American Federation of Labor

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AFL
AFL-label.jpg
Full name American Federation of Labor
Founded December 8, 1886
Predecessor Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions
Date dissolved December 4, 1955
Merged into AFL-CIO
Key people Samuel Gompers
John McBride
William Green
George Meany
Office location New York City; later Washington, D.C.
Country United States

The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was the first federation of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio, in May 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association. Samuel Gompers of the Cigar Makers' International Union was elected president of the Federation at its founding convention and was relected every year except one until his death in 1924. The AFL was the largest union grouping in the United States for the first half of the 20th century, even after the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) by unions that were expelled by the AFL in 1935 over its opposition to industrial unionism. While the Federation was founded and dominated by craft unions throughout the first fifty years of its existence, many of its craft union affiliates turned to organizing on an industrial union basis to meet the challenge from the CIO in the 1940s.

In 1955, the AFL merged with its longtime rival, the Congress of Industrial Organizations, to form the AFL-CIO, a federation which remains in place to this day. Together with the new union, the AFL has comprised the longest lasting and most influential labor federation in the United States.

Organizational history[edit]

Origins[edit]

Terence Powderly, Grand Master Workman of the Knights of Labor, whose refusal to negotiate with craft unions led to formation of the AFL.

The American Federation of Labor (AFL) organized as an association of trade unions in 1886. The organization emerged from a dispute with the Knights of Labor (K of L) organization, in which the leadership of that organization solicited locals of various craft unions to withdraw from their International organizations and to affiliate with the K of L directly, action which would have taken funds from the various unions and enriched the K of L's coffers.[1] The Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions also merged into what would become the American Federation of Labor.

One of the organizations embroiled in this controversy was the Cigar Makers' International Union (CMIU), a group subject to competition from a dual union, a rival "Progressive Cigarmakers' Union," organized by members suspended or expelled by the CMIU.[2] The two cigar unions competed with one another in signing contracts with various cigar manufacturers, who were at this same time combining themselves into manufacturers' associations of their own in New York City, Detroit, Cincinnati, Chicago, and Milwaukee.[2]

In January 1886, the Cigar Manufacturers' Association of New York City attempted to flex its muscle by announcing a 20 percent wage cut in factories around the city. The Cigar Makers' International Union refused to accept the cut and 6,000 of its members in 19 factories were locked out by the owners. A strike lasting four weeks ensued.[3] Just when it appeared that the strike might be won, the New York District Assembly of the Knights of Labor leaped into the breach, offering to settle with the 19 factories at a lower wage scale than that proposed by the CMIU, so long as only the Progressive Cigarmakers' Union was employed.[3]

The leadership of the CMIU was enraged and demanded that the New York District Assembly be investigated and punished by the national officials of the Kings of Delowshish. The committee of investigation was controlled by individuals friendly to the New York District Assembly, however, and the latter was exonerated.[4] The American Federation of Labor was thus originally formed as an alliance of craft unions outside the Knights of Labor as a means of defending themselves against this and similar incursions.[5]

On April 25, 1886, a circular letter was issued by Strasser of the Cigar Makers and P.J. McGuire of the Carpenters, addressed to all national trade unions and calling for their attendance of a conference in Philadelphia on May 18.[6] The call stated that an element of the Knights of Labor was doing "malicious work" and causing "incalculable mischief by arousing antagonisms and dissensions in the labor movement."[5] The call was signed by Strasser and McGuire, along with representatives of the Granite Cutters, the Iron Molders, and the secretary of the Federation of Trades of North America, a forerunner of the AFL founded in 1881.[5]

Forty-three invitations were mailed, which drew the attendance of 20 delegates and letters of approval from 12 other unions.[7] At this preliminary gathering, held in Donaldson Hall on the corner of Broad and Filbert Streets,[8] the K of L was charged with conspiring with anti-union bosses to provide labor at below going union rates and with making use of individuals who had crossed picket lines or defaulted on payment of union dues.[9] The body authored a "treaty" to be presented to the forthcoming May 24, 1886, convention of the Knights of Labor, which demanded that the K of L cease attempting to organize members of International Unions into its own assemblies without permission of the unions involved and that K of L organizers violating this provision should suffer immediate suspension.[9]

For its part, the Knights of Labor considered the demand for the parcelling of the labor movement into narrow craft-based fiefdoms to be anathema, a violation of the principle of solidarity of all workers across craft lines.[10] Negotiations with the dissident craft unions were nipped in the bud by the governing General Assembly of the K of L, however, with the organization's Grand Master Workman, Terence V. Powderly, refusing to enter into serious discussions on the matter.[11] The actions of the New York District Assembly of the K of L was upheld.

Formation and early years[edit]

Samuel Gompers in the office of the American Federation of Labor, 1887.

Convinced that no accommodation with the leadership of the Knights of Labor was possible, the heads of the five labor organizations which issued the call for the April 1886 conference issued a new call for a convention to be held December 8, 1886 in Columbus, Ohio in order to construct "an American federation of alliance of all national and international trade unions."[12] Forty-two delegates representing 13 national unions and various other local labor organizations responded to the call, agreeing to form themselves into an American Federation of Labor.[13]

Revenue for the new organization was to be raised on the basis of a "per-capita tax" of its member organizations, set at the rate of one-half cent per member per month (i.e. six cents per year).[14] Governance of the organization was to be by annual conventions, with one delegate allocated for every 4,000 members of each affiliated union.[14] The founding convention voted to make the President of the new federation a full-time official at a salary of $1,000 per year, and Samuel Gompers of the Cigar Makers' International Union was elected to the position.[14] Gompers would ultimately be re-elected to the position by annual conventions of the organization for every year save one until his death nearly four decades later.

Although the founding convention of the AFL had authorized the establishment of a publication for the new organization, Gompers made use of the existing labor press to generate support for the position of the craft unions against the Knights of Labor. Powerful opinion-makers of the American labor movement such as the Philadelphia Tocsin, Haverhill Labor, the Brooklyn Labor Press, and the Denver Labor Enquirer granted Gompers space in their pages, in which he made the case for the unions against the attacks of employers, "all too often aided by the K of L."[15]

Headway was made in the form of endorsement by various local labor bodies. Some assemblies of the K of L supported the Cigar Makers' position and departed the organization: in Baltimore, 30 locals left the organization, while the membership of the Knights in Chicago fell from 25,000 in 1886 to just 3,500 in 1887.[16] Factional warfare broke out in the K of L, with Terence Powderly blaming the organization's travails on "radicals" in its ranks, while those opposing Powderly called for an end to what they perceived as "autocratic leadership."[17]

In the face of the steady disintegration of its rival, the fledgling American Federation of Labor struggled to maintain itself, with the group showing very slow and incremental growth in its first years, only cracking the 250,000 member mark in 1892.[18] The group from the outset concentrated upon the income and working conditions of its membership as its almost sole focus. The AFL's founding convention declaring "higher wages and a shorter workday" to be "preliminary steps toward great and accompanying improvements in the condition of the working people." Participation in partisan politics was avoided as inherently divisive, and the group's constitution was structured to prevent the admission of political parties as affiliates.[19]

This fundamentally conservative "pure and simple" approach limited the AFL to matters pertaining to working conditions and rates of pay, relegating political goals to its allies in the political sphere. The Federation favored pursuit of workers' immediate demands rather than challenging the property rights of owners, and took a pragmatic view of politics which favored tactical support for particular politicians over formation of a party devoted to workers' interests. The AFL's leadership believed the expansion of the capitalist system was seen as the path to betterment of labor, an orientation making it possible for the AFL to present itself as what one historian has called "the conservative alternative to working class radicalism."[20]

Early 20th century[edit]

Samuel Gompers with John Mitchell of the United Mine Workers of America.

The AFL faced its first major reversal when employers launched an open shop movement in 1903 designed to drive unions out of construction, mining, longshore and other industries. Membership in the AFL's affiliated unions declined between 1904 and 1914 in the face of this concerted anti-union drive, which made effective use of legal injunctions against strikes, court rulings given force when backed with the armed might of the state.[citation needed]

Ever the pragmatist, Gompers argued that labor should "reward its friends and punish its enemies" in both major parties. However, in the 1900s (decade), the two parties began to realign, with the main faction of the Republican Party coming to identify with the interests of banks and manufacturers, while a substantial portion of the rival Democratic Party took a more labor-friendly position. While not precluding its members from belonging to the Socialist Party or working with its members, the AFL traditionally refused to pursue the tactic of independent political action by the workers in the form of the existing Socialist Party or the establishment of a new labor party. After 1908, the organization's tie to the Democratic party grew increasingly strong.[citation needed]

National Civic Federation[edit]

Some unions within the AFL helped form and participated in the National Civic Federation. The National Civic Federation was formed by several progressive employers who sought to avoid labor disputes by fostering collective bargaining and "responsible" unionism. Labor's participation in this federation, at first tentative, created internal division within the AFL. Socialists, who believed the only way to help workers was to remove large industry from private ownership, denounced labor's efforts at cooperation with the capitalists in the National Civic Federation. The AFL nonetheless continued its association with the group, which declined in importance as the decade of the 1910s drew to a close.[citation needed]

Canada[edit]

By the 1890s, Gompers was planning an international federation of labor, starting with the expansion of AFL affiliates in Canada, especially Ontario. He helped the Canadian Trades and Labour Congress with money and organizers, and by 1902, the AFL came to dominate the Canadian union movement.[21]

Immigration restriction[edit]

1922 cartoon from the American Federationist. The caption reads: THE UNION MAN'S BURDEN, Every Organized Worker Carries an Unorganized Worker "Strapped to His Back".


The AFL vigorously opposed unrestricted immigration from Europe for moral, cultural, and racial reasons. The issue unified the workers who feared that an influx of new workers would flood the labor market and lower wages.[22] Nativism was not a factor because upwards of half the union members were themselves immigrants or the sons of immigrants from Ireland, Germany and Britain. Nativism was a factor when the AFL even more strenuously opposed all immigration from Asia because it represented (to its Euro-American members) an alien culture that could not be assimilated into American society. The AFL intensified its opposition after 1906 and was instrumental in passing immigration restriction bills from the 1890s to the 1920s, such as the 1921 Emergency Quota Act and the Immigration Act of 1924, and seeing that they were strictly enforced.[23]

Mink (1986) concludes that the link between the AFL and the Democratic Party rested in part on immigration issues, noting the large corporations, which supported the Republicans, wanted more immigration to augment their labor force.[24]

The AFL in World War I[edit]

The AFL reached a zenith of sorts during the administration of Democrat Woodrow Wilson. Particularly during the years of World War I, American unions were given considerable government protection and cooperation between capital and labor was actively sought as the best means of rationalizing and increasing American production on behalf of the war effort. Unions, including the AFL itself, welcomed governmental intervention in favor of collective bargaining during World War I. Unions in the packinghouse industry were able to form due to governmental pressure on the largest employers to recognize the unions rather than face a strike. Expansion of the organized labor movement followed and by 1920 the AFL had nearly 4 million members.[citation needed]

During World War I, the AFL—motivated by fear of government repression, and hope of aid (often in the form of pro-AFL labor policies)—had worked out an informal agreement with the United States government, in which the AFL would coordinate with the government both to support the war effort and to join "into an alliance to crush radical labor groups" such as the Industrial Workers of the World and Socialist Party of America.[25]

The 1920s[edit]

American Federation of Labor head Samuel Gompers (right) endorsed the pro-labor independent Presidential candidate Robert M. LaFollette in 1924.

In the pro-business environment of the 1920s, business launched a large-scale offensive on behalf of the so-called "open shop", which meant that a person did not have to be a union member to be hired. AFL unions lost membership steadily until 1933.[26]

The organization endorsed pro-labor progressive Robert M. LaFollette in the 1924 presidential election. He only carried his home state of Wisconsin. The campaign failed to establish a permanent independent party closely connected to the labor movement, however, and thereafter the Federation embraced ever more closely the Democratic Party, despite the fact that many union leaders remained Republicans.[27] Herbert Hoover in 1928 won the votes of many Protestant AFL members.[28]

The New Deal years[edit]

The Great Depression were hard times for the unions, and membership fell sharply across the country. As the national economy began to recover in 1933, so did union membership. The New Deal of president Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Democrat, strongly favored labor unions. He made sure that relief operations like the Civilian Conservation Corps did not include a training component that would produce skilled workers who would compete with union members in a still glutted market. The major legislation was the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, called the Wagner Act. It greatly strengthened organized unions, especially by weakening the company unions that many workers belonged to. It was to the members advantage to transform a company union into a local of an AFL union, and thousands did so, dramatically boosting the membership. The Wagner Act also set up to the National Labor Relations Board, which used its powers to rule in favor of unions and against the companies. However, the NLRB was later taken over by leftist elements who favored the CIO over the AFL.[citation needed]

The AFL—now led by William Green (president, 1924–1952)—faced increasing dissension within its ranks, led by John L. Lewis of the coal miners. Lewis argued that the AFL was too heavily oriented toward traditional craftsmen, and was overlooking the opportunity to organize millions of semiskilled workers, especially those in industrial factories that made automobiles, rubber, glass and steel. In 1935 Lewis led the dissenting unions in forming a new Congress for Industrial Organization (CIO) within the AFL. Both the new CIO industrial unions, and the older AFL crafts unions grew rapidly after 1935. In 1936 union members enthusiastically supported Roosevelt's landslide reelection. Proposals for the creation of an independent labor party were rejected.[29]

Unions now became a major component of the New Deal Coalition, along with big-city machines, Catholics and Jews, poorer farmers, and the white South. The AFL continued to concentrate its legislative efforts on obtaining political protection for the right of unions to organize and strike, rather than on obtaining social change through legislative action.[citation needed]

World War II and after[edit]

The AFL retained close ties to the Democratic machines in big cities through the 1940s. Its membership surged during the war and it held on to most of its new members after wartime legal support for labor was removed. Despite its close connections to many in Congress, the AFL was not able to block the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947.[citation needed]

In 1955, the AFL and CIO merged to form the AFL-CIO, headed by George Meany.[citation needed]

Historical problems[edit]

Racism[edit]

During its first years, the AFL admitted nearly anyone. Gompers opened the AFL to radical and socialist workers and to some semiskilled and unskilled workers. Women, African Americans, and immigrants joined in small numbers. But by the 1890s, the Federation had begun to organize only skilled workers in craft unions and became an organization of mostly white men. Although the Federation preached a policy of egalitarianism in regard to African American workers, it actively discriminated against black workers.[30][31] The AFL sanctioned the maintenance of segregated locals within its affiliates—particularly in the construction and railroad industries—a practice which often excluded black workers altogether from union membership and thus from employment in organized industries.[32]

In 1901, the AFL lobbied Congress to reauthorize the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, and issued a pamphlet entitled "Some reasons for Chinese exclusion. Which shall survive?" The AFL also began one of the first organized labor boycotts when they began putting white stickers on the cigars made by unionized white cigar rollers while simultaneously discouraging consumers from purchasing cigars rolled by Chinese workers.[33]

Sexism[edit]

In most ways, the AFL’s treatment of women workers paralleled its policy towards black workers. The AFL never adopted a strict policy of gender exclusion and, at times, even came out in favor of women’s unionism. But despite such rhetoric, the Federation only half-heartedly supported women’s attempts to organize and, more often, took pains to keep women out of unions and the workforce altogether. Only two national unions affiliated with the AFL at its founding openly included women, and others passed by-laws barring women’s membership entirely. The AFL hired its first female organizer, Mary Kenny O'Sullivan, only in 1892, released her after five months, and it did not replace her or hire another woman national organizer until 1908. Women who organized their own unions were often turned down in bids to join the Federation, and even women who did join unions found them hostile or intentionally inaccessible. AFL unions often held meetings at night or in bars when women might find it difficult to attend and where they might feel uncomfortable, and male unionists heckled women who tried to speak at meetings.[34]

Generally the AFL viewed women workers as competition, as strikebreakers, or as an unskilled labor reserve that kept wages low. As such, the Federation often opposed women’s employment entirely. When it did organize women workers, most often it did so to protect men’s jobs and earning power and not to improve the conditions, lives, or wages of women workers. In response, most women workers remained outside the labor movement. In 1900, only 3.3% of working women were organized into unions. In 1910, even as the AFL surged forward in membership, the number had dipped to 1.5%. And while it improved to 6.6% over the next decade, women remained mostly outside of unions and practically invisible inside of them into the mid-1920s.[35]

Attitudes gradually changed within the AFL due to the pressure of organized female workers. Female-domination began to emerge in the first two decades of the 20th century, including particularly the International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union. Women organized independent locals among New York hat makers, in the Chicago stockyards, and among Jewish and Italian waist makers, to name only three examples. Through the efforts of middle class reformers and activists, often of the Women's Trade Union League, these unions joined the AFL.[36]

Conflicts between affiliated unions[edit]

The AFL arbitrated disputes between member unions and enforced its decisions by rescinding charters, when necessary. (1919 Cigar Makers' Union charter certificate.)

From the beginning, unions affiliated with the AFL found themselves in conflict when both unions claimed jurisdiction over the same groups of workers: both the Brewers and Teamsters claimed to represent beer truck drivers, both the Machinists and the International Typographical Union claimed to represent certain printroom employees, and the Machinists and a fledgling union known as the "Carriage, Wagon and Automobile Workers Union" sought to organize the same employees—even though neither union had made any effort to organize or bargain for those employees. In some cases the AFL mediated the dispute, usually favoring the larger or more influential union. The AFL often reversed its jurisdictional rulings over time, as the continuing jurisdictional battles between the Brewers and the Teamsters showed. In other cases the AFL expelled the offending union, as it did in 1913 in the case of the Carriage, Wagon and Automobile Workers Union (which quickly disappeared).[citation needed]

These jurisdictional disputes were most frequent in the building trades, where a number of different unions might claim the right to have work assigned to their members. The craft unions in this industry organized their own department within the AFL in 1908, despite the reservations of Gompers and other leaders about creation of a separate body within the AFL that might function as a federation within a federation. While those fears were partly borne out in practice, as the Building Trades Department did acquire a great deal of practical power gained through resolving jurisdictional disputes between affiliates, the danger that it might serve as the basis for schism never materialized.[citation needed]

Affiliates within the AFL formed "departments" to help resolve these jurisdictional conflicts and to provide a more effective voice for member unions in given industries. The Metal Trades Department engaged in some organizing of its own, primarily in shipbuilding, where unions such as the Pipefitters, Machinists and Iron Workers joined together through local metal workers' councils to represent a diverse group of workers. The Railway Employees Department dealt with both jurisdictional disputes between affiliates and pursued a common legislative agenda for all of them. Even that sort of structure did not prevent AFL unions from finding themselves in conflict on political issues. For example, the International Seamen's Union opposed passage of a law applying to workers engaged in interstate transport that railway unions supported. The AFL bridged these differences on an ad hoc basis.[citation needed]

Historical achievements[edit]

Organizing and coordination[edit]

The AFL made efforts in its early years to assist its affiliates in organizing: it advanced funds or provided organizers or, in some cases, such as the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, the Teamsters and the American Federation of Musicians, helped form the union. The AFL also used its influence (including refusal of charters or expulsion) to heal splits within affiliated unions, to force separate unions seeking to represent the same or closely related jurisdictions to merge, or to mediate disputes between rival factions where both sides claimed to represent the leadership of an affiliated union. The AFL also chartered "federal unions"—local unions not affiliated with any international union—in those fields in which no affiliate claimed jurisdiction.[citation needed]

The AFL also encouraged the formation of local labor bodies (known as central labor councils) in major metropolitan areas in which all of the affiliates could participate. These local labor councils acquired a great deal of influence in some cases. For example, the Chicago Federation of Labor spearheaded efforts to organize packinghouse and steel workers during and immediately after World War I. Local building trades councils also became powerful in some areas. In San Francisco, the local Building Trades Council, led by Carpenters official P. H. McCarthy, not only dominated the local labor council but helped elect McCarthy mayor of San Francisco in 1909. In a very few cases early in the AFL's history, state and local bodies defied AFL policy or chose to disaffiliate over policy disputes.[citation needed]

Political action[edit]

Though Gompers had contact with socialists and such as AFL co-founder Peter J. McGuire, the AFL adopted a philosophy of "business unionism" that emphasized unions' contribution to businesses' profits and national economic growth. The business unionist approach also focused on skilled workers' immediate job-related interests, while ignoring larger political issues.[citation needed] This approach was set by Gompers, who was influenced by a fellow cigar maker (and former socialist) Ferdinand Laurrel. Despite his socialist contacts, Gompers himself was not a socialist.[citation needed]

In some respects the AFL leadership took a pragmatic view toward politicians, following Gompers' slogan to "reward your friends and punish your enemies" without regard to party affiliation. Over time, after repeated disappointments with the failure of labor's legislative efforts to protect workers' rights, which the courts had struck down as unconstitutional, Gompers became almost anti-political, opposing some forms of protective legislation, such as limitations on working hours, because they would detract from the efforts of unions to obtain those same benefits through collective bargaining.[citation needed]

Employers discovered the efficacy of labor injunctions, first used with great effect by the Cleveland administration during the Pullman strike in 1894. While the AFL sought to outlaw "yellow dog contracts," to limit the courts' power to impose "government by injunction" and to obtain exemption from the antitrust laws that were being used to criminalize labor organizing, the courts reversed what few legislative successes the labor movement won.[citation needed]

The AFL concentrated its political efforts during the last decades of the Gompers administration on securing freedom from state control of unions—in particular an end to the court's use of labor injunctions to block the right to organize or strike and the application of the anti-trust laws to criminalize labor's use of pickets, boycotts and strikes. The AFL thought that it had achieved the latter with the passage of the Clayton Antitrust Act in 1914—which Gompers referred to as "Labor's Magna Carta". But in Duplex Printing Press Co. v. Deering, 254 U.S. 443 (1921), the United States Supreme Court narrowly read the Act and codified the federal courts' existing power to issue injunctions rather than limit it. The court read the phrase "between an employer and employees" (contained in the first paragraph of the Act) to refer only to cases involving an employer and its own employees, leaving the courts free to punish unions for engaging in sympathy strikes or secondary boycotts.[citation needed]

The AFL's pessimistic attitude towards politics did not, on the other hand, prevent affiliated unions from pursuing their own agendas. Construction unions supported legislation that governed entry of contractors into the industry and protected workers' rights to pay, rail and mass production industries sought workplace safety legislation, and unions generally agitated for the passage of workers' compensation statutes.[citation needed]

At the same time, the AFL took efforts on behalf of women in supporting protective legislation. It advocated fewer hours for women workers, and based its arguments on assumptions of female weakness. Like efforts to unionize, most support for protective legislation for women came out of a desire to protect men’s jobs. If women’s hours could be limited, reasoned AFL officials, they would infringe less on male employment and earning potential. But the AFL also took more selfless efforts. Even from the 1890s, the AFL declared itself vigorously in favor of women’s suffrage. It often printed pro-suffrage articles in its periodical, and in 1918, it supported the National Union of Women’s Suffrage.[37]

The AFL relaxed its rigid stand against legislation after the death of Gompers. Even so, it remained cautious. Its proposals for unemployment benefits (made in the late 1920s) were too modest to have practical value, as the Great Depression soon showed. The impetus for the major federal labor laws of the 1930s came from the New Deal. The enormous growth in union membership came after Congress passed the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933 and National Labor Relations Act in 1935. The AFL refused to sanction or participate in the mass strikes led by John L. Lewis of the United Mine Workers and other left unions such as the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. After the AFL expelled the CIO in 1936, the CIO undertook a major organizing effort. The AFL responded with its own massive organizing drive that kept its membership totals 50 percent higher than the CIO's.[citation needed]

Presidents of the American Federation of Labor[edit]

Affiliated unions and brotherhoods[edit]

Sources: American Federation of Labor: History, Encyclopedia, Reference Book, pp. 434–446. American Labor Year Book, 1926, pp. 85–87, 103–172. American Labor Press Directory, pp. 1–11.
Union Date Organized Date Affiliated 1925 Members Comments
Asbestos Workers, International Union of Heat and Frost Insulators and 1887 1887 2,400 Journal: Official Journal.
Actors and Artistes of America, Associated 1919 1919 10,100 Includes: Actors' Equity Association, American Guild of Musical Artists, American Guild of Variety Artists, Screen Actors Guild.
Auto Workers, United 1935 1935 N/A Suspended 1936 due to Communist influence; helped form CIO.
Bakery and Confectionery Workers of America, International Union of 1886 1887 21,800 Started as Journeymen Bakers' Union. Journal: The Bakers' Journal.
Barbers International Union, Journeymen 1887 1888 48,000 Journal: The Journeyman Barber.
Bill Posters and Billers of United States and Canada International Alliance 1902 1903 1,600
Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers and Helpers, International Brotherhood of 1890 1890 5,000 Journal: Blacksmiths Journal.
Boilermakers and Iron Shipbuilders, International Brotherhood of 1880 1882 17,100 Two Boilermakers unions amalgamated in 1893, considered the start date of this union by some. Journal: The Boilermakers and Iron Shipbuilders' Journal.
Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of 1892 1892 13,600 Journal: The International Bookbinder.
Boot and Shoe Workers' Union 1895 1895 36,200 Journal: The Shoe Workers' Journal.
Brewery, Flour, Cereal and Soft Drink Workers of America 1884 1887 16,000 Journal: Brewery, Flour, Cereal and Soft Drink Workers' Journal.
Brick and Clay Workers of America, United 1894 1898 5,000 Journal: Union Clay Worker.
Bricklayers', Masons and Plasterers' International Union of America 1865 1916 70,000 Journal: The Bricklayer, Mason and Plasterer.
Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Iron Workers, International Association of 1896 1903 16,300 Journal: The Bridgemen's Magazine.
Broom and Whisk Makers' Union, International 1893 1893 700 Journal: The Broom Maker.
Building Service Employees International Union 1921 1921 6,200
Carpenters and Joiners, Amalgamated Association of 1869 1890 N/A AFL charter revoked by 1912 convention for refusing to amalgamate with Brotherhood of Carpenters. Journal: The Carpenter.
Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of 1867 1886 317,000
Cigarmakers' International Union 1864 1887 23,500 Journal: Cigarmakers' Official Journal.
Cloth Hat, Cap and Millinery Workers' International Union 1901 1902 7,800 Suspended for protracted period in early 1920s for failure to comply with convention decision. Journal: The Headgear Worker.
Conductors, Order of Sleeping Car 1918 1919 2,300 Journal: The Sleeping Car Conductor.
Coopers' International Union of North America 1864 1892 1,300 Journal: The Coopers' International Journal.
Cutting Die and Cutter Makers of America, International Union of N/A Suspended for non-payment of dues, 1923 on.
Diamond Workers' Protective Union of America 1910 1912 400
Elastic Goring Weavers, Amalgamated Association of 1894 1894 100
Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of 1891 1891 142,000 Journal: The Journal of Electrical Workers and Operators.
Elevator Constructors, International Union of 1901 1903 8,100 Journal: The Elevator Constructor.
Federal Employees, National Federation of 1917 1917 20,200 Disaffiliated from AFL, December 1931. Journal: Federal Employe.
Fire Fighters, International Association of 1918 1918 16,000 Journal: International Fire Fighter.
Foundry Employees, International Brotherhood of 1904 1904 3,500 Later amalgamated with the Molders.
Fur Workers' Union of the United States and Canada, International 1913 1913 11,400 Journal: The Fur Worker.
Garmernt Workers of America, United 1891 1891 47,500 Journal: The Garment Worker.
Glass Bottle Blowers' Association 1847 1899 6,000 Journal: The Bottle Maker.
Glass Workers' Union, American Flint 1878 1912 5,300 Journal: American Flint.
Glass Workers, National Window 1872 1918 2,000
Glove Workers' Union of America, International 1902 1902 300
Granite Cutters' International Union 1877 1886 8,500 Journal: Granite Cutters Journal.
Hatters of North America, United 1854 1886 11,500
Hod Carriers, Building and Common Laborers' Union, International 1903 1903 61,500 Now Laborers' International Union of North America.
Horseshoers of United States and Canada, International Union of Journeymen 1874 1893 2,000 Journal: International Horseshoers' Monthly Magazine.
Hotel and Restaurant Employees' International Alliance and Bartenders' League of America 1890 1890 38,500 Journal: The Mixer and Server.
Iron, Steel and Tin Workers, Amalgamated Association of 1876 1887 11,400 Journal: The Amalgamated Journal.
Jewelry Workers' Union, International 1916 1916 800 Journal: Jewelry Workers' Monthly Bulletin.
Lace Operatives of America, The Chartered Association of N/A Suspended c. 1920 for failure to comply with decisions of convention.
Ladies' Garment Workers Union, International 1900 1900 90,000 Journals: Justice (English); Gerechtigkeit (Yiddish); Giustizia (Italian);
Lathers, International Union of Wood, Wire and Metal 1899 1899 8,900 Journal: The Lather.
Laundry Workers' International Union 1900 1900 5,500
Leather Workers' International Union, United 1896 1896 2,000 Journal: Leather Workers' Journal.
Letter Carriers, National Association of 1889 1917 32,500 Journal: Postal Record.
Letter Carriers, National Association of Rural 1919 1919 300
Lithographers of America, Amalgamated 1882 1906 5,300 Journal: Lithographers' Journal.
Longshoremen's Association, International 1892 1896 31,800 Journal: The Longshoreman.
Machinists, International Association of 1888 1895 71,400 Journal: Machinists Monthly Journal.
Maintenance of Way Employees, United Brotherhood of 1886 1900 37,400 Journal: Railway Maintenance of Way Employees' Journal.
Marble, Slate and Stone Polishers, Rubbers and Sawyers, Tile and Marble Setters' Helpers, International Association of 1916 1916 3,200
Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association, National 1875 N/A Disaffiliated with AFL, 1923.
Masters, Mates and Pilots of America 1897 1914 3,900
Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen, Amalgamated 1897 1897 12,200
Metal Engravers' International Union 1920 1921 100
Metal Polishers Union of North America, International 1891 1896 6,000
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, International Union of 1893 1896 8,500 Journal: The Miners' Magazine.
Mine Workers of America, United 1890 1890 400,000 Journal: United Mine Workers' Journal.
Molders' Union of America, International 1859 1886 27,500 Later amalgamated with Foundry Employees. Journal: International Molders' Journal.
Musicians, American Federation of 1896 1896 80,000 Journal: International Musician.
Office Employees International Union 1942 1945 N/A
Oil Field, Gas Well and Refinery Workers of America, International Association of 1919 1919 1,200
Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood of 1887 1887 107,600 Now International Union of Painters and Allied Trades. Journal: The Painter and Decorator.
Papermakers, International Brotherhood of 1892 1897 5,000 Journal: Paper Maker Journal.
Pattern Makers' League of North America 1887 1894 7,000 Journal: Pattern Makers Journal.
Pavers, Rammersmen, Flag Layers, Bridge and Stone Setters, International Union of 1860 1905 2,000
Paving Cutters' Union of the United States 1901 1904 2,400 Journal: Paving Cutters' Journal.
Photo-Engravers' Union of North America, International 1900 1904 7,200 Journal: The American Photo Engraver.
Piano, Organ and Musical Instrument Workers' Union of America, International 1898 1902 600
Plasterers and Cement Finishers' International Association of the United States and Canada, Operative 1862 1908 30,000 Journal: The Plasterer.
Plate Printers' and Die Stampers' Union of North America, International 1891 1898 1,200 Amalgamated with Steel and Copper Plate Engravers' League, late 1925. Journal: The Plate Printer.
Plumbers and Steamfitters of the United States and Canada, United Association of 1889 1897 39,200 Journal: Plumbers, Gas and Steam Fitters' Journal.
Pocketbook Workers of America, International 1923 1925 N/A Journal: International Pocketbook Worker.
Postal Employees, National Federation of 1906 1906 23,700 Was National Federation of Postal Employees. Journal: Union Postal Clerk.
Potters, National Brotherhood of Operative 1899 1899 8,100 Journal: The Potters' Herald.
Powder and High Explosive Workers, United 1902 1902 200
Print Cutters' Association of America, International N/A Amalgamated with Timber Workers, 1923.
Printers and Color Mixers of the United States, International Association of Machine N/A Amalgamated with Timber Workers, 1923.
Printing Pressman and Assistants' Union of North America, International 1889 1890 40,000 Journal: The American Pressman.
Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers, International Brotherhood of 1906 1909 5,000
Quarry Workers' International Union of North America 1903 1903 3,000 Journal: Quarry Workers' Journal.
Railroad Carmen, Brotherhood of 1888 1900 125,000 Journal: Railway Carmen's Journal.
Railroad Signalmen of America, Brotherhood of 1908 1914 8,000 Journal: Signalmen's Journal.
Railroad Telegraphers, Order of 1886 1899 39,200 Journal: The Railroad Telegrapher.
Railway Clerks, Brotherhood of 1899 1908 91,200 Journal: The Railway Clerk.
Railway Mail Association 1898 1917 19,100 Journal: The Railway Post Office.
Retail Clerks' International Protective Association 1890 1891 10,000 Journal: Retail Clerks' International Advocate.
Roofers, United Slate, Tile and Composition + Damp and Waterproof Workers' Association 1902 1903 3,000 Amalgamated with Slate and Tile Roofers in 1919. Now United Union of Roofers, Waterproofers and Allied Workers.
Sawsmiths' National Union N/A Apparently defunct from 1924.
Seamen's International Union of America 1892 1893 16,000 Journal: The Seamen's Journal.
Sheet Metal Workers' Union, Amalgamated 1888 1890 25,000 Journal: Sheet Metal Workers Journal.
Spinners' Union, International N/A Apparently absorbed through amalgamation or defunct by 1925.
Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada 1893 1894 20,000 Journal: General Bulletin.
State, County and Municipal Employees, American Federation of 1932 1936 N/A
Stationary Firemen and Oilers, International Brotherhood of 1898 1898 10,000 Journal: Firemen and Oilers Journal.
Steam and Operating Engineers, International Union of 1896 1897 25,300 Now International Union of Operating Engineers. Journal: International Steam Engineer.
Steam Shovel and Dredgemen, International Brotherhood of 1896 1915 N/A Suspended by AFL in 1920 due to jurisdictional dispute with Steam Engineers. Journal: Steam Shovel and Dredge.
Stereotypers and Electrotypers' Union, International 1902 1902 6,800 Journal: International Stereotypers and Electrotypers' Union Journal.
Stone Cutters' Association, Journeymen 1853 1907 5,100 Journal: The Stone Cutters Journal.
Stove Mounters' International Union 1892 1894 1,600 Journal: Stove Mounters and Range Workers' Journal.
Street and Electric Railway Employees of America, Amalgamated Association of 1892 1893 101,000 Now Amalgamated Transit Union. Journal: The Motorman and Conductor.
Switchmen's Union of North America 1894 1906 8,900 Journal: The Journal of the Switchmen's Union of North America.
Tailors' Union of America, Journeymen 1883 1887 9,300 Journal: The Tailor.
Teachers, American Federation of 1916 1916 3,500 Journal: American Federation of Teachers Monthly Bulletin.
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen and Helpers, International Brotherhood of 1899 1899 78,900 Journal: Official Magazine.
Technical Engineers', Architects' and Draftsmen's Unions, International Federation of 1916 1916 600
Telegraphers' Union of America, Commercial 1902 1902 4,100 Journal: The Commercial Telegraphers' Journal.
Textile Workers of America, United 1901 1901 30,000 Journal: The Textile Worker.
Theatrical Press Agents and Managers, Association of 1928 1928  ? Includes: Press Agents and Theatre Managers.
Timber Workers, International Union of N/A Disbanded 1923.
Tobacco Workers' International Union 1895 1895 1,400 Journal: Tobacco Worker.
Transferrers' Association of America, International Steel Plate N/A Apparently absorbed through amalgamation or defunct by 1925.
Tunnel and Subway Constructors 1910 1910 3,000
Typographical Union, International 1852 1881 71,000 Journals: The Typographical Journal (English); Buchdrucker-Zeitung (German).
Upholsters' International Union of North America 1882 1892 7,600 Journal: Upholsterers' Journal.
Wall Paper Crafts of North America, United 1923 1923 600
Wire Weavers' Protective Association, America 1876 1895 400
Wood Carvers' Association of North America, International 1883 1896 1,000 Journal: The International Woodcarver.

Non-affiliated railroad brotherhoods[edit]

Union Date Organized Date Affiliated 1925 Members Comments
Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood of 1863 N/A Journal: Locomotive Engineers' Journal.
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, Brotherhood of 1873 N/A Now part of United Transportation Union. Journal: Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen's Magazine.
Railroad Conductors, Order of 1868 N/A Journal: The Railroad Conductor.
Railroad Trainmen, Brotherhood of 1883 N/A Journal: The Railroad Trainman.
Railroad Workers, American Federation of N/A Journal: The Railroad Worker.
Railroad Yardmasters, Brotherhood of 1918 N/A
Railway Employees, Brotherhood of N/A Journal: Railway Employees' Journal
Railway Expressmen, Order of N/A Journal: The Railway Expressman.
Sleeping Car Porters, Brotherhood of 1924 N/A
Train Dispatchers Association 1917 N/A Journal: The Train Dispatcher.

Other independent trade unions[edit]

Union Date Organized Date Affiliated 1925 Members Comments
Clothing Workers of America, Amalgamated 1914 N/A Journals: The Advance (English); Darbas (Lithuanian); Fortschrift (Yiddish); Il Lavoro (Italian); Prace (Czech); Przemyslowa Democracia (Polish); Rabochii Golos (Russian).
Food Workers, Amalgamated N/A Journals: Free Voice of the Amalgamated Food Workers; Hotel Worker.
Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association, National N/A Journal: The American Marine Engineer.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Philip S. Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2: From the Founding of the AFL to the Emergence of American Imperialism. New York: International Publishers, 1955; pp. 132–133.
  2. ^ a b Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pg. 134.
  3. ^ a b Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pg. 135.
  4. ^ Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pp. 135–136.
  5. ^ a b c Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pg. 136.
  6. ^ In addition to noting authorship, in his posthumously-published memoirs Samuel Gompers provides the complete text of the call. See: Samuel Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor: An Autobiography. In two volumes. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1925; vol. 1, pp. 236–257.
  7. ^ Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor, vol. 1, pg. 258.
  8. ^ Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor, vol. 1, pg. 257.
  9. ^ a b Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pg. 137.
  10. ^ Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pg. 138.
  11. ^ Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pg. 139.
  12. ^ History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pg. 141.
  13. ^ Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pp. 141–142.
  14. ^ a b c Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pg. 143.
  15. ^ Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor, vol. 1, pg. 275.
  16. ^ Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pg. 160.
  17. ^ Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Volume 2, pg. 164.
  18. ^ William C. Roberts (ed.), American Federation of Labor: History, Encyclopedia, Reference Book. Washington, DC: American Federation of Labor, 1919; pg. 63.
  19. ^ Roberts, American Federation of Labor: History, Encyclopedia, Reference Book, pg. 6.
  20. ^ Melvyn Dubofsky, We Shall Be All, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000; pp. 5–6.
  21. ^ Robert H. Babcock, Gompers in Canada: A Study in American Continentalism before the First World War (1974)
  22. ^ Catherine Collomp, "Unions, Civics, and National Identity," Labor History, Fall 1988, Vol. 29#4 pp. 450–74
  23. ^ A. T. Lane, "American Trade Unions, Mass Immigration and the Literacy Test: 1900–1917," Labor History, Winter 1984, Vol. 25#1 pp. 5–25
  24. ^ Gwendolyn Mink, Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political Development: Union, Party, and State, 1875–1920 (1986).
  25. ^ Goldstein, Robert Justin (2001). Political Repression in Modern America. University of Illinois Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-252-06964-1. 
  26. ^ Sidney Fine (1995). "Without Blare of Trumpets": Walter Drew, The National Erectors' Association, and the Open Shop Movement, 1903–1957. University of Michigan Press. p. 203. 
  27. ^ Michael Kazin et al., eds. (2011). The Concise Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. Princeton University Press. p. 321. 
  28. ^ Allan J. Lichtman (2000). Prejudice and the Old Politics: The Presidential Election of 1928. Lexington Books. p. 188. 
  29. ^ The Social Economic Foundation, A Labor Party for the United States. New York: The Social Economic Foundation, 1936.[unreliable source?]
  30. ^ Michael K. Honey, Southern labor and Black civil rights (1993) p 149
  31. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 296-302, Random House, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  32. ^ Ernest Obadele-Starks, Black Unionism in the Industrial South (2001) p 13
  33. ^ Philip F. Rubio, A history of affirmative action, 1619–2000 (2001) p. 69
  34. ^ Phillip Foner, Women and the American Labor Movement from Colonial Times to the Eve of World War I. New York: The Free Press, 1979; pg. 214.
  35. ^ Alice Kessler-Harris, "Where Are the Organized Women Workers?" Feminist Studies, vol. 3, no. 1. (Autumn, 1975), pg. 96.
  36. ^ Foner, Women and the American Labor Movement, pp. 304–340.
  37. ^ Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History of Wage Earning Women in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982; pp. 200–202.

Bibliography and further reading[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

  • American Federation of Labor. Some Reasons for Chinese Exclusion. Meat vs. Rice. American Manhood against Asiatic Coolieism. Which Shall Survive? Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Labor, 1901.
  • Gompers, Samuel. American Labor and the War. New York: George H. Doran Co., n.d. [1918].
  • Gompers, Samuel. Labor and the Employer. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1920.
  • Gompers, Samuel. Seventy Years of Life and Labor: An Autobiography. In two volumes. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1925.
  • The Samuel Gompers Papers. Currently published in 11 volumes, coverage to 1921. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991–2009.

Secondary sources[edit]

  • Arnesen, Eric, ed. Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History (2006), 2064pp; 650 articles by experts excerpt and text search
  • Baker, Jay N. "The American Federation of Labor" (1912) complete text online
  • Beik, Millie, ed. Labor Relations: Major Issues in American History (2005) over 100 annotated primary documents excerpt and text search
  • Boris, Eileen, Nelson Lichtenstein, and Thomas Paterson. Major Problems In The History Of American Workers: Documents and Essays (2002)
  • Brody, David. In Labor's Cause: Main Themes on the History of the American Worker (1993) excerpt and text search
  • Brooks, George W.; Derber, Milton; McCabe, David A.; and Taft, Philip (eds.), Interpreting the Labor Movement. Madison: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1952.
  • Browne, Waldo Ralph. What's what in the Labor Movement: A Dictionary of Labor Affairs and Labor (1921) 577pp; encyclopedia of labor terms, organizations and history. complete text online
  • Commons, John R, et al. History of Labour in the United States. esp. Vol. 2: 1860–1896 (1918); Vol. 4: Labor Movements, 1896–1932 (1935).
  • Currarino, Rosanne. "The Politics of 'More': The Labor Question and the Idea of Economic Liberty in Industrial America." Journal of American History. vol. 93, no. 1 (June 2006).
  • Dubofsky, Melvyn, and Foster Rhea Dulles. Labor in America: A History (2004), textbook
  • Dubofsky, Melvyn, and Warren Van Tine, eds. Labor Leaders in America (1987) biographies of key leaders, written by scholars excerpt and text search
  • Foner, Philip S. History of the Labor Movement in the United States. In 10 volumes. New York: International Publishers, 1947–1994; Vol. 2: From the Founding of the American Federation of Labor to the Emergence of American Imperialism (1955); Vol. 3: The Policies and Practices of the American Federation of Labor, 1900–1909 (1964); Vol. 5: The AFL in the Progressive Era, 1910–1915 (1980); Vol. 6: On the Eve of America's Entrance into World War I, 1915–1916 (1982); Vol. 7: Labor and World War I, 1914–1918 (1987); Vol. 8: Post-war Struggles, 1918–1920 (1988). a view from the Left that is hostile to Gompers
  • Galenson, Walter. The CIO Challenge to the AFL: A History of the American Labor Movement, 1935–1941 (1960) online edition
  • Greene, Julie. Pure and Simple Politics: The American Federation of Labor and Political Activism, 1881–1917 (1998) online edition
  • Karson, Marc. American Labor Unions and Politics, 1900–1918. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1958.
  • Kersten, Andrew. Labor's Home Front: The American Federation of Labor during World War II (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Lichtenstein, Nelson. State of the Union: A Century of American Labor (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Livesay, Harold C. Samuel Gompers and Organized Labor in America (1993), short biography
  • McCartin, Joseph A. Labor's Great War: The Struggle for Industrial Democracy and the Origins of Modern American Labor Relations, 1912–21. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1997.
  • Mandel, Bernard. Samuel Gompers: A Biography (1963) online edition
  • Mink, Gwendolyn. Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political Development: Union, Party, and State, 1875–1920 (1986)
  • Orth, Samuel Peter. The Armies of Labor: A Chronicle of the Organized Wage-Earners. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1919.
  • Roberts, William C. (ed.), American Federation of Labor: History, Encyclopedia, Reference Book. Washington, DC: American Federation of Labor, 1919.
  • Taft, Philip. The A.F. of L. in the Time of Gompers. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1957.
  • Taft, Philip. The A.F. of L. from the Death of Gompers to the Merger. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959.

Archives[edit]

External links[edit]