Ambulacral

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Ambulacrum.

Ambulacral is a term typically used in the context of anatomical parts of the phylum Echinodermata or class Asteroidea and Edrioasteroidea. Echinoderms can have ambulacral parts that include ossicles, plates, spines, and suckers. For example, sea stars or "star fish" have an ambulacral groove on their oral side (underside). This ambulacral groove extends from the mouth to the end of each ray or arm. Each groove of each arm in turn has four rows of hollow tube feet that can be extended or withdrawn. Opposite the ambulacral groove is an ambulacral ridge on the aboral side of each ray, known as an ambulacrum. These have interambulacra between them.

Etymology[edit]

From the Latin 'ambulācrum', meaning 'walk planted with trees', 'avenue', 'alley' and 'walking place' Derives from' 'ambulāre', meaning 'to walk' or 'Amble' meaning 'To walk slowly or leisurely'.[1]

Has Indo-European roots - deriving from 'Ambhi':[2]

Taksxila (in Greek Tαξίλης or Ταξίλας; lived 4th century BC) was the Greek chroniclers' name for a prince or king who reigned over the tract between the Indus and the Hydaspes Rivers in the Punjab at the time of Alexander the Great's expedition. His Indian name was Ambhi (Heckel, 2002)[3] (or Ambhika, Greek: Omphis), and the Greeks appear to have called him Taxiles or Taxilas, from the name of his capital city of Taxila, near the modern city of Attock, Pakistan (Siculus, n.d.).[4]

He appears to have been on hostile terms with his neighbour, Porus, who held the territories east of the Hydaspes (Kenoyer and Heuston, 2005).[5] It was probably with a view to strengthening himself against this foe that he sent an embassy to Alexander, while the latter was still in Sogdiana, with offers of assistance and support, perhaps in return for money. Alexander was unnerved by the sight of Ambhi's forces on his first descent into India in 327 BCE and ordered his own forces to form up. Ambhi hastened to relieve Alexander of his apprehension and met him with valuable presents, placing himself and all his forces at his disposal. Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and the gifts but he also presented him with a wardrobe of "Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1000 talents in gold" (Rufus, n.d.).[6] Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at Hund (Fox; 1973),[7] supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality (Arrian, n.d.).[8]

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Free Dictionary (n.d.) amble, [online] Available at: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/amble [Accessed 14th Nov 2014].
  2. ^ The Free Dictionary (n.d.) ambulacra, [online] Available at: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ambulacra [Accessed 14th Nov 2014].
  3. ^ The Free Dictionary (n.d.) Ambhi, [online] Available at: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ambhi [Accessed 14th Nov 2014].
  4. ^ The Free Dictionary (n.d.) Ambhi, [online] Available at: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ambhi [Accessed 14th Nov 2014].
  5. ^ The Free Dictionary (n.d.) Ambhi, [online] Available at: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ambhi [Accessed 14th Nov 2014].
  6. ^ The Free Dictionary (n.d.) Ambhi, [online] Available at: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ambhi [Accessed 14th Nov 2014].
  7. ^ The Free Dictionary (n.d.) Ambhi, [online] Available at: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ambhi [Accessed 14th Nov 2014].
  8. ^ The Free Dictionary (n.d.) Ambhi, [online] Available at: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ambhi [Accessed 14th Nov 2014].