Rankin Inlet

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Rankin Inlet
Kangiqliniq
ᑲᖏᕿᓂᖅ
Downtown Rankin Inlet.jpg
Rankin Inlet is located in Nunavut
Rankin Inlet
Rankin Inlet
Coordinates: 62°48′35″N 092°05′58″W / 62.80972°N 92.09944°W / 62.80972; -92.09944Coordinates: 62°48′35″N 092°05′58″W / 62.80972°N 92.09944°W / 62.80972; -92.09944
Country Canada
Territory Nunavut
Region Kivalliq Region
Electoral districts Rankin Inlet North-Chesterfield Inlet
Rankin Inlet South
Government[1][2][3]
 • Type Hamlet Council
 • Mayor Robert Janes
 • MLAs Tom Sammurtok
Alexander Sammurtok
Area[4]
 • City 120.24 km2 (46.42 sq mi)
Elevation[5] 28 m (92 ft)
Population (2011)[6][7]
 • City 2,577
 • Density 21/km2 (56/sq mi)
 • Urban 2,266
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Canadian Postal code X0C 0G0
Area code(s) 867
Telephone Exchange 645
GNBC Code OANSI
NTS Map 055K16
Waterway Hudson Bay
Website www.rankininlet.net

Rankin Inlet (Inuktitut: Kangiqliniq;[8] Inuktitut syllabics: ᑲᖏᕿᓂᖅ[9] or Kangirliniq,[10] ᑲᖏᖅᖠᓂᖅ,[9] or Kangir&iniq[11] meaning deep bay/inlet) is an Inuit hamlet on Kudlulik Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada.[12] Located on the northwestern Hudson Bay, between Chesterfield Inlet and Arviat, it is the regional centre for the Kivalliq Region.

In the 1995 Nunavut capital plebiscite, Iqaluit defeated Rankin Inlet to become territorial capital of Nunavut.

History[edit]

Archaeological sites established the area was inhabited around 1200 A.D. by Thule people, bowhead whale hunters. By the late 18th century, they were succeeded by Caribou Inuit who hunted the inland barren-ground caribou, and fished for Arctic charr along the coast, as well as the Diane River and Meliadine River. The Hudson's Bay Company established itself throughout the bay in the 17th century, and after 1717, sloops from Churchill, Manitoba traded north to Rankin Inlet and beyond. There was an unfortunate expedition shipwrecked on Marble Island, 32 km east of Rankin Inlet: James Knight's expedition died in the island around 1722. It was surveyed by William Moor in 1747. HBC contact was followed in the mid-19th century by American and European whalers, who were followed by fur traders trapping white fox skins in the early 20th century, followed by missionaries who brought a written language system.[13][14]

The town itself was founded by the owners of the Rankin Inlet Mine, just north of Johnston Cove. Starting in 1957, the mine produced nickel and copper ores from an underground operation. The mine was the first case of Inuit miners in Canada. When the mine closed in 1962, Rankin Inlet had a population of approximately 500 Inuit, and 70-80% had been mine workers. Several unsuccessful attempts followed to develop alternate sources of income for the town. These included a pig ranch in 1969 and a chicken-raising venture in the 1970s. Both animal groups were fed a diet of local fish, which gave the meat an unpleasant flavour. It was also common for the animals to freeze to death or be eaten by polar bears.[15]

Demographics[edit]

In the 2011 Census, Statistics Canada originally reported that Rankin Inlet had a population of 2,266 living in 626 of its 708 total dwellings, a -3.9% change from its 2006 population of 2,358.[4] Statistics Canada subsequently amended the 2011 census results to a population of 2,577 living in 714 of its 796 total dwellings, a 9.3% increase from 2006.[6] With a land area of 20.24 km2 (7.81 sq mi), it had a population density of 127.3/km2 (329.8/sq mi) in 2011.[4][6]

Arts and culture[edit]

Rankin Inlet is not only notable for its artists and artisans, it is recognized as housing the only Inuit fine-arts ceramics production facility in the world.[16] Community artists work in a variety of mediums including ceramics, prints, bronze castings, carvings, watercolor and drawing. The Matchbox Gallery, founded in 1987, showcases art work and provides educational resources.

Services[edit]

The community is served by the Rankin Inlet Airport, and by annual supply sealift. Groceries and household goods can be purchased at The North West Company's Northern Store or at the Kissarvik Cooperative.

There are two convenience stores, one being The Red Top Variety Shop formally the Innukshuk Shop and the other being Kativik True Value Hardware. Both are locally owned and operated.

There are several places to dine out which include The Wildwolf Cafe, The Captain's Galley which is in the Siniktarvik Hotel, Turrarvik Inns North (Kissarvik Cooperative)and two Tim Hortons (Northern Store and Area 6 convenience store)[17] outlets.

Geography[edit]

Rankin Inlet is notable for the chilling wind, severe winter storms, and water resources. The Diana River empties from the north into the hamlet's namesake inlet. The small Kivalliq Region has several lakes, the largest being Nipissa Lake, and is flanked by two bays, Melvin Bay on the west and Prairie Bay on the east. Paniqtoq Peninsula, on the inlet's far western shore, provides a barrier shelter for the smaller Kivaliq Region. Dozens of islands dot the inlet, including Thomson Island, the largest, and the Barrier Islands, the longest chain. These natural resources attract tourists who hunt, fish, and canoe. The Iqalugaarjuup Nunanga Territorial Park, 10 km (6.2 mi) northwest of Rankin Inlet, is notable for hiking, fishing, bird watching and Thule archaeologial sites.[18][19]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Rankin Inlet Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high Humidex −3.0 −4.4 1.1 2.5 13.4 26.3 32.2 31.8 21.8 11.7 1.4 0.8 32.2
Record high °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
−4.4
(24.1)
1.3
(34.3)
3.4
(38.1)
14.1
(57.4)
26.1
(79)
28.9
(84)
30.5
(86.9)
20.6
(69.1)
11.8
(53.2)
1.5
(34.7)
0.9
(33.6)
30.5
(86.9)
Average high °C (°F) −27.3
(−17.1)
−26.1
(−15)
−20.6
(−5.1)
−11.1
(12)
−2.4
(27.7)
7.9
(46.2)
14.9
(58.8)
13.1
(55.6)
6.3
(43.3)
−1.9
(28.6)
−13.0
(8.6)
−21.9
(−7.4)
−6.9
(19.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −30.8
(−23.4)
−29.9
(−21.8)
−25.0
(−13)
−15.6
(3.9)
−5.8
(21.6)
4.2
(39.6)
10.5
(50.9)
9.7
(49.5)
3.8
(38.8)
−4.6
(23.7)
−17.0
(1.4)
−25.7
(−14.3)
−10.5
(13.1)
Average low °C (°F) −34.4
(−29.9)
−33.6
(−28.5)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−9.0
(15.8)
0.5
(32.9)
6.1
(43)
6.2
(43.2)
1.3
(34.3)
−7.3
(18.9)
−20.9
(−5.6)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−14.2
(6.4)
Record low °C (°F) −46.1
(−51)
−49.8
(−57.6)
−43.4
(−46.1)
−35.7
(−32.3)
−23.8
(−10.8)
−9.4
(15.1)
−1.9
(28.6)
−1.4
(29.5)
−9.0
(15.8)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−36.5
(−33.7)
−43.6
(−46.5)
−49.8
(−57.6)
Wind chill −66.8 −70.5 −64.4 −53.6 −35.9 −17.6 −5.3 −8.8 −18.1 −42.7 −55.3 −62.4 −70.5
Precipitation mm (inches) 8.7
(0.343)
8.2
(0.323)
12.3
(0.484)
19.9
(0.783)
19.5
(0.768)
26.6
(1.047)
42.0
(1.654)
57.4
(2.26)
42.9
(1.689)
38.0
(1.496)
21.7
(0.854)
12.8
(0.504)
310.1
(12.209)
Rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
1.1
(0.043)
7.0
(0.276)
22.1
(0.87)
41.9
(1.65)
57.2
(2.252)
39.1
(1.539)
12.9
(0.508)
0.3
(0.012)
0.1
(0.004)
181.8
(7.157)
Snowfall cm (inches) 8.9
(3.5)
8.5
(3.35)
12.5
(4.92)
19.2
(7.56)
13.0
(5.12)
4.6
(1.81)
0.1
(0.04)
0.2
(0.08)
3.8
(1.5)
25.5
(10.04)
22.4
(8.82)
13.3
(5.24)
131.9
(51.93)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 7.8 6.6 9.0 8.5 8.7 7.7 10.4 13.2 12.7 14.9 12.6 10.0 122.1
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 2.3 6.3 10.4 13.2 10.5 4.2 0.4 0.1 48.4
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 7.8 6.7 9.0 8.2 7.1 2.0 0.1 0.1 3.3 12.4 12.5 10.0 79.3
 % humidity 66.2 67.3 71.3 79.0 82.3 72.3 66.6 70.6 76.3 84.5 78.4 70.2 73.7
Source: Environment Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010[20]

Rankin Inlet has a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc), just short of a tundra climate. It is above the tree line. Temperatures stay below freezing from late September to early June. Although the climate is subarctic, temperatures rise and fall too rapidly and do not stay above 10 °C (50.0 °F) for long enough (30 days) for trees to grow. Under the alternate formula for determining the boundary between arctic and subarctic climates posited by Otto Nordenskiöld, however, Rankin Inlet, along with Arviat and Baker Lake, qualify as arctic based on the relationship between the temperatures of the coldest and warmest months; in the case of Rankin Inlet, with a coldest-month (January) mean of -30.8 °C, said boundary for the warmest month would be 12.1 °C, and Rankin Inlet's warmest month (July) averages only 10.5 °C.

Beginning on January 16, 2008, Rankin Inlet endured the longest recorded blizzard in Canada.[21] Wind speed was 74 km/h (46 mph) or above, with gusts to 90 km/h (56 mph), and wind chill values was as low as -58. The blizzard lasted 7 days 5 hours.[22]

Notable people[edit]

A Thule site at the Meliadine River near Rankin Inlet

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nunavummiut vie for council positions in upcoming hamlet elections
  2. ^ Results for the constituency of Rankin Inlet North-Chesterfield Inlet at Elections Nunavut
  3. ^ Results for the constituency of Rankin Inlet South
  4. ^ a b c "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Nunavut)". Statistics Canada. January 30, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2013. 
  5. ^ Elevation at airport. Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 24 July 2014 to 0901Z 18 September 2014
  6. ^ a b c "Corrections and updates: Population and dwelling count amendments, 2011 Census". Statistics Canada. February 14, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and population centres, 2011 and 2006 censuses (Nunavut)". Statistics Canada. 2013-01-30. Retrieved 2013-03-18. 
  8. ^ Rankin Inlet
  9. ^ a b Research Database
  10. ^ Harvest Estimates
  11. ^ 'Language watchdog needed in Nunavut
  12. ^ nkin Inlet at the Atlas of Canada
  13. ^ "NOTRE DAME DU CAP". arcicomi.ca. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  14. ^ "Pulaarvik Kablu Friendship Centre". pulaarvik.ca. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  15. ^ History of the Development of Agriculture in the N.W.T.
  16. ^ Rankin Inlet art and artists
  17. ^ Tim Hortons hype out of line, says Nunavut restaurant-owner
  18. ^ "Landmarks". worldviewtravel.com. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  19. ^ "Welcome to Nunavut Parks". igalugaarjuup_park.cfm. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  20. ^ "Rankin Inlet A" (CSV (4222 KB)). Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 2303401. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  21. ^ Environment Canada defines a blizzard as a snowstorm with sustained wind speed above 40 km/h (25 mph), visibility below 400 m (1,300 ft) and conditions will last for at least six hours. Blizzard
  22. ^ "Home of the blizzard". up here. Oct–Nov 2008. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 

Further reading[edit]

  • England JI. 1998. "Rankin Inlet Birthing Project: Outcome of Primipara Deliveries". International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 57: 113-5.
  • Igalaaq The Rankin Inlet Community Access Centre. Ottawa, Ont: Caledon Institute of Social Policy, 1999. ISBN 1-894159-30-6
  • Jansen, William Hugh. Eskimo Economics An Aspect of Culture Change at Rankin Inlet. Mercury series. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1979.
  • Mallon, S. T. Inuktitut, Rankin Inlet Version. Yellowknife, N.W.T.: Dept. of Education, 1974.
  • Shirley, James R., and Darlene Wight. Rankin Inlet Ceramics. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2003. ISBN 0-88915-224-1
  • Watson, Linvill. Television Among Inuit of Keewatin The Rankin Inlet Experience. Saskatoon, [Sask.]: Institute for Northern Studies, University of Saskatoon, 1977.
  • Feeney, Mara. Rankin Inlet. Fiddletown: Gaby Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-9819319-5-1.