Ambrones

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The migrations of the Teutons and the Cimbri.
Battle icon gladii red.svg Cimbri, Ambrone and Teuton defeats.
Battle icon gladii green.svg Cimbri, Ambrone and Teuton victories.

The Ambrones (Ancient Greek: Ἄμβρωνες) were an ancient tribe from Jutland[1] that appeared briefly in the Roman sources relating to the 2nd century BC.[2] In the late 2nd century BC, along with the fellow Germanic Cimbri and Teutons, the Ambrones migrated from their original homes in southern Scandinavia and on the Jutland peninsula of Denmark and invaded the Roman Republic, winning a spectacular victory at the Battle of Arausio in 105 BC. The Ambrones and the Teutons, led by Teutobod, were eventually defeated at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC.[3] Some of the surviving captives are reported to have been among the rebelling Gladiators in the Third Servile War.[4]

History[edit]

The three neighbors began their career in Roman history as an alliance determined to emigrate to the lands of the south. A Roman source reports that "The Cimbri, Teutones and Tigurini, fugitives from the extreme parts of Gaul, since the Ocean had inundated their territories, began to seek new settlement throughout the world."[3] The Zuider Zee region was suffering from catastrophic salt-water flooding; this section of seacoast had been barely above sea level during the BCE period of human history, but was now in the process of sinking below it.

The Ambrones were part of the fleeing multitude. Plutarch gives the numbers advancing on Italy as 300,000 armed fighting men, and much larger hordes of women and children. (It should be noted that many of Plutarch's figures were enormous exaggerations). The Barbarians divided themselves into two bands, and it fell to the lot of the Cimbri to proceed through Noricum in the interior of the country against Catulus, and of a passage there, while the Teutones and Ambrones were to march through Liguria along the sea-coast against the consul Gaius Marius, who had set up camp on the Rhône. Plutarch tells us that Ambrones alone numbered more than 30,000 and were the most warlike division of the enemy, who had earlier defeated the Romans under Gnaeus Mallius Maximus and Quintus Servilius Caepio.[5] It was the Battle of Arausio in 105 in which the Romans were defeated under Servilius Caepio and Gnaeus Mallius.[6]

The Teutones and Ambrones assaulted the camp of Marius and were repulsed. They decided to go on and streamed around the camp, giving the Roman soldiers messages for the wives they should encounter as domestics when enslaved. Marius followed swiftly and again encamped next to them at Aquae Sextiae at the foot of the Alps. The year was 102 BC.[7]

The battle began as a chance encounter but the Romans turned it into a victory. Roman camp followers attempting to draw water from a nearby river were attacked by the Ambrones, who were still using it. The Ligurians acting as Roman auxiliaries came to their rescue and were repulsed across the river. The opportunity was not lost on Marius. The Romans quickly formed ranks and caught the Ambrones trying to recross the river. The Ambrones lost the main part of their force. Two days later Marius repulsed an attack on the camp and caught the enemy force between his own main force in the front and an ambush of 3,000 men in the enemy rear. Plutarch reported that Marius took 100,000 prisoners, though this is likely exaggerated. [8] some of which are reported to have been among the rebelling Gladiators in the Third Servile War.[4] Although Caesar mentions that the remnants of the Cimbri and Teutones formed a new tribe in Belgic Gaul, the Aduatuci, he does not mention any remnants of the Ambrones.[9]

Homeland and ethnicity[edit]

The exact location of the homeland of the Ambrones is unknown. They had been driven out of it by flooding before Greek and Roman geographers began to note the locations of the tribes of northern Europe. Their name has been connected to the islands of Fehmarn, old name Imbria, and Amrum. If so they may be the Ymbers of Widsith. However the inundation of the Wadden Sea region during this period suggests that they lived west of Jutland, not east of Jutland.

As to their ethnicity there is no agreement. While the Teutones were likely Germanic there is evidence that the Ambrones may have been a different or amalgamated people, while the Cimbri came from Germanic territory. Later in their brief and sanguinary course across Europe, the Cimbri were ruled by Boiorix, which some interpret as a Celtic name, "King of the Boii",[6] though the name could work in Germanic also.[10] The Ambrones followed a custom observed amongst Celts in the shouting the name of their tribe going into battle.[5] However they apparently came from an Germanic area and this was also a time when the Germanic tribes were influenced by Celtic culture.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Ambrones". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  2. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, The Life of Marius.
  3. ^ a b Lucius Annaeus Florus, The Epitome of Roman History, book I, part 38.
  4. ^ a b Strauss, Barry (2009). The Spartacus War. Simon and Schuster. pp. 21–22. ISBN 1-4165-3205-6. 
  5. ^ a b Plutarch, Lives: Life of Marius.
  6. ^ a b Livy, Periochae, book 67.
  7. ^ Plutarch, Lives: Life of Marius; Livy, Periochae, book 68.
  8. ^ Plutarch, Lives: Life of Marius.
  9. ^ Caesar, Gallic War, book 2, chapter 29.
  10. ^ {{cite book Rives, J.B. (Trans.) (1999). Germania: Germania. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-815050-4}}