||This article may require copy editing for style and grammar. (April 2014)|
|• City||1,983 km2 (766 sq mi)|
|Elevation||623 m (2,044 ft)|
|• Density||110/km2 (280/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi, Chhattisgarhi|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||CG 15 or MP 27|
Ambikapur is a city in the Surguja district of the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. It is the district headquarters of Surguja, one of the oldest districts of Chhattisgarh. On 15 August 2011, two more districts, Surajpur and Balrampur were created out of Surguja district by the state Chief Minister Dr. Raman Singh, along with eight other new districts. It is also the divisional headquarters of Surguja Division which consists of the five districts of Surguja, Korea, Balrampur, Surajpur and Jashpur. It was the capital of the Princely state of Surguja before Indian Independence. The name of the city is derived from the goddess Ambika (Mahamaya) Devi, who is the central figure of worship of the area.
Ambikapur is located at  It has an average elevation of 623 metres (2078 feet)..
The district of Surguja is spread over an area of 22,237 km², and is rich in forests. Most of the terrain of the district is forested and hilly. A major tourist area near Ambikapur is Mainpat. Mainpat is called as Hill station of Surguja, and it is a charming hill station situated in the Surguja District of Chhattisgarh. Major tourist attractions include the Tiger Point Waterfall and a Buddha Temple, Ramgarh in Surajpur District, Kudargarh in Surajpur District, Patal Bhairav Mandir, Bhaiyathan in Surajpur District, Dipadih (Ancient Sculptors), Rakasganda, Sitabengara, Tattapani (hot spring) and Semarsot.
|Climate data for Ambikapur|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.5
|Average low °C (°F)||8.7
|Rainfall mm (inches)||22.8
|Avg. rainy days||3.1||3.7||3.4||2.8||3.3||13.4||23.3||22.5||15.4||5.3||1.0||1.2||98.4|
|Source: World Meteorological Organization|
The land has been classified into 6 categories. About 41.67% of the total area is actually developed to agriculture, while about 5.70% remains under fallow lands. Again, about 11.44% of the land may be brought under cultivation by improving the techniques and reclamation of the marginal area. About 1.27% is barren and uncultivable while 33.09% is in the form of forest, 6.83% land is developed to building, roads, etc. It is quite obvious that the land has been not brought under plough, because 11.44% of the total land can be brought under cultivation by reclamation. A big quantity of land fallow and other uncultivable which can be brought under cultivation using varies methods and technology for land reclamation.
If we analyse the land, which is although not used in cultivation, that land may brought under cultivation by improving the techniques and reclamation of the marginal area. This figure is maximum in Ambikapur tahsil (28.03).
Distribution of cultivated land
The distribution of the cultivated land bring forth the pattern and intensity of the land resources utilisation, which is the outcome of early start of agriculture practice, dependency and the extent of pressure population combined with the physical factors. The areas of high concentration of cultivated and generally, are those where people have settled earlier and started agricultural practices for getting their food and as the population went on increasing the extension of cultivated land also took place as long as the physical condition such as soil, surface topography and water etc. permitted.
The distribution of cultivated land over entire area varies from 14.5%(Odgi) to 74.51%(Ambikapur). The high values are distributed in a sporadic way . Actually there are three pockets of relatively high category.
i.Including Ambikapur block, where 74.51% of total geographical area is devoted under ii.Including entire Sitapur block with concentration figure 69%. This group also includes Batoli block where 67.50%of total geographical area is devoted to agriculture
The soil of the Surguja District can be broadly classified in four major classes: Red and yellow soils, Alluvial soils, Laterite soils, and Medium blue soils.
- Red and yellow soils:
This soil derived from the parent rocks of Gondwana System including sedimentary rocks. In-situ and form the decomposition of such rocks worked by rain. This soil comprises particularly in the east Sitapur, south Ambikapur and central Surajpur, Pratappur blocks.
Red color is due to wide diffusion of iron. Hydration of ferric oxide results yellow color of soil. This soil is of lighter in texture, porous and friable structure. Soluble salt is found in little quantity. Lime, kankar and free kankar are totally absent. These soils are poor in potash, nitrogen, humus and carbonate and differ greatly in consistency, color, depth and fertility. On the uplands they are thin and gravelly, sandy, porous and light coloured.
- Alluvial soils:
Such soils are found in the river sides and are generally transported soil with alternative layers of sand and silt. These soils contain adequate amounts of potash and limes but are deficient in nitrogen, phosphoric acid and humus. East Ramanujganj, North Ambikapur, Surajpur are areas of alluvial soil in their river vicinity i.e. the Rihand, the Kanhar, the Hasdo and their major tributaries. There is no uniformity in color every where but its color varies from yellow to grey.
- Laterite soils:
It is the end product of decomposition found in region of heavy rainfall which promotes leaching of soil whereby lime and silica are leached away and a soil rich I oxide s of iron and aluminium composed is justify behind. Owing to the presence of iron oxides they are generally red in color and poor in nitrogen, potash, potassium and organic matter.These soils are well developed on the summits of the pat regions of samri and sitapur tehsil including Shankargargh, Kusmi, Sitapur, Batoli and Mainpat blocks of Mainpat, Jamirapat, Lahsunpat and Jonkpat.
On the basis of color laterite soil can be divided as
- Dark red laterite
- White laterite
- Black soils:
The origin of this soil is ascribed to basaltic and trap rocks, from where the materials brought down from interior covered by these rocks. These soils are found in West Ramunjganj, Central Pratappur and East Kusmi blocks. Medium blue soils consists of deep medium blue, medium mediumblue, shadow medium blue and medium blue soils undifferentiated etc.
These soils are highly retentive of moisture and extremely compact and tenacious when wet. They are rich in iron, lime, calcium, magnesium carbonates and alumina, but are poor in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter. This soil claims fine texture with color. Because of retentively of moisture, fines and chemical matters these soils are endowed with inexhaustible fertility.
About 58% of the area in the district lies under forests. The total geographical area being 18,188.44 km2. and the forest occupy 10,849.079 km2. The flora of Nazzul and other areas are changing frequently with the human activities and land-use. Climate, soil and biotic factors are the functions of natural vegetation. Out of these three climate factor which includes rainfall, temperature and their combination along with seasonal variations too. Adequate moisture results luxuriant growth of forests big and small tree, shrubs, climbers, parasite etc. in height density variety of species and rate of growth.
In Surguja rainfall varies between 100–200 cms, mean annual temperature 260C-270C and humidity 60–80% resulting monsoon deciduous forests. The tree of such forests shed their leaves during spring and early summer when the storage of water is more acute. Reduction of sub-soil water table not enough to allow the trees to keep their leaves all the year around. These forests are the most important forests, yielding commercial timber and various other forest products of high value.
Minerals belts of surguja :
- Upper catchments of river or Sitapur-Samri belt : This belt is associated with eastern and south eastern part of the district. It abound Bauxite and some amount of Coal.
- Central-North Surguja (Wadrafnagar-Pal –Pratappur-Surajpur-Ambikapur) belt: The reserve of coal, Pyritic minerals, Sulpher, mica Berylluiim, Byrites, Copper, Galena are reported. Bishrampur, Bhatgaon, Tatapani, Ramkola, Lakhanpur and Basen are main coal fields. Some Fire-clay, Mica, Coal, Galena, silmenite are also reported in Wadrafnagar on U.P. border.
Bauxite : In Surguja Bauxite deposit have been found in tertiary rocks. Due to decay and weathering of aluminium rich rocks, Felspar usually kaoliniesd under tropical monsoonal condition, the weathering goes a step further and result in a residum rich in hydroxides of aluminium together with oxides of iron, manganese and titanium sufficient contraction of aluminium hydroxides, economic deposits of bauxite originates. This process of 'Bauxitisation' as it is called thrives well on a topographically elevated well drained plateaus of low relief. The recoverable reserves of bauxite in Surguja is 57.54 million tones, which is around 57% of total state reserve.
Out of 57.74 million tones, 42.21 million tones are under proved category, 13.56 million tones under probable category and remaining 1.76 million tones under are possible category. About 51 million tones of the total reserves are of metallurgical grade and the grade particular of 6 million tones are not known.
The economical deposits are located at entire pat (local name given to plateau or pleatux) region of eastern and south eastern Surguja including Mainpat,Samari and Jamirapat.
- Mainpat :Bauxite is of good and thickness varies from 4–5 meters.
- Jamirapat & Samripat
Bauxite deposits of these areas are metallurgical grade I. These two major reserves are centred in Samri tahsil and adjacent plateaus – Jamripat, Jaranpat, Lahsunpat, Jonkapat and other small hill rocks.
Coal: Most of the coal in the Gondwana is found in barakar series. Coal as a solid stratified rock composed mainly of hydro carban and capable of being used as a fuel to supply heat or light or both. The coal fields of Surguja belongs to Gondwana coal fields. The coal of this area is of good quality stream and gas coals. The coal fields of Surguja can be classified as:-
- Middle Gondwana Coal Fields: Tatapani-Ramkola, Jhilmili and Sonhat
- Talchir Coal Fields: Bisrampur, Bansar, Lakhanpur, Panchbhaini and Damha-munda.
- Mahanadi Valley: Hasdo-Rampur.
About 90% of the working population is depended on agriculture, in which 50.36% of working population are of cultivated and about 12.77% of the region are agriculture labourer. Agriculture is directly connected with land and water resources. In Surguja the percentage concentration of cultivated land is maximum in central zone of the district stretching east to west direction. North and south of this one the percentage of concentration decreases, because of several factors, out of them here are two major factors.
The uplands and high lands are mostly covered with rocky wastelands, infertile soil, woods and scrubs, sloppy and forested area. i.Unavailability of water for irrigation over most of area, improper drainage difficulty in digging wells due to rocky basement, undeveloped means of communication, transportation have restricted the extension of cultivated land.
On the other hand, the central surguja is relatively levelled, has got fertile soils and some water is available for irrigation in various ways and means of communication is developed . Double Cropped Area: Double cropped area is generally associated with water supply, natural or artificial and the pressure of population. Wherever the physical condition permits and the pressure more over the land, two crops are raised in a year from the same field. As result, a particular pattern of use of land resources emerges, which helps in the delineation of planning regions on the basis of present available resources and the limit of their utilisation. Of course there is no uniformity in the distribution of double cropped area, but the study of its distribution will be of use in the need as well as the resources. Thus most of the concentration is to be found in two patches: i. Ramanujnagar block ii. Ambikapur & Central North-East of Lundra, Rajpur, Shankargarh, Wadragnagar and Pratappur blocks. Almost whole of the central plain has got medium to relatively high value, with few exception due to local condition. In this part during summer most of the area remains uncultivated. Only in Ambiakpur block here is some concentration of double cropped area due to irrigation facilities. The per capita land is declining due to the increasing in rural population which can be fed by increasing the per acre output through bringing more and more cultivated land under double cropped system, by extending irrigation facilities, using better fertilizers and better culture. Pattern of Crop Distribution : The assessment of physical condition for different crops helps in arranging them so as to derive the optimum return of it, which may be done through the study of their distribution along with the average production. The production of land provided to different crops depends upon physically suitability of soil and availability of water etc. Not only this the local needs is also important in this connection. Roughly 41.67% out of the total geographical area is under cultivation.
As of the[update] 2011 census, Ambikapur municipal corporation had a population of 214,575 and the urban agglomeration had a population of 243,173. The municipality had a sex ratio of 920 females per 1,000 males and 11.3% of the population were under six years old. Effective literacy was 88.20%; male literacy was 92.73% and female literacy was 83.29%.
Ambikapur is inhabited by people from all over the country. Moderate weather and a serene[peacock term] environment make it an ideal place for settlement. Unlike the capital town, major district population comprises aboriginal population. Among these indigenous tribes are the Pandos and Korwas, who are still living in rural areas.
The place has a large number of migrant Tibetans, who took refuge in India after the Chinese annexation of Tibet in 1959.
Ambikapur is connected with Anuppur railway junction, a bordering town in Madhya Pradesh, by broad gauge railway track. Trains originating at Ambikapur run to Anuppur, Katni, Satna, Jabalpur, Durg, Bhopal and the state capital Raipur. More trains (such as a train to New Delhi) can be reached at Anuppur railway junction.
Jabalpur - Ambikapur Express, Ambikapur – Shahdol, Ambikapur – Surajpur – Anuppur – Bilaspur – Raipur – Durg Express and Bhopal – Chirmiri Passenger run from major cities Bhopal, Gwalior, Katni, Raipur and Jabalpur. Shahdol-Ambikapur passenger leaves Anuppur station at 14:00 hrs and reaches Ambikapur at 19:00 hrs. One can enjoy the scenic beauty along the way especially in winters and monsoon. Ambikapur - Durg Express or Ambikapur-Anuppur-Uslapur-Raipur-Bhilai-Durg Passenger-cum-Express is another train that departs Ambikapur station at 21:15 hrs and reaches Durg at 9:20 hrs.
Ambikapur is well connected by road to other major cities of Chhattisgarh such as Raipur, Bilaspur, Durg, Bhilai, Korba and Raigarh. Daily bus services also run for Varanasi, Renukoot in U.P (170 km), Raipur (345 km) and Gadhwa road in Jharkhand (160 km). Bus services from Anuppur to Ambikapur operate via Manendragarh and Surajpur. The bus journeys from Bilaspur and Anuppur take around 5 to 6 hours.
Surguja University, Ambikapur established on 2 September 2008 has following departments: Department of Farm-Forestry Department of Pharmacy Institute of Engineering Department of Hindi Department of History Department of Commerce Establishment of a Medical College from Session 2014 is also proposed. The town has a Post Graduation College, a Women's College, an agriculture college,a Government Engineering college, a Polytechnic college and several public schools along with some private colleges. IT education institutes are also established here. Recently[when?] a Sainik school (23rd in India) was started in Ambikapur.
Holy Cross Women College is the largest[peacock term] residential academic institute in Chhattisgarh. Ambikapur's PG college is also one of the largest[peacock term] in country in terms of number of students studying.
DPS, Carmel Convent, Oriental Public School, Saraswati Vidyalaya are the other schools in Ambikapur.
- Pt. Rewati Raman Mishra Marg
- Deviganj Road
- Kharsia Naka
- Shivdhari colony
- Sadar road
- Gudari Bazar
- Deviganj Road
- Bramha Road
- Dutta Colony
- Rawat Residency
- Vasundhara Colony
- Rajendra Nagar Colony
- Chopra Colony
- B.T.I. colony
- Namna kala
- Thangan Para
- School Road
- Parradand or Mominpura
- Ramanujganj Naka
- Kundala City
- Patel Para
- "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (pdf). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
- "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (pdf). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
- Palace of Surguja Princely State Ambikapur, India
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Ambikapur
- World Weather Information Service-Ambikapur, World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 30 September 2012.