in the mountains above the Black Sea coast, set apart from the rest of Anatolia in a narrow valley along the banks of the Yeşilırmak River. Although near the Black Sea, this area is high above the coast and has an inland climate, well-suited to growing apples, for which Amasya province, one of the provinces in north-central Anatolia Turkey, is famed. It was the home of the geographer Strabo and the birthplace of the 15th century scholar and physician Amirdovlat Amasiatsi. Located in a narrow cleft of the Yesilirmak (Iris) river, it has a history of 7,500 years which has left many traces still evident today.

In antiquity, Amaseia (Greek: Αμάσεια) was a fortified city high on the cliffs above the river. It has a long history as a wealthy provincial capital, producing kings and princes, artists, scientists, poets and thinkers, from the kings of Pontus, through Strabo the geographer, to many generations of the Ottoman imperial dynasty. With its Ottoman-period wooden houses and the tombs of the Pontus kings carved into the cliffs overhead, Amasya is attractive to visitors. It is also the location of an important moment in the life of Ataturk when, in June 1919, he issued the Amasya Circular, declaring the independence of the country to be in danger.

In recent years there has been a lot of investment in tourism and more foreign and Turkish tourists visit the city. Traditional Ottoman houses near the Yeşilirmak and the other main historical buildings have been restored; these traditional Yalıboyu houses are now used as cafes, restaurants, pubs and hotels. Behind the Ottoman wooden houses one can see the Rock Tombs of the Pontic Kings.

Etymology[edit]

According to Strabo the Greek name Ἀμάσεια comes from Amasis, the queen of the Amazons, who were said to have lived here. The name has changed little throughout history: Ἀμάσεια, Amaseia, Amassia and Amasia are all found on ancient Greek and Roman coinage and continue to be used in modern Greek. Armenian: Ամասիա, Ottoman "أماصيا", and modern Turkish "Amasya" all represent the same pronunciation.

Population[edit]

In 2012, the permanent population of the city was 91,874. The birth rate of Amasya is low, so its population has been increasing slowly. The population varies seasonally, most people are here during the summer tourist season.

Downtown population
2012 91,874
2011 90,665
2010 99,900
2009 86,667
2008 82,200
2007 85,851
2000 75,393
1997 62,668
1990 57,288
1985 53.431
1980 48,066
1975 41,496
1970 36,646
1965 34,168
1960 28,525
1955 -
1950 14,470
1945 -
1940 -
1935 11,981
1927 -
Y & G

Settlements in the district[edit]

Townships[edit]

Villages[edit]

Geography[edit]

Situated between the Black Sea and inner Anatolia in a region of fertile plains irrigated by the Tersakan, Çekerek and Yeşilırmak rivers, Amasya lies in a beautiful narrow river valley, bounded by almost vertical cliffs and the high peaks of the Canik and Pontus mountains. Despite the mountainous location, it is not far above sea level. This makes its climate more temperate.

Five bridges cross the river, and most of the town lies on the southern bank, spread along the river. The climb up to the higher ground is very steep, making the valley walls virtually uninhabitable. The town is shaped like the letter 'v' as it follows a sharp bend in the river.

Climate[edit]

Amasya has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) with moderately cold, rainy winters. Also, Amasya is warmer than central Anatolia, and its weather is not as cold in winter months. It is a kind of transition climate between the Black Sea climate and the Continental Mediterranean climate. However, this narrow valley causes Amasya to have a temperate climate. This effect is due to the Yeşilirmak river that moderates its climate.

Climate data for Amasya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.3
(70.3)
24.8
(76.6)
31.2
(88.2)
35.8
(96.4)
37.5
(99.5)
41.8
(107.2)
45.0
(113)
42.2
(108)
40.3
(104.5)
36.0
(96.8)
29.7
(85.5)
22.9
(73.2)
45
(113)
Average high °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
9.3
(48.7)
14.3
(57.7)
20.1
(68.2)
24.8
(76.6)
28.6
(83.5)
31.0
(87.8)
31.4
(88.5)
27.7
(81.9)
21.6
(70.9)
14.1
(57.4)
8.6
(47.5)
19.86
(67.74)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
4.4
(39.9)
8.4
(47.1)
13.5
(56.3)
17.9
(64.2)
21.6
(70.9)
24.1
(75.4)
23.9
(75)
20.0
(68)
14.6
(58.3)
8.6
(47.5)
4.6
(40.3)
13.68
(56.63)
Average low °C (°F) −1.1
(30)
−0.2
(31.6)
2.6
(36.7)
6.9
(44.4)
10.5
(50.9)
14.0
(57.2)
16.3
(61.3)
16.3
(61.3)
12.7
(54.9)
8.4
(47.1)
3.4
(38.1)
0.9
(33.6)
7.56
(45.59)
Record low °C (°F) −21.0
(−5.8)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−15.3
(4.5)
−5.1
(22.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
4.8
(40.6)
8.5
(47.3)
8.8
(47.8)
3.0
(37.4)
−2.7
(27.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−12.7
(9.1)
−21
(−5.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 45.4
(1.787)
35.3
(1.39)
43.2
(1.701)
59.3
(2.335)
51.1
(2.012)
37.6
(1.48)
17.5
(0.689)
10.8
(0.425)
21.4
(0.843)
40.0
(1.575)
47.1
(1.854)
53.9
(2.122)
462.6
(18.213)
Avg. rainy days 11.9 10.9 12.3 13.3 12.5 8.6 4.2 3.3 5.2 8.2 9.7 12.1 112.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 65.1 86.8 142.6 174 232.5 273 303.8 291.4 231 155 96 58.9 2,110.1
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [4]

History[edit]

Ottoman-era houses (foreground) and ancient Pontic tomb (background, left) in Amasya

Antiquity[edit]

Archaeological research shows that Amasya was first settled by the Hittites and subsequently by Phrygians, Cimmerians, Lydians, Persians, and Armenians.

Hellenistic period[edit]

By 183 BC, the city was settled by Hellenistic people, eventually becoming the capital of the kings of Pontus from 333 BC to 26 BC. Today, there are prominent ruins including the royal tombs of Pontus in the rocks above the riverbank in the centre of the city. Ancient district in northeastern Anatolia adjoining the Black Sea. In the 1st century BC, it briefly contested Rome's hegemony in Anatolia. An independent Pontic kingdom with its capital at Amaseia was established at the end of the 4th century BC in the wake of Alexander's conquests. Superficially Hellenized, the kingdom retained its Persian social structure, with temple priests and Persianized feudal nobles ruling over a heterogeneous village population.

Roman-Byzantine period[edit]

Amaseia was captured by the Roman Lucullus in 70 BC from Armenia and was quickly made a free city and administrative center of his new province of Bithynia and Pontus by Pompey. By this time, Amaseia was a thriving city, the home of thinkers, writers and poets, and one of them, Strabo, left a full description of Amaseia as it was between 60 BC and 19 AD. Around 2 or 3 BC, it was incorporated into the Roman province of Galatia, in the district of Pontus Galaticus. Around the year 112, the emperor Trajan designated it a part of the province of Cappadocia.[5][6] Later in the 2nd century it gained the titles 'metropolis' and 'first city'. After the division of the Roman Empire by emperor Diocletian the city became part of the East Roman Empire (the Byzantine Empire). At this time it had a predominantly Greek-speaking population.

Early Turkish rulers[edit]

In 1075 following 700 years of Byzantine rule Amasya was conquered by the Turkmen Danishmend emirs. It became their capital until it was annexed by the Seljuk ruler Kiliç Arslan II. Under the Seljuks and the Ilkhan, the city became a centre of Islamic culture. Schools, mosques, tombs and other architecture of this period still remain.

Ottoman era[edit]

Amasya during the Ottoman Empire

After being incorporated into the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Bayezid I, Amasya grew in importance as a centre of learning, the children of the Ottoman rulers being sent here for their education.[7] As part of their preparation for future rule they were given the position and responsibility of governor of Amasya. Future sultans from Beyazid I in the late 14th century through to Murat III in the 16th were schooled here and held the position of governor in their youth.

Between 1530 to 1545, several travelers documented a blood libel against some of the town Jews.[8] After the disappearance of a local Christian, several Jews living in town were blamed for killing him for ritual reasons. The Jews submitted the charges under torture and hanged. Upon the return of the allegedly dead Christian, Suleiman the magnificent ordered that all accusations regarding religious rituals should be judged under "royal" and not local court.[8]

The population of Amasya at this time was very different from that of most other cities in the Ottoman Empire, as it was part of their training for the future sultans to learn about every nation of the Empire. Every millet of the Empire was represented in Amasya in a particular village—such as a pontic village, an Armenian village, a Bosnian village, a Tatar village, a Turkish village etc. (see: 1927 Population count data by DİE.)

World War I and the Turkish War of Independence[edit]

In 1919 Amasya was the location of the final planning meetings held by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk for the building of a Turkish army to establish the Turkish republic following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War. It was here that Mustafa Kemal made the announcement of the Turkish War of Independence in the Amasya Circular. This circular is considered as the first written document putting the Turkish War of Independence in motion. The circular, distributed across Anatolia, declared Turkey's independence and integrity to be in danger and called for a national conference to be held in Sivas (Sivas Congress) and before that, for a preparatory congress comprising representatives from the eastern provinces of Anatolia to be held in Erzurum in July (Erzurum Congress).

During the years of World War I and the Turkish War of Independence, the Christian inhabitants of Amasya (Armenian and Greek) suffered from atrocities. Many Armenian civilians fleeing the massacres sought refuge at the American missionary school Anatolia College, located in Merzifon outside Amasya. In 1921, Turkish troops closed down the school, and the local population relocated to Thessaloniki after the population exchange between Greece and Turkey.[9]

Ecclesiastical history[edit]

Amasea became the seat of a Christian bishop and archbishop in Roman times; there is a list of bishops from the 3rd century.[10] The bishopric eventually lapsed, probably, like so many others, after the Turkish conquest of Anatolia. In 1623 the papal diplomat Giovanni Battista Agucchi was appointed Bishop of Amasea, and in 1687 the title of Archbishop of Amasea was conferred as a titular distinction on Ferdinando d'Adda, the papal representative to King James II of England. The Catholic titular bishopric has been conferred a dozen times since.[11] Not being a residential diocese, Amasea is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[12][13][14][15][16][17]

Amasya today[edit]

The province of Amasya is known for producing high-quality, small, well-flavoured apples. The Amasya-Tokat region the main area of production. The city is not so developed industrial terms, but is attractive and well-preserved, especially when sitting by the river, which has a particular mystique on a winter evening when fog fılls the valley. Tourists (and soldiers from the local base) contribute valuable income to the shopkeepers. The railway line from Sivas to Samsun runs through Amasya, and there is an attractive Ottoman-era railway station.

The city of Amasya has some nightlife, mainly bars and cafes for visitors, and some basic restaurants. It is not a very conservative city, unlike other central and eastern Anatolian cities. Social life in this city, partly owing to tourism, becomes more animated especially during the summer period. Many international circus groups visit this city. June 12 is a festival date for Amasya during this time, with many cultural and sporting activities on offer.

The local cuisine includes the local specialty toyga çorbası, a soup containing yoghurt, drunk hot or cold. Other delights include pastries with poppy seeds and tea by the riverbank.

There is an airport in the district of Amasya. It opened in 2008 for civilian air flights; before that it was used only for military purposes. There are daily flights one-hour from/to Istanbul. It is easy to reach to Amasya for domestic and international tourists.

Tourism[edit]

In 2011, a half million foreign and domestic tourist visited Amasya. It indicated us tourism is developing as an industry, until end of 2012, visitors of the city was nearly 600.000. However, the only foreign visitors of the city increased more than 100 percent according to previous year, In 2011, the city of Amasya was visited by 11.000 foreign visitors. Until September 2012, it reached to 22.000 foreign tourists. In 2013, 750.000 foreign and domestic tourists visited the city. For the 2014, 1 million tourists are expected. The main nations which visited the city mostly from the Germans and from the East Asian nations such as Japan and S. Korea. In related with that many hotels, especially butique hotels are opening to serve. Mostly the traditional Ottoman wooden houses was restored and now they are using as butique hotels, cafes, bars.

The ruins of the citadel on the rock face of the cleft shelters 2000 year old water-channels, 1000 year old bridges, a mental hospital, an OttomanPontus kings, which contribute very much to the attractiveness of the city. At night, when they are illuminated, the view is unforgettable. Palace and a secret underground passageway. On the rock faces there are impressive rock tombs. The city also has many historically and architecturally precious buildings; the Ferhat water channel, the 13th century Seljuk Burmali Mosque, the 15th century Yildirim Beyazit Mosque and Complex; the 14th century Ilhanli Bimarhane Mental Hospital with lovely relieves around its portal, the extraordinary octagonal Kapi Aga Medrese (theological school), the Torumtay Mausoleum and the Gök Medrese. There are traditional Turkish mansions which have been well-preserved showing the best examples of Turkish architecture. The 19th century Hazeranlar Mansion has been restored perfectly and now it is of great interest with an art gallery on its first floor and an ethnographical museum on the second. The Archaeological Museum of Amasya has an interesting collection including the mummies of the Ilhanli rulers of Amasya.

Tombs of the kings of Pontus
  • On the rock of Harşena above the town is the terraced site of the royal palace and the tombs of the kings of Pontus (illuminated at night) which, although not kept in the best condition, are an impressive sight from the town. There are 5 unit tombs placed at slope of Amasya Castle that all are engraved on the lime stone rocks which rocks extended like a straight wall With the construction and location properties they take attention at the first sight Their surroundings engraved till they completely separated from the main rock, than they reunite to the main rock with stairs There are some ones large and some ones small totally 18 rock tomb units present The famous geographer Strabon (BC 63 - AC 5) whom born at Amasya, delivers an information that Rock tombs was belonged to Pontus Kings.
  • AynalıCave (Rock Tomb) is approximately three kilometres away from city centre, and on the way of Ziyaret district which way separated to the right from surrounding high way towards Samsun It is the best- decorated and completed tomb among other King Rock Tombs. At the vault section there are six pictures on each right and left walls, which figure out 12 disciple And there are some figures that include men and women on the west and east walls, although there is a composition figure contains the Jesus, the Virgin Mary and Disciple on east wall.
  • Harsene Kalesi – A fortification, mentioned by Strabo and largely rebuilt in medieval times also lies in ruins on a rocky outcrop above the town. And in the district of Nerkis lies some remainsN of another castle, Enderun Kalesi. It is placed on precious rocks named Harşane mountain at the west of Yeşilırmak river and city centre There are 4 main gates in castle, which are named Belkıs, Saray (palace), Maydonos and Meydan (Puublic Square), there is an water well named Cilanbolu in castle too, moreover water hole and dungeon present in castle A laddered under ground way from the castle that reach to 70 meter below river towards the kings tombs dated to 3rd century BC.
  • The town itself has many historically and architecturally valuable buildings, including the Ferhat aqueduct, the 13th century Seljuk Burmali Mosque, the 14th century Ilkhan Bimarhane Mental Hospital with lovely reliefs around its portal, the tomb of 15th century scholar Pir Ilyas and the 15th-century mosque of Yildirim Beyazit. Unfortunately, Amasya is vulnerable to earthquakes which have damaged many monuments (most recently in 1939).
  • There are a number of well-preserved traditional Ottoman Turkish mansions, some of the best examples of Turkish domestic architecture. The 19th century Hazeranlar Konağı has been carefully restored and includes a small art gallery and ethnographical museum. Other wooden houses are being restored as hotels and guest houses. Hazeranlar Mansion Hazeranlar mansion is the most beautiful mansion at Yalı boyu (across the waterside residence) houses series Mansion is one of the most elegant civil architecture samples of Ottoman period Mansion built by Defterdar Hasan Talat Efendi for the name of his sister Hazeran Hanım at the year of 1872.
  • The Archaeological Museum of Amasya has a large and interesting collection, of artefacts from many eras of antiquity, including the mummies of the Ilkhanli rulers of Amasya.
  • Saraydüzü Casern, this building reconstructed in 2009 and opened. The importance of Saraydüzü Casern is that, Amasya Circular(genelge) was signed in that historical building in 12 June 1919. Atatürk wrote here about Amasya Circular. Building was destroyed. Today, Saraydüzü Casern is war of liberation museum and using for conferences, meetings, speeches etc. Basically, it is used as a congress center.
  • A number of tombs of Muslim saints, yatır, said to emanate healing powers. The sick and dying come to breathe the air and drink the waters of nearby springs.
  • FerhatWaterCanal canal was built at the Hellenistic Period to fulfil city's water necessity, it has approximately 75 width and 18 kilometers long It was built with processes of digging canals based on the balance system, carving some tunnels and bounding brick walls at some places.
  • Sultan Bayezıt II Kulliye (Center): Kulliye constructed in the name of Sultan Bayezit II in 1485 - 86; is composed of mosque, theology school, charitable establishment, monument and şadırvan (water tank with a fountain). It is the advanced final sample of the mosque with side place (L planned) architecture, constructed during the last quarter of the 15th century. There are two minarets of the mosque There are theology school at west and charitable establishment and guest - house at east Old plane trees at the level of both minarets, are estimated to be as old as kulliye.
  • Lake Borabay (65 km northeast of Amasya in the district of Taşova) is a crater lake with an impressive view and fresh air. It is a perfect area for fishing (especially trout), picnicking and sports.
  • Other excursion sites from Amasya include Yedikir reservoir and Omarca National Park.
  • Terziköy thermal spring is one of the most important springs of the province Gözlek thermal spring, Hamamözü (Arkut Bey) thermal spring and Ilısu thermal spring are the other thermal springs of Amasya.
  • Amasya was also one of the Turkish cities which had the best viewing location for the last total solar eclipse of the 20th century which happened on 11 August 1999. Many visitors came to the city to witness this spectacular event. On 29 March 2006, another total solar eclipse was seen in this city at 14:06pm local time.

The legend of Ferhat and Shirin[edit]

In its Turkish version, this classic tale of oriental folklore is held to have taken place in Amasya. The nearby mountain Ferhat is named for Farhad (Turkish spelling Ferhat), the hero of the legend, who for love of the princess Shirin (Turkish spelling Şirin) tried to win her father's favour and permission by tunnelling through the mountain to bring spring water to his palace. Sadly, while he was working he was sent the false information that Shirin had died; upon which he threw himself onto the rocks in his grief. And his beloved princess died soon after. The story has since become a play by Nazim Hikmet, a novel by Talip Apaydın, and an opera by Arif Melikov.

Economy[edit]

Region's valley structure and this valley structure provide a temperate climate for many fruits growing. City has many agricultural production. Other economic activities in the region include mining, textiles and cement manufacture. Most part of the city's economy comes from agriculture and agricultural products likewise, greenstuffes and fruit production are also important incomes for the Amasya's economy. Villages have economically concentrated relations with districts of Amasya. In recent years, electrical machine production and household tools (ankastre, kitchen tools, exhauster, paddle box), algiculture and woodcraft machines, textile and food industry was developed in the Merzifon district of Amasya. These developments made better city's economy, but still Amasya is not important trade center within the country.

Agricultural products of the city mostly consist of those products, apple, cherry, okra, onion, poppy seeds, lentel, bean and peach. In additionally, agro-based industries have an important place for the local economy. Sucrose, dairy products, egg, sunflower oil, provender, flour, yeast are major agro-based industries in Amasya; the industrial products are relatively limited. The most major industries are lime, brick, marble, ankanstre kitchen tools, furniture, lignite coal, metal and plastic industrial products. These products trades domestically and are exported: Marble exporting is considerable for the city's economy. Amasya is the second city in the country in marble exporting. In addition to that, Amasya is under the average of the country which is working in the industry employment.

Amasya University was founded in 2006 (before it associated to Samsun University 19 May). It help the city economically development positively.

Amasya is a city on the road of the Europe and Iran international way and it connects Samsun port to the interior regions of the country. Samsun-Sivas railway line passing through downtown of Amasya. Amasya-Merzifon airport opened up in 2008. In related with that, cultural tourism achieved considerable place. Amasya is the starting point of the Black Sea tours within the country. Cappadocia tours also cover the city of Amasya. Cultural and Tourism Ministry determined 15 cities which is the trademark cities around the country includes Amasya. These developments also influence economy of the city positively because tourism triggers to other sectors but still the city of Amasya is not where it wants.[citation needed]

Cuisine[edit]

Having served many civilizations as the capital city, and the future sultans of the Ottomans as an academy, Amasya, also known as the City of the Shahzadah, has developed a 'regal' cuisine with characteristic taste, looks and quality. An example of the local food is Keşkek, which has always been one of the most popular dishes of the region. Dolması (broad bean rolls) is another delicious dish, an exquisite combination of beans with meat.

Cream cakes were another indispensable item in the former palace menu. Bread include cherry bread, and stale bread is used to make a dessert called Unutma Beni (which means 'Don't forget me').

Amasya University[edit]

Amasya University was established on 17 March 2006. The history of the university goes back to 1974, when a teacher training institution was established in Amasya by the Ministry of Education. In 1975, the Ministry of Education also founded a vocational school in Amasya.

In 1982 when the Higher Education Council was established, these two schools became units of Ondokuz Mayıs University in Samsun. In the 2011-2012 academic year, Amasya University educated students through five faculties, including Education, Sciences & Arts, Architecture, Technology and Medical; one health vocational school; five vocational schools (Amasya, Merzifon, Taşova, Suluova and Gümüşhacıköy); and two institutes (Sciences and Social Sciences).

Amasya University has limited international agreements compared to other universities. Number of agreements and international programmes have been increasing rapidly. The university has some international exchange programs such as Erasmus, Grundtvig, Leonardo and Comenius. Each year limited number of students go/come from/to foreign universities by these programmes. In additionally, Farabi programme is popular for the exchange of students domestically.

Faculties[edit]

  • Faculty of Education
  • Faculty of Science and Literature
  • Faculty of Technology
  • Faculty of Architecture
  • Faculty of Medicine (cooperation with Samsun Ondokuz Mayıs University)
  • Faculty of Economy and Management (not active yet)

Institutes[edit]

  • Scientific Sciences Institute
  • Social Sciences Institute

Junior College[edit]

  • College of Health

Junior Technical College[edit]

  • Amasya Junior Technical College
  • Merzifon Junior Technical College
  • Suluova Junior Technical College
  • Gumushacikoy Junior Technical College
  • Tasova Junior Technical College

Central Research Laboratory[edit]

It works depending on the university in the Campus of Ipekkoy.

Notable natives[edit]

Twin Cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ "Amasya" in The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 313.
  4. ^ İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü. Dmi.gov.tr. Retrieved on 2011-04-16.
  5. ^ Strabo Geographica, (12.561).
  6. ^ Mitchell, Stephen (1996), "Amaseia", in Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Anthony, Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-521693-6 
  7. ^ History of Amasya
  8. ^ a b http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1367-amasia-amasieh
  9. ^ Carl C. Compton (2008), The Morning Cometh: 45 Years with Anatolia College, pp. 88-98.
  10. ^ Lequien, Oriens Christianus (1740), I, 521–532
  11. ^ Amasea (Titular See). [Catholic-Hierarchy] (2011-04-09). Retrieved on 2011-04-16.
  12. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 821
  13. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 442
  14. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, vol. I, coll. 521-532
  15. ^ Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 4, p. 80; vol. 5, p. 80; vol. 6, p. 79; vol. 7, p. 69; vol. 8, p. 92
  16. ^ Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, pp. 529–641
  17. ^ Siméon Vailhé, v. Amasea, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, coll. 964-970

External links[edit]