American and British English pronunciation differences

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Differences in pronunciation between American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) can be divided into:

In the following discussion

  • superscript A2 after a word indicates that the BrE pronunciation of the word is a common variant in AmE.
  • superscript B2 after a word indicates that the AmE pronunciation of the word is a common variant in BrE.
  • superscript A1 after a word indicates that the pronunciation given as BrE is also the most common variant in AmE.
  • superscript B1 after a word indicates that the pronunciation given as AmE is also the most common variant in BrE.

Stress[edit]

Subscript a or b means that the relevant unstressed vowel is also reduced to /ə/ or /ɨ/ in AmE or BrE, respectively.

French stress[edit]

For many loanwords from French where AmE has kept the original French final-syllable stress, BrE stresses an earlier syllable. French loanwors that differs in stress only are listed below.

BrE AmE words with relevant syllable stressed in each dialect
1st last balletA2,[1] barragea,[nb 1][2] batona,[3] bereta,[4] bideta,[5] blasé,[6] brevetabA2,[7] brochurebB2*[nb 2],[8] buffeta,[nb 3][9] caféA2[citation needed],[10] caffeineA2,[11] canardaB2,[12] chagrina,[13] chaletA2,[14] chauffeurAB2,[15] chiffon,[16] clichéB2[citation needed],[17] coupé,[18] croissanta,[19] debrisaB2[citation needed][nb 4],[20] debut,[21] décor,[22] detailaA2,[23] détenteB1,[24] flambé,[nb 5][25] frappé,[26] gargea,B2[citation needed],[nb 6][27] gateau,[28] gourmetA2,[29] lamé,[30] montageA2[citation needed],B2,[31] parquet,[32] pastelb,[33] pastilleb,[34] pâté,[nb 7][35] précis,[36] sachet,[37] salona,[38] soupçon,[39] vaccine,[40] matinée,[41] négligée,[42] nonchalantb,[43] nondescript.[44]

Also some French names, including: CalaisA2,[45] Degasa*,[46] Dijon,[47] Dumas,[48] Francoise,[citation needed] Manet,[49] Maurice,[citation needed] Monet,[nb 8] Pauline,[citation needed] Renaulta,[50] RenéB2,[citation needed] Rimbaud.[nb 9][51]

2nd last attachéa,[52] consomméa,[53] décolleté,[54] déclassé,[citation needed] démodé,[55] denouement,[56] distingué,[57] escargot *a,[58] exposé,[59] fiancé(e)A2,[60] retroussé.[61]

Also some French names, including: De Beauvoir,[citation needed] Debussyb,[62] Dubonneta.[63]

last 1st address (noun)bA1,[64] cigaretteA2,[65] limousineAB2,[66] magazineB2[citation needed],[67] mayonnaise,[68] partisanaB2*[nb 10][69]
last 2nd New OrleansA2.[citation needed]
2nd 1st liaisonabA2*[nb 11],[70] macramé,[citation needed]
2nd 1st/last Renaissanceab.[71]
1st/2nd 2nd/last escalopeab.[72]

Verbs ending in –ate[edit]

Most 2-syllable verbs ending -ate have first-syllable stress in AmE and second-syllable stress in BrE. This includes castrate,[73] crematebA2,[74] dictateA2,[75] donateA2,[76] locateA2,[77] migrate,[78] narratebAB2,[79] placateb,[80] prostrate,[81] pulsate,[82] rotate,[83] serrateAB2,[citation needed] spectate,[84] striate,[85] translateA1,[86] vacateb*A2,[87] vibrateA2.[88] Examples where AmE and BrE match include create, debate, equate, elate, negate; and mandate and probate with first-syllable stress. Derived nouns in -ator retains the distinction, but those in -ation do not. Also, migratoryB1 [89] and vibratoryB1 [90] sometimes retain the distinction.

Most longer -ate verbs are pronounced the same in AmE and BrE, but a few have first-syllable stress in BrE and second-syllable stress in AmE: elongate,a[91] infiltrateA2,[92] remonstrateabA2,[93] tergiversateaA2.[nb 12] [94] For some derived adjectives ending -atory stress-shifting to -at- occurs in BrE. Among these cases are celebratoryaA2[citation needed][95] (BrE: /ˌsɛlɨˈbreɪtəri/), participatoryaB2[citation needed],[96] regulatoryaB1,[97] compensatorya.[98] AmE stresses the same syllable as the corresponding -ate verb (except compensatory, where AmE stresses the second syllable[99]). A further -atory difference is laboratory: AmE /ˈlæbrəˌtɔːri/ and BrE /ləˈbɒrətᵊri/.[100]

Miscellaneous stress[edit]

There are a number of cases where same-spelled noun, verb and/or adjective have uniform stress in one dialect but distinct stress in the other (e.g. alternate, prospect): see initial-stress-derived noun.

The following table lists words not brought up in the discussion so far where the main difference between AmE and BrE is in stress. Usually it also follows a reduction of the unstressed vowel. Words marked with subscript A or B are exceptions to this, and thus retains a full wovel in the (relatively) unstressed syllable of AmE or BrE. A subsequent asterisk, *, means that the full vowel is usually retained; a preceding * means that the full vowel is sometimes retained.

Words with other points of difference are listed in a later table.

BrE AmE words with relevant syllable stressed in each dialect
1st 2nd adultBAB2,[101] aristocratA2[citation needed],B2,[102] basaltB,[103] cannotBA2,B2*,[104] caseinABA2,[105] communalA2*,B2,[106] formidableB2,[citation needed] harassAB2,[107] Kathleen,[citation needed] kilometre/kilometerAB2[108] omegaA,[109] paprikaA*A2[citation needed],B2,[110] patina,[111] stalactite,[112] stalagmite,[113] SuezA2*,[114] subaltern,[115] thanksgivingABA2[citation needed],B2,[116] transferenceA[117]
2nd 1st ancillaryB,[118] anginaA2,[citation needed] AugustineBA2,[119] capillary,[120] catenary,[121] controversyB1,[122] corollary,[123] defence/defenseA (sport),[124] fritillary,[125] guffawA2,[citation needed] hospitableBAB2,[126] ice creamABA2[citation needed],B2[citation needed],[127] LofotenB2,[citation needed] marshmallowAB (AmE (1) /ˈmɑːrʃˌmeloʊ/ AmE (2) & BrE /mæloʊ/)[128] medullaryBA2,[129] miscellany (AmE /ˈmɪsəˌleɪni/[130] papaB2,[131] patronal,[132] predicative,[133] pretence/pretenseAA2,[134] princess*AAB2,[135] saxophonistBB2,[136] spreadeagled/spread-eagledAB,[137] weekendABB2 [138]
1st 3rd obsoleteAB,[139] opportuneAB,[140] submarineABAB2 [141]
2nd 3rd advertisement,[142] submarinerA2 [143]
3rd 1st cockatooAB,[144] margarineB,[145] PyreneesAB[146]
3rd 2nd arytenoidA2,[147] obscurantismABA2,[148] oregano[149]

Affixes[edit]

-ary,-ery,-ory,-mony,-bury,-berry[edit]

Where the syllable preceding the suffixes -ary,-ery, -ory or –mony is unstressed, AmE pronounces the antepenultimate syllable with a full vowel sound: /ˌɛri/ for -ary and -ery, /ˌɔri/ for -ory and /ˌmoʊni/ for -mony. BrE reduces the vowel to a schwa or even elides it completely: /əri/ or /ri/, and /məni/. So military is AmE /ˈmɪləˌtɛri/ and BrE English pronunciation: /ˈmɪlɨtəri/ or /ˈmɪlɨtri/,[150] inventory is AmE /ˈɪnvənˌtɔri/ and BrE /ˈɪnvəntᵊri/,[151] and testimony is AmE /ˈtestɨˌmoʊni/ and BrE /ˈtestɨməni/.[152] (The elision is avoided in carefully enunciated speech, especially with endings -rary,-rery,-rory.[citation needed])

Where the syllable preceding -ary,-ery, -ory or –mony is stressed however, AmE also usually reduces the vowel: /əri/, /məni/. Exceptions include library,[153] primaryA2,[154] rosemary.[155] (Pronouncing library as /ˈlaɪˌbɛri/ rather than /ˈlaɪˌbrɛri/ is highly stigmatized in AmE,[citation needed] whereas in BrE, /ˈlaɪbri/ is common in rapid or casual speech.)

The suffix -berry is pronounced by similar rules, except that in BrE it may be full (/ˌbɛri/) after an unstressed syllable, while in AmE it is usually full in all cases. Thus we have strawberry: BrE /ˈstrɔːbᵊri/, AmE /ˈstrɔːˌbɛri/, and whortleberry: BrE/AmE English pronunciation: /ˈwɔː(r)tlˌbɛri/.

The placename component -bury (e.g. Canterbury) has a similar difference: AmE has a full vowel: /ˌbɛri/ wher BrE has a reduced or none at all: /bᵊri/.

Note that stress differences between the dialects occur with some words ending in -atory (listed above) and a few others like capillary (included in #Miscellaneous stress above).

Formerly the BrE–AmE distinction for adjectives carried over to corresponding adverbs ending -arily, -erily or -orily. However, nowadays most BrE speakers adopt the AmE practice of shifting the stress to the antepenultimate syllable: militarily is thus generally /ˌmɪlɨˈtɛrɨli/ rather than /ˈmɪlɨtrɨli/.

-ile[edit]

Words ending in unstressed -ile derived from Latin adjectives ending -ilis are mostly pronounced with a full vowel in BrE (/aɪl/) but a reduced vowel or syllabic L in AmE (/əl/) (e.g. fertile rhymes with fur tile in BrE but with furtle in AmE).

AmE will (unlike BrE, except when indicated withB2 orB1) have a reduced last vowel:

In some words the pronunciation /iːl/ also comes into play:

Related endings -ility, -ilize, -iliary are pronounced the same in AmE as BrE.

-ine[edit]

The suffix -ine, when unstressed, is pronounced sometimes /aɪn/ (e.g. feline), sometimes /iːn/ (e.g. morphine) and sometimes /ɪn/ (e.g. medicine). Some words have variable pronunciation within BrE, or within AmE, or between BrE and AmE. Generally, AmE is more likely to favour /iːn/ or /ɪn/, and BrE to favour /aɪn/.

BrE /aɪn/, AmE (1) /iːn/ (2) /aɪn/: carbine,[198] philistine,[199] serpentine.[200]

BrE /aɪn/, AmE (1) /iːn/ (2) /ɪn/: adamantineA3.[201]

BrE /aɪn/, AmE /ɪn/: turbineAB2.[202]

BrE /aɪn/, AmE (1) /ɪn/ (2) /aɪn/ (3) /iːn/: crystalline,[203] labyrinthine.[204]

BrE (1) /iːn/, AmE (1) /aɪn/ (2) /ɪn/: iodine A3B23,[205] strychnineA3.[nb 13][206]

Weak forms[edit]

Many function words can have a weak form with a reduced vocal used when the word is unstressed, but the full vowel is usually used in formal settings. For example could /kʊd/, weak form /kəd/.[207] In AmE there are weak forms that are not present in BrE (except in some dialects). These include: or /ɚ/, your /jɚ/, and in /ən/.

On the other hand, the titles Saint and Sir before a person's name have weak forms in BrE but not AmE: before vowels, [snt] and [sər]; before consonants, [sn][citation needed] and [sə].

Miscellaneous pronunciation differences[edit]

These tables list words pronounced differently but spelled the same. See also the table of words with different pronunciation reflected in the spelling.

Single differences[edit]

Words with multiple points of difference of pronunciation are in the table after this one. Accent-based differences are ignored. For example, Moscow is RP /ˈmɒskəʊ/ and GAm /ˈmɑːskaʊ/, but only the /oʊ/-/aʊ/ difference is highlighted here, since both the /ɒ/-/ɑː/ difference and the RP use of /əʊ/ rather than /oʊ/ are predictable from the accent. Also, tiara is listed with AmE /æ/; the marry–merry–Mary merger changes this vowel for many Americans. Some AmE types are listed as /ɒ/ where GAm merges to /ɑː/. A2 means that American speakers may use either pronunciation;B2 means British speakers may use either pronunciation.

BrE AmE Words
/ɑː/ /æ/ Excluding trap–bath split words: banana,[208] khakiA2,[209] morale,[210] NevadaA2,[211] PakistaniA2,[212] scenarioA2,[213] sopranoA2,[214] tiaraA2,[215]
/æ/ /ɑː/ "A" in the anglicised pronunciation of many foreign names and loanwords, e.g: CaracasB2,[216] chiantiA2,[217] gulag,[218] kebab,[219] Las (placenames, e.g. Las Vegas[220]), MafiaA2,[221] MombasaA2,[222] pasta,[223] PicassoA2,[224] rallentando,[225] SlovakA2,[226] Sri LankaA2,[227] Vivaldi,[228] wigwam,[229]
/ɑː/ /eɪ/ amenA2, charadeB2, cicada, galaA2, promenadeA2, pro rata, tomato, stratumB2
/æ/ /eɪ/ basilA2 (plant), compatriot, expatriate, patriotB2, patronise, phalanx, plait, repatriate, Sabine, satrapA2
/eɪ/ /æ/ apricotA2, comrade, dahliaA2, data, digitalis, patentAB2, statusA1[230]
/iː/ /ɛ/ aesthete, anaesthetize, breveA2, catenaryA2, Daedalus, devolutionAB2, ecumenicalB2, epochA2, evolutionAB2, febrileA2, Hephaestus,hygienic, KenyaB2, leverA2, methane, OedipusA2, (o)estrogen, (o)estrus, p(a)edophile, penalizeA2, predecessorA2, pyrethrinA2, senileA2,
/ɛ/ /iː/ CecilAB2, crematoriumA2, cretin, depot, inherentAB2, leisureA2, reconnoit(re/er)A2, zebraB2, zenithAB2
/ɒ/ /oʊ/ Aeroflot, cognac, compost, Rosh Hashanah, homosexualB2, Interpol, Lod, pogrom, polkaB2, produce (noun), sconeAB2, shone, sojourn, trollB2, yogurt
/oʊ/ /ɒ/ codify, goffer, ogleA2, process (noun), processor, progress (noun), projectB2(noun), slothAB2, wont A2, wroth
/ɪ/ /aɪ/ advertisement, dynasty, housewifery, idyll, livelongA2, long-livedA2, privacyB2, simultaneous, vicariousA2, vitamin. See also -ine.
/aɪ/ /ɪ/ butylB2, divergeA2, minorityAB2, primer (schoolbook). See also -ine.
/ɒ/ /ʌ/ hovelAB2, hover. Also the strong forms of these function words: anybodyA2 (likewise every-, some-, and no-), becauseAB2 (and clipping 'cos/'cause), ofA2, fromA2, wasA2, whatA2
/ʌ/ /ɒ/ accomplice, accomplish, colanderB2, constableB2, Lombardy, monetaryA2, -mongerA2
/ɛ/ /eɪ/ ateB2, mêléeA2, chaise longue
/eɪ/ /ɛ/ againB2, nonpareilA2
/aɪ/ /iː/ eitherAB2, neitherAB2, Pleiades. See also -ine.
/iː/ /aɪ/ albino, migraineB2. Also the prefixes anti-A2, multi-A2, semi-A2 in loose compounds (e.g. in anti-establishment, but not in antibody). See also -ine.
/iː/ /eɪ/ eta, beta, quayA2, theta, zeta, heinousB2
/eɪ/ /iː/ deityAB2, HeleneA2, IsraelA2, Haggai[231]
/æ/ /ɒ/ twatB2
/ɒ/ /æ/ wrath
/ɑː/ /ɔː/ quarkAB2, UtahAB2
/ɑː(r)/ /ɔr/ quarkAB2,
/æ/ /ɛ/ femme fataleA2
/aɪ/ /eɪ/ Isaiah
/aʊ/ /uː/ nousA2
/ɔː/ /æ/ falconA2
/ʊ/ /ɪ/ kümmel
/ʊ/ /uː/ BuddhaA2
/ʊ/ /ʌ/ brusque, hummus
/uː/ /aʊ/ routeA1,[232]
/oʊ/ /uː/ broochA2
/uː/ /oʊ/ cantaloup(e)
/ʌ/ /oʊ/ covertAB2
/oʊ/ /aʊ/ MoscowA2
/ɪ/ /iː/ pi(t)taB2, Tunisia
/iː/ /ɪ/ beenB2
/uː/ /ʊ/ boulevard, snooker, woofA2 (weaving)
/ɛ/ /ɑ/ envelopeAB2
/ɑː(r)/ /ɜr/ Berkeley, Berkshire, clerk, Derby, Hertford. (The only AmE word with er = [ɑr] is sergeant.)
/ɪr/ /ɜr/ chirrupA2, stirrupA2, sirupA2, squirrel
/ɜː(r)/ /ɛr/ errA2
/ɔː(r)/ /ər/ record (noun), stridorAB2
/ə/ /ɒ/ Amazon, hexagon, octagon, paragon, pentagon, phenomenonA2, pythonA2
/ɒ/ /ə/ Amos, condom, Enoch
/ə/ /ɛ/ nonsense
/ɛ/ /ə/ Kentucky
/ə/ /æ/ trapeze
/ə(r)/ /ɑr/ MadagascarA2
/ə/ /eɪ/ DraconianA2, hurricaneB2
/ə/ /oʊ/ boroughA2, thoroughA2, also place names such as EdinburghA2 (see also -ory and -mony)
/eɪ/ /ə/ template
/juː/ /uː/ (Excluding words with predictable yod-dropping) barracuda, pumaA2
/juː/ /w/ iguana, jaguar, Nicaragua
/uː/ /juː/ couponA2, fuchsine, HoustonB2
/ə(r)/ /jər/ figureA2 for the verb
/ɑː/ /ət/ nougat
/eɪ/ /ət/ tourniquet
/oʊ/ /ɒt/ HuguenotA2
/ɜː/ /oʊ/ föhnB2, MöbiusB2
/ɜː/ /uː/ milieu
/ɜː(r)/ /ʊr/ connoisseurA2, entrepreneurA2
/ɜːz/ /uːs/ Betelgeuse, chanteuse, chartreuseA2, masseuse
/z/ /s/ AussieA2, blouse (noun), complaisantA2, crescent, diagnoseA2, erase, GlasgowA2, parse, valise, trans-AB2 (in some words)
/s/ /z/ asthma
/ts/ /z/ piazzaA2
/ð/ /θ/ boothB2
/ʃ/ /ʒ/ AsiaB2, dispersionB2, excursionB2, PersiaB2, versionB2
/t/ /θ/ AnthonyAB2
/siː/ /ʃ/ cassiaA2, CassiusA2, hessian
/ziː/ /ʃ/ transientA2, nauseaA2
/ziː/ /ʒ/ Frasier, Parisian, Malaysia, Tunisia
/di/ /dʒi/ cordiality·
/tiː/ /ʃ/ consortium
/ʃ/ /sk/ scheduleB2
/iːʃ/ /ɪtʃ/ nicheAB2
(sounded) (silent) chthonicB2,[233] herbA2,[234] KnossosB2,[235] phthisisB2,[236] salveA2,[237] solder,[238] (un)toward(s),A2(prep.),B2,[239]
(silent) (sounded) medicineB2,[240] suggestA2,[241] See also -ary -ery -ory -bury, -berry

Multiple differences[edit]

The slashes normally used to enclose IPA phonemic transcriptions have been omitted from the following table to improve legibility.

Spelling BrE IPA AmE IPA Notes
boehmite (1) ˈbɜːmaɪt
(2) ˈboʊmaɪt
(1) ˈbeɪmaɪt
(2) ˈboʊmaɪt
The first pronunciations approximate German [ø] (spelled ö or oe); the second ones are anglicized.
bouquet (1) buːˈkeɪ
(2) ˈbuːkeɪ
(1) boʊˈkeɪ
(2) buːˈkeɪ
 
boyar (1) ˈbɔɪɑː
(2) boʊˈjɑː
(1) boʊˈjɑr
(2) ˈbɔɪjər
 
buoy ˈbɔɪ ˈbuːi The U.S. pronunciation would be unrecognised in the UK. The British pronunciation occurs in America, more commonly for the verb than the noun, still more in derivatives buoyant, buoyancy.
canton kænˈtuːn (1) kænˈtɑːn
(2) kænˈtoʊn
difference is only in military sense "to quarter soldiers"
dilettante dɪləˈtænti (1) ˈdɪlətɑːnt
(2) ˌdɪləˈtɑːnt
BrE reflects the word's Italian origin; AmE approximates more to French.
enquiry/inquiry ɪŋˈkwaɪ(ə)ri (1) ˈɪnkwəri
(2) ɪŋˈkwaɪri
BrE uses two spellings and one pronunciation. In AmE the word is usually spelled inquiry.
febrile ˈfiːbraɪl (1) ˈfɛbriːl
(2) ˈfɛbrəl
The BrE pronunciation occurs in AmE
fracas ˈfrækɑː (1) ˈfreɪkəs
(2) ˈfrækəs
(3) frəˈkɑː
The BrE plural is French fracas /ˈfrækɑːz/. For AmE examples (1) and (2), the plural is anglicized fracases
glacier (1) ˈɡlæsiə
(2) ˈɡleɪsiə
ˈɡleɪʃər  
jalousie (1) ʒælʊˈziː
(2) ˈʒælʊziː
ˈdʒæləsi  
lapsang souchong ˈlæpsæŋ suːʃɒŋ ˌlɑːpsɑːŋ ˈsuːʃɑːŋ  
lasso ləˈsuː ˈlæsoʊ The BrE pronunciation is common in AmE
lieutenant (1) lɛfˈtɛnənt
(2) ləˈtɛnənt
luːˈtɛnənt The 2nd British pronunciation is restricted to the Royal Navy. Standard Canadian and Australian pronunciation is the same as the British.
lychee (1) ˈliːtʃiː
(2) laɪˈtʃiː
ˈliːtʃiː Spelling litchi has pronunciation /ˈlɪtʃiː/. The BrE pronunciation /laɪˈtʃiː/ also occurs in AmE.
mama[242] (1) ˈmamə
(2) məˈmɑː
ˈmɑːmə  
Molière ˈmɒliɛə moʊlˈjɛr  
moustache[243] mʊˈstɑːʃ ˈmʌs.tæʃ  
oblique əbˈliːk əbˈlaɪk AmE is as BrE except in military sense "advance at an angle"
penchant pɑ̃ˈʃɑ̃ ˈpɛntʃənt The AmE pronunciation is anglicized; the BrE is French.
penult pɛˈnʌlt (1) ˈpiːnʌlt
(2) pɪˈnʌlt
 
phthisic[244] (1) ˈ(f)θaɪsɪk
(2) ˈtaɪsɪk
(1) ˈtɪzɪk
(2) ˈθɪzɪk
 
premature[245] ˈpremətʃə (1)ˌpriːməˈtʃʊr
(2) ˌpriːməˈtʊr
 
premier (1) ˈprɛmjə
(2) ˈprɛmɪə
(1) ˈpriːmɪər
(2) prɪmˈɪər
 
première ˈprɛmɪɛə (1) prɪˈmɪər
(2) prɪmˈjɛr
 
provost ˈprɒvəst (1) ˈproʊvoʊst
(2) ˈproʊvəst
The BrE pronunciation also occurs in AmE
quinine ˈkwɪniːn (1) ˈkwaɪnaɪn
(2) ˈkwɪnaɪn
 
resource (1) rɨˈzɔːs
(2) rɨˈsɔːs
ˈriːsɔːrs  
respite ˈrɛspaɪt (1) ˈrɛspɪt
(2) rɨˈspaɪt
 
reveille rɪˈvæliː ˈrɛvəli  
slough slaʊ slʌf sense "bog"; in metaphorical sense "gloom", the BrE pronunciation is common in AmE. Homograph "cast off skin" is /slʌf/ everywhere.
Tunisia tjuːˈnɪziə (1) tuˈniʒə
(2) tuˈniʃə
 
vase vɑːz (1) veɪs
(2) veɪz
The BrE pronunciation also occurs in AmE
z (the letter) zɛd ziː The spelling of this letter as a word corresponds to the pronunciation: thus Commonwealth (including, Canada) zed and U.S. zee.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For "dam (barrier)": AmE /ˈbɑːrɪdʒ/
  2. ^ AmE /broʊˈʃʊr/, BrE (1) /ˈbrəʊʃə/ (2) /brɒˈʃʊə/
  3. ^ BrE (1) /ˈbʊfeɪ / (2) /ˈbʌfeɪ/
  4. ^ BrE (1) /ˈdɛbriː/ (2) / ˈdeɪbriː/
  5. ^ BrE /ˈflɒmbeɪ/
  6. ^ BrE also /ˈɡærɪdʒ/, esp. for "petrol garage"/"gas station"[citation needed]
  7. ^ AmE /pɑːˈteɪ/, BrE /ˈpæteɪ/
  8. ^ BrE /ˈmɒneɪ/, AmE /moʊˈneɪ/, French: [mɔnɛ]
  9. ^ French: [aʁtyʁ ʁɛ̃bo]
  10. ^ No vowel reduction in the "B2" variant pronunciation.
  11. ^ The last vowel is usually reduced in BrE. AmE only reduces the middle one.
  12. ^ BrE also / ˌtɜːdʒɪˈvɜːseɪt/
  13. ^ BrE also /ɪn/

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ballet (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "ballet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  2. ^ "barrage (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  3. ^ "baton". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  4. ^ "beret". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  5. ^ "bidet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  6. ^ "blasé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  7. ^ "brevet". Merriam-Webster. 
  8. ^ "brochure". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "brochure (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  9. ^ "buffet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  10. ^ "café". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  11. ^ "caffeine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "caffeine (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  12. ^ "canard (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "canard". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  13. ^ "chagrin". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  14. ^ "chalet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "chalet (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  15. ^ "chauffeur". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "chauffeur (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "chauffeur (BrE)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  16. ^ "chiffon". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  17. ^ "cliché". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  18. ^ "coupé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  19. ^ "croissant". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  20. ^ "debris". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  21. ^ "debut". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  22. ^ "décor". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  23. ^ "detail". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "detail (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  24. ^ "détente (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "détente (BrE)". Macmillan Dictionary. "détente (AmE)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  25. ^ "flambé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  26. ^ "frappé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  27. ^ "garage". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  28. ^ "gateau". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  29. ^ "gourmet (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "gourmet (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  30. ^ "lamé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  31. ^ "montage". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  32. ^ "parquet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  33. ^ "pastel". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  34. ^ "pastille". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  35. ^ "pâté". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  36. ^ "précis". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  37. ^ "sachet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  38. ^ "salon". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  39. ^ "soupçon". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  40. ^ "vaccine". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  41. ^ "matinée". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  42. ^ "négligée". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  43. ^ "nonchalant". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
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  46. ^ "Degas (BrE)". Collins Dictionary. "Degas (AmE)". Collins Dictionary. 
  47. ^ "Dijon (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Dijon (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  48. ^ "Dumas (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Dumas (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  49. ^ "Manet (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Manet (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  50. ^ "Renault (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Renault (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  51. ^ "Rimbaud (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Rimbaud (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  52. ^ "attaché". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  53. ^ "consommé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  54. ^ "décolleté". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  55. ^ "démodé (BrE)". Macmillan Dictionary. "démodé (AmE)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  56. ^ "denouement". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  57. ^ "distingué (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "distingué (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  58. ^ "escargot (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "escargot (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  59. ^ "exposé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  60. ^ "fiancé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "fiancée". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "fiancé (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  61. ^ "retroussé (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "retroussé (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  62. ^ "Debussy (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Debussy (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  63. ^ "Dubonnet (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Dubonnet (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  64. ^ "address". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  65. ^ "cigarette". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  66. ^ "limousine (BrE)". Macmillan Dictionary. "limousine (AmE)". Macmillan Dictionary. "limousine". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  67. ^ "magazine". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  68. ^ "mayonnaise". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  69. ^ "partisan". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  70. ^ "liaison (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "liaison (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  71. ^ "renaissance". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  72. ^ "escalope (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "escalope (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  73. ^ "castrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  74. ^ "cremate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "cremate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  75. ^ "dictate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "dictate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  76. ^ "donate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "donate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  77. ^ "locate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "locate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  78. ^ "migrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  79. ^ "narrate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "narrate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  80. ^ "placate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  81. ^ "prostrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  82. ^ "pulsate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  83. ^ "rotate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  84. ^ "spectate (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "spectate (main entry AmE-based)". Dictionary.com. 
  85. ^ "striate (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "striate (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  86. ^ "translate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  87. ^ "vacate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "vacate". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  88. ^ "vibrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  89. ^ "migratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  90. ^ "vibratory(AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  91. ^ "elongate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  92. ^ "infiltrate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. (AmE) "infiltrate". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  93. ^ "remonstrate (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "remonstrate (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  94. ^ "tergiversate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  95. ^ "celebratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  96. ^ "participatory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  97. ^ "regulatory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  98. ^ "compensatory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  99. ^ "compensatory (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  100. ^ "laboratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "laboratory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  101. ^ "adult (BrE)". Macmillan Dictionary. "adult (AmE)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  102. ^ "aristocrat (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "aristocrat (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  103. ^ "basalt". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  104. ^ "cannot (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "cannot (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  105. ^ "casein (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "casein (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  106. ^ "communal (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "communal (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  107. ^ "harass (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "harass (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  108. ^ "kilometre (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "kilometer (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  109. ^ "omega". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  110. ^ "paprika (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "paprika (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  111. ^ "patina". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  112. ^ "stalactite". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  113. ^ "stalagmite". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  114. ^ "Suez (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Suez (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  115. ^ "subaltern". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  116. ^ "thanksgiving (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "thanksgiving (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  117. ^ "transference". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  118. ^ "ancillary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  119. ^ "Augustine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Augustine (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  120. ^ "capillary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  121. ^ "catenary (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "catenary (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  122. ^ "controversy". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  123. ^ "corollary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  124. ^ "defense (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  125. ^ "fritillary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  126. ^ "hospitable (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "hospitable (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  127. ^ "ice cream". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  128. ^ "marshmallow". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  129. ^ "medullary (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "medullary (main entry AmE-based)". Dictionary.com. 
  130. ^ "miscellany". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  131. ^ "papa (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "papa (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  132. ^ "patronal (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "patronal (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  133. ^ "predicative". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  134. ^ "pretence (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "pretense (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  135. ^ "princess (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "princess (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  136. ^ "saxophonist". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "saxophonist (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  137. ^ "spreadeagled (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "spread-eagled (main entry AmE-based)". Dictionary.com. 
  138. ^ "weekend (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "weekend (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  139. ^ "obsolete (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  140. ^ "opportune". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  141. ^ "submarine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "submarine (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  142. ^ "advertisement". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  143. ^ "submariner (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  144. ^ "cockatoo". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  145. ^ "margarine". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  146. ^ "Pyrenees (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Pyrenees (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  147. ^ "arytenoid (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "arytenoid (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  148. ^ "obscurantism". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "obscurantism (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  149. ^ "oregano". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  150. ^ "military (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "military (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  151. ^ "inventory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "inventory (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  152. ^ "testimony". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  153. ^ "library". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  154. ^ "primary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "primary (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  155. ^ "rosemary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  156. ^ "agile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  157. ^ "docile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  158. ^ "facile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  159. ^ "fertile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  160. ^ "fissile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  161. ^ "fragile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  162. ^ "futile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  163. ^ "missile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  164. ^ "puerile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  165. ^ "stabile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  166. ^ "sterile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  167. ^ "tactile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  168. ^ "tensile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  169. ^ "versatile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  170. ^ "virile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  171. ^ "volatile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  172. ^ "decile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "decile (AmE-based)". Dictionary.com. 
  173. ^ "ductile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "ductile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  174. ^ "febrile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. "febrile (AmE)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  175. ^ "hostile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "hostile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  176. ^ "juvenile (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "juvenile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  177. ^ "mobile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "mobile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  178. ^ "mobile (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  179. ^ "nubile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  180. ^ "projectile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "projectile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  181. ^ "reptile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "utile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  182. ^ "servile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "servile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  183. ^ "textile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  184. ^ "utile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "utile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  185. ^ "domicile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  186. ^ "infantile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  187. ^ "labile (main entry AmE, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  188. ^ "mercantile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  189. ^ "pensile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  190. ^ "percentile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  191. ^ "senile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  192. ^ "camomile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  193. ^ "mercantile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  194. ^ "mobile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  195. ^ "stabile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "stabile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  196. ^ "imbecile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "imbecile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  197. ^ "rutile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "rutile (main entry AmE-based)". Dictionary.com. 
  198. ^ "carbine (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  199. ^ "philistine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "philistine (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  200. ^ "carbine (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  201. ^ "adamantine (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  202. ^ "turbine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "turbine (main entry AmE-based)". Dictionary.com. 
  203. ^ "crystalline (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  204. ^ "labyrinthine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "labyrinthine (AmE)". Merriam-Webster. 
  205. ^ "iodine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "iodine (main entry AmE-based)". Dictionary.com. 
  206. ^ "strychnine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "strychnine (AmE)". Merriam-Webster. 
  207. ^ http://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/could
  208. ^ "banana (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  209. ^ "khaki (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  210. ^ "morale (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  211. ^ "Nevada (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  212. ^ "Pakistani (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  213. ^ "scenario (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  214. ^ "soprano (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  215. ^ "tiara (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  216. ^ "Caracas (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  217. ^ "Chianti (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  218. ^ "gulag (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  219. ^ "Kebab (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Kebab (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  220. ^ "Las Vegas (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  221. ^ "Mafia (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  222. ^ "Mombasa (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  223. ^ "pasta (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  224. ^ "Picasso (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  225. ^ "rallentando (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  226. ^ "Slovak (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  227. ^ "Sri Lanka (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  228. ^ "Vivaldi (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  229. ^ "wigwam(main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  230. ^ "status (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  231. ^ "Haggai (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Haggai (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  232. ^ "route (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  233. ^ "chthonic (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "chthonic (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  234. ^ "herb (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  235. ^ "Knossos (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Knossos (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  236. ^ "phthisis (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  237. ^ "salve (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. "salve (AmE)". Merriam-Webster. 
  238. ^ "solder (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  239. ^ "towards (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  240. ^ "medicine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "medicine (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  241. ^ "suggest (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  242. ^ "mama (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "mama (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  243. ^ "moustache". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  244. ^ "phthisic (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  245. ^ "premature". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.