Palaeophoyx columbiana McCoy, 1963
The American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus) is a wading bird of the heron family Ardeidae. New evidence has led the American Ornithologists' Union to move the heron family into the order Pelecaniformes (from Ciconiiformes).
It is a large, chunky, brown bird, very similar to the Eurasian Great Bittern (Botaurus stellaris), though slightly smaller. It is 58–85 cm (23–33 in) in length, with a 92–115 cm (36–45 in) wingspan and a body mass of 370–1,072 g (0.82–2.36 lb).
Although common in much of its range, the American Bittern is usually well-hidden in bogs, marshes and wet meadows. Usually solitary, it walks stealthily among cattails or bulrushes. If it senses that it has been seen, the American Bittern becomes motionless, with its bill pointed upward, causing it to blend into the reeds. It is most active at dusk. More often heard than seen, this bittern has a call that resembles a congested pump.
This bittern winters in the southern United States and Central America. It summers throughout Canada and much of the United States. As a long-distance migrant, it is a very rare vagrant in Europe, including Great Britain and Ireland. This bird nests in isolated places with the female building the nest and the male guarding it. Two or three eggs are incubated by the female for 29 days, and the chicks leave after 6–7 weeks.
No subspecies are accepted today. However, fossils found in the Ichetucknee River, Florida, and originally described as a new form of heron (Palaeophoyx columbiana; McCoy, 1963) were later recognized to be a smaller, prehistoric subspecies of the American Bittern which lived during the Late Pleistocene (Olson, 1974) and would thus be called B. l. columbianus.
This bird's numbers are declining in many parts of its range due to habitat loss.
Many of the folk names are given for its distinctive call made by inhaling and exhaling large quantities of air; E. Choate lists "Bogbumper" and "Stake Driver". Pliny likened the old-world bittern's call to the roaring of a bull, "boatum tauri", whence the generic name Botaurus.
To the Cajuns of South Louisiana this bird was known as a "Grobek", and was previously hunted for food, being considered a delicacy.
Protected status 
The American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus) is protected under the United States Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918.  It is also protected under the Canadian Migratory Birds Convention Act of 1994.
References and notes 
- BirdLife International (2012). "Botaurus lentiginosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- Botaurus: Latin for "bittern"; lentiginosus: Latin for "freckled", in reference to its plumage.
- American Bittern. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. All About Birds
- CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
- McCoy, John J. (1963). "The fossil avifauna of Itchtucknee River, Florida". Auk 80 (3): 335–351. doi:10.2307/4082892.
- Olson, Storrs L. (1974). "A reappraisal of the fossil heron Palaeophoyx columbiana McCoy". Auk 91 (1): 179–180. doi:10.2307/4084689.
- Dictionary of American Bird Names (revised ed. Harvard Common Press 1985)
Further reading 
- National Geographic Society (2002): Field Guide to the Birds of North America. National Geographic, Washington DC. ISBN 0-7922-6877-6
- Cornell Lab of Ornithology – American Bittern
- United States Geological Survey general info on American Bittern
- Enature.com – American Bittern
- IBC Video on the Internet Bird Collection
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