American and British English pronunciation differences

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Differences in pronunciation between American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) can be divided into:

In the following discussion

  • superscript A2 after a word indicates that the BrE pronunciation of the word is a common variant in AmE.
  • superscript B2 after a word indicates that the AmE pronunciation of the word is a common variant in BrE.
  • superscript A1 after a word indicates that the pronunciation given as BrE is also the most common variant in AmE.
  • superscript B1 after a word indicates that the pronunciation given as AmE is also the most common variant in BrE.
  • superscript A0, B0, or AB0 after a word indicates that another pronunciation than the concerned is actually the most common in AmE, BrE or both.

Stress[edit]

French stress[edit]

For many loanwords from French where AmE has kept the original French final-syllable stress, BrE stresses an earlier syllable. French loanwors that differs in stress only are listed below.

BrE AmE words with relevant syllable stressed in each dialect
1st last ballet A2,[1] barrage (for "dam (barrier)" AmE /ˈbɑ:rɪdʒ/),[2] baton,[3] beret,[4] bidet,[5] blasé,[6] brevet A2,[7] brochure B2[citation needed],[8] buffet,[9] café A2[citation needed],[10] canard B2,[11] chagrin,[12] chalet A2,[13] chauffeur A2,B2,[14] chiffon,[15] cliché B2[citation needed],[16] coupé,[17] croissant,[18] debris B2[citation needed],[19] debut,[20] décor,[21] detail A2,[22] détente B1,[23] flambé,[24] frappé,[25] garage B2[citation needed] (BrE also /ˈɡærɪdʒ/, esp. for "petrol garage"/"gas station"[citation needed])[26] gateau,[27] gourmet A2,[28] lamé,[29] montage A2[citation needed],B2,[30] parquet,[31] pastel,[32] pastille,[33] pâté,[34] précis,[35] sachet,[36] salon,[37] soupçon,[38] vaccine,[39] matinée,[40] négligée,[41] nonchalant,[42] nondescript.[43]

Also some French names, including: Calais A2,[44] Degas,[45] Dijon,[46] Dumas,[47] Francoise,[citation needed] Manet,[48] Maurice,[citation needed] Monet (BrE /ˈmɒneɪ/, AmE //moʊˈneɪ/, French: [mɔnɛ]/) Pauline,[citation needed] Renault,[49] René B2,[citation needed] Rimbaud.[50]

2nd last attaché,[51] consommé,[52] décolleté,[53] déclassé,[citation needed] démodé,[54] denouement,[55] distingué,[56] escargot,[57] exposé,[58] fiancé(e) A2,[59] retroussé.[60]

Also some French names, including: De Beauvoir,[citation needed] Debussy,[61] Dubonnet.[62]

last 1st address (noun) A1,[63] cigarette A2, limousine A2,B2,[64] magazine B2[citation needed],[65] mayonnaise,[66] partisan (BrE also /ˈpɑːtɪˌzæn/; AmE /ˈpɑrtəzən/).[67]
last 2nd New Orleans A2.[citation needed]
2nd 1st liaison A1,[68] macramé,[citation needed]
2nd 1st/last Renaissance.[69]
1st/2nd 2nd/last escalope.[70]

Verbs ending in –ate[edit]

Most 2-syllable verbs ending -ate have first-syllable stress in AmE and second-syllable stress in BrE. This includes castrate,[71] cremate A2,[72] dictate A2,[73] donate A2,[74] locate A2,[75] migrate,[76] narrate A2,[77] placate,[78] prostrate,[79] pulsate,[80] rotate,[81] serrate A2,B2,[citation needed] spectate,[citation needed] striate,[82] translate A1,[83] vacate A2,[84] vibrate A2;[85] in the case of cremate, narrate, placate and often vacate, the first vowel is in addition reduced to /ə/ or /ɨ/ in BrE. Examples where AmE and BrE match include create, debate, equate, elate, negate; and mandate and probate with first-syllable stress. Derived nouns in -ator retains the distinction, but those in -ation do not. Also, migratory B1 [86] and vibratory B1 [87] sometimes retain the distinction.

Most longer -ate verbs are pronounced the same in AmE and BrE, but a few have first-syllable stress in BrE and second-syllable stress in AmE: elongate,[88] infiltrate A2,[89] remonstrate A2,[90] tergiversate A2 (British also third-syllable stress).[91] For some derived adjectives ending -atory stress-shifting to -at- can occur in BrE. Among these cases are celebratory A2[citation needed][92] (BrE: /ˌsɛlɨˈbreɪtəri/), participatory B2[citation needed],[93] regulatory B1,[94] compensatory.[95] AmE stresses the same syllable as the corresponding -ate verb (except compensatory, where AmE stresses the second syllable[96]). A further -atory difference is laboratory: AmE /ˈlæbrəˌtɔːri/ and BrE /ləˈbɒrətᵊri/.[97]

Miscellaneous stress[edit]

There are a number of cases where same-spelled noun, verb and/or adjective have uniform stress in one dialect but distinct stress in the other (e.g. alternate, prospect): see initial-stress-derived noun.

The following table lists words not brought up in the discussion so far where the only difference between AmE and BrE is in stress (possibly with a consequent reduction of the unstressed vowel). Words with other points of difference are listed in a later table.

BrE AmE words with relevant syllable stressed in each dialect
1st 2nd adult A2,B2,[98] aristocrat A2[citation needed],B2,[99] basalt,[100] caffeine A2,[101] cannot A2,[102] casein A2,[103] communal A2,B2,[104] formidable B2,[citation needed] harass A2,B2,[105] Kathleen,[citation needed] kilometre/kilometer A2,B2[106] omega,[107] paprika A2[citation needed],B2,[108] patina,[109] stalactite,[110] stalagmite,[111] Suez A2,[112] subaltern,[113] thanksgiving A2[citation needed],B2,[114] transference[115]
2nd 1st ancillary,[116] angina A2,[citation needed] Augustine A2,[117] capillary,[118] catenary,[119] controversy B1,[120] corollary,[121] defence/defense (sport),[122] fritillary,[123] guffaw A2,[citation needed] hospitable A2,B2,[124] ice cream A2[citation needed],B2[citation needed],[125] Lofoten B2,[citation needed] marshmallow,[126] medullary A2,[127] miscellany,[128] papa B2,[129] patronal,[130] predicative,[131] pretence/pretense A2,[132] princess A2,B2,[133] saxophonist B2,[134] spreadeagled/spread-eagled,[135] weekend B2 [136]
1st 3rd opportune,[137] submarine A2,B2 [138]
2nd 3rd advertisement,[139] submariner A2 [140]
3rd 1st cockatoo,[141] margarine,[142] Pyrenees[143]
3rd 2nd arytenoid A2,[144] obscurantism A2,[145] oregano[146]

Affixes[edit]

-ary,-ery,-ory,-mony,-bury,-berry[edit]

Where the syllable preceding the suffixes -ary,-ery, -ory or –mony is unstressed, AmE pronounces the antepenultimate syllable with a full vowel sound: /ˌɛri/ for -ary and -ery, /ˌɔri/ for -ory and /ˌmoʊni/ for -mony. BrE reduces the vowel to a schwa or even elides it completely: /əri/ or /ri/, and /məni/. So military is AmE /ˈmɪləˌtɛri/ and BrE English pronunciation: /ˈmɪlɨtəri/ or /ˈmɪlɨtri/,[147] inventory is AmE /ˈɪnvənˌtɔri/ and BrE /ˈɪnvəntᵊri/,[148] and testimony is AmE /ˈtestɨˌmoʊni/ and BrE /ˈtestɨməni/.[149] (The elision is avoided in carefully enunciated speech, especially with endings -rary,-rery,-rory.[citation needed])

Where the syllable preceding -ary,-ery, -ory or –mony is stressed however, AmE also usually reduces the vowel: /əri/, /məni/. Exceptions include library,[150] primary A2,[151] rosemary.[152] (Pronouncing library as /ˈlaɪˌbɛri/ rather than /ˈlaɪˌbrɛri/ is highly stigmatized in AmE,[citation needed] whereas in BrE, /ˈlaɪbri/ is common in rapid or casual speech.)

The suffix -berry is pronunced by similar rules, except that in BrE it may be full (/ˌbɛri/) after an unstressed syllable, while in AmE it is usually full in all cases. Thus we have strawberry: BrE /ˈstrɔːbᵊri/, AmE /ˈstrɔːˌbɛri/, and whortleberry: BrE/AmE English pronunciation: /ˈwɔː(r)tlˌbɛri/.

The placename component -bury (e.g. Canterbury) has a similar difference: AmE has a full vowel: /ˌbɛri/ wher BrE has a reduced or none at all: /bᵊri/.

Note that stress differences between the dialects occur with some words ending in -atory (listed above) and a few others like capillary (included in #Miscellaneous stress above).

Formerly the BrE–AmE distinction for adjectives carried over to corresponding adverbs ending -arily, -erily or -orily. However, nowadays most BrE speakers adopt the AmE practice of shifting the stress to the antepenultimate syllable: militarily is thus generally /ˌmɪlɨˈtɛrɨli/ rather than /ˈmɪlɨtrɨli/.

-ile[edit]

Words ending in unstressed -ile derived from Latin adjectives ending -ilis are mostly pronounced with a full vowel in BrE (/aɪl/) but a reduced vowel or syllabic L in AmE (/əl/) (e.g. fertile rhymes with fur tile in BrE but with furtle in AmE).

AmE will (unlike BrE, except when indicated with B2 or B1) have a reduced last vowel:

In some words the pronunciation /iːl/ also comes into play:

Related endings -ility, -ilize, -iliary are pronounced the same in AmE as BrE.

-ine[edit]

The suffix -ine, when unstressed, is pronounced sometimes /aɪn/ (e.g. feline), sometimes /iːn/ (e.g. morphine) and sometimes /ɪn/ (e.g. medicine). Some words have variable pronunciation within BrE, or within AmE, or between BrE and AmE. Generally, AmE is more likely to favour /iːn/ or /ɪn/, and BrE to favour /aɪn/: e.g. adamantine A2, carbine, crystalline A2, labyrinthine, philistine, serpentine A2, turbine A2. However, sometimes AmE has /aɪn/ where BrE has /iːn/; e.g. iodine B2, strychnine A2.

Weak forms[edit]

Many function words can have a weak form with a reduced vocal used when the word is unstressed, but the full vowel is usually used in formal settings. For example could /kʊd/, weak form /kəd/.[195] In AmE there are weak forms that are not present in BrE (except in some dialects). These include: or /ɚ/, your /jɚ/, and in /ən/.

On the other hand, the titles Saint and Sir before a person's name have weak forms in BrE but not AmE: before vowels, [snt] and [sər]; before consonants, [sn] and [sə].

Miscellaneous pronunciation differences[edit]

These tables list words pronounced differently but spelled the same. See also the table of words with different pronunciation reflected in the spelling.

Single differences[edit]

Words with multiple points of difference of pronunciation are in the table after this one. Accent-based differences are ignored. For example, Moscow is RP /ˈmɒskəʊ/ and GAm /ˈmɑːskaʊ/, but only the /oʊ/-/aʊ/ difference is highlighted here, since both the /ɒ/-/ɑː/ difference and the RP use of /əʊ/ rather than /oʊ/ are predictable from the accent. Also, tiara is listed with AmE /æ/; the marry–merry–Mary merger changes this vowel for many Americans. Some AmE types are listed as /ɒ/ where GAm merges to /ɑː/. A2 means that American speakers may use either pronunciation; B2 means British speakers may use either pronunciation.

BrE AmE Words
(sounded) (silent) Beethoven, chthonic A2, herb A2 (plant), Knossos A2,B2, phthisic A2,B2, salve A2, solder
(silent) (sounded) medicine B2. See also -ary -ery -ory -bury, -berry
/ɑː/ /æ/ (Excluding trap–bath split words) banana, khaki A2, morale, Nevada A2, scenario A2, soprano A2, Pakistani
/æ/ /ɑː/ annato, Caracas, chianti A2, Galapagos A2, Gdańsk A2, grappa A2, gulag A2, Hanoi A2, Jan A2 (male name, e.g. Jan Palach), Kant A2, kebab, Las (placenames, e.g. Las Vegas), Mafia B2, Mombasa A2, Natasha, Nissan, Pablo, pasta, B2 Picasso A2, ralentando, San A2 (names outside USA; e.g. San Juan), Slovak A2, Sri Lanka A2, Vivaldi, wigwam A2, Yasser A2 (and A in many other foreign names and loanwords)
/iː/ /ɛ/ aesthete, anaesthetize, breve A2, catenary A2, Daedalus, devolution A2,B2, ecumenical B2, epoch A2, evolution A2,B2, febrile A2, Hephaestus, Kenya B2, lever A2, methane, Oedipus A2, (o)estrus, (o)estrogen, p(a)edophile, penalize A2, predecessor A2, pyrethrin A2, senile A2, hygienic
/ɒ/ /oʊ/ Aeroflot, cognac, compost, homosexual B2, Interpol, Lod, pogrom, polka B2, produce (noun), Rosh Hashanah, scone A2,B2, shone, sojourn, troll B2, yogurt
/ɛ/ /iː/ Cecil A2,B2, crematorium A2, cretin, depot, inherent A2,B2, leisure A2, reconnoit(re/er) A2, zebra B2, zenith A2,B2
/æ/ /eɪ/ basil A2 (plant), compatriot, expatriate, patriot B2, patronise, phalanx, plait, repatriate, Sabine, satrap A2
/ɪ/ /aɪ/ advertisement, dynasty, housewifery, idyll, livelong A2, long-lived A2, privacy B2, simultaneous, vicarious A2, vitamin. See also -ine.
/z/ /s/ Aussie A2, blouse (noun), complaisant A2, crescent, diagnose A2, erase, Glasgow A2, parse, valise, trans- A2,B2 (in some words)
/ɑː/ /eɪ/ amen A2, charade B2, cicada, gala A2, promenade A2, pro rata, tomato, stratum B2
/oʊ/ /ɒ/ codify, goffer, ogle A2, process (noun), processor, progress (noun), project B2(noun), sloth A2,B2, wont A2, wroth
/ʌ/ /ɒ/ accomplice, accomplish, colander B2, constable B2, Lombardy, monetary A2, -monger A2
/ɒ/ /ʌ/ hovel A2,B2, hover. Also the strong forms of these function words: anybody A2 (likewise every-, some-, and no-), because A2,B2 (and clipping 'cos/'cause), of A2, from A2, was A2, what A2
/ɑː(r)/ /ɜr/ Berkeley, Berkshire, clerk, Derby, Hertford. (The only AmE word with er = [ɑr] is sergeant.)
/aɪ/ /iː/ either A2,B2, neither A2,B2, Pleiades. See also -ine.
/iː/ /aɪ/ albino, migraine B2. Also the prefixes anti- A2, multi- A2, semi- A2 in loose compounds (e.g. in anti-establishment, but not in antibody). See also -ine.
/ə/ /ɒ/ Amazon, hexagon, octagon, paragon, pentagon, phenomenon A2, python A2
/iː/ /eɪ/ eta, beta, quay A2, theta, zeta, heinous B2
/aɪ/ /ɪ/ butyl B2, diverge A2, minority A2,B2, primer (schoolbook). See also -ine.
/ɛ/ /eɪ/ ate B2, mêlée A2, chaise longue
/ɜːz/ /uːs/ Betelgeuse, chanteuse, chartreuse A2, masseuse
/eɪ/ /æ/ apricot A2, comrade, dahlia A2, data, digitalis, patent A2,B2, status A1[196]
/ʃ/ /ʒ/ Asia B2, dispersion B2, excursion B2, Persia B2, version B2
/ɒ/ /ə/ Amos, condom, Enoch
/ə/ /oʊ/ borough A2, thorough A2, also place names such as Edinburgh A2 (see also -ory and -mony)
/ɪr/ /ɜr/ chirrup A2, stirrup A2, sirup A2, squirrel
/siː/ /ʃ/ cassia A2, Cassius A2, hessian
/uː/ /juː/ coupon A2, fuchsine, Houston B2
/uː/ /ʊ/ boulevard, snooker, woof A2 (weaving)
/ɜː(r)/ /ʊr/ connoisseur A2, entrepreneur A2
/ɜː/ /oʊ/ föhn B2, Möbius B2
/ə/ /eɪ/ Draconian A2, hurricane B2
/eɪ/ /iː/ deity A2,B2, Helene A2, Israel A2, Haggai[197]
/juː/ /w/ iguana, jaguar, Nicaragua
/ɔː(r)/ /ər/ record (noun), stridor A2,B2
/ziː/ /ʒ/ Frasier, Parisian, Malaysia, Tunisia
/tiː/ /ʃ/ consortium
/æ/ /ɒ/ twat B2
/ɒ/ /æ/ wrath
/ɑː/ /ət/ nougat
/ɑː/ /ɔː/ Utah A2,B2
/ɑː/ /ɔːr/ quark A2,B2
/æ/ /ɛ/ femme fatale A2
/aɪ/ /eɪ/ Isaiah
/aʊ/ /uː/ nous A2
/ð/ /θ/ booth B2
/di/ /dʒi/ cordiality
/dʒ/ /ɡdʒ/ suggest A2
/eɪ/ /ɛ/ again B2, nonpareil A2
/eɪ/ /ə/ template
/eɪ/ /ət/ tourniquet
/ə(r)/ /ɑr/ Madagascar A2
/ə(r)/ /jər/ figure A2 for the verb
/ə/ /ɛ/ nonsense
/ɛ/ /ɑ/ envelope A2,B2
/ɛ/ /ə/ Kentucky
/ə/ /æ/ trapeze
/ɜː(r)/ /ɛr/ err A2
/oʊ/ /ɒt/ Huguenot A2
/oʊ/ /aʊ/ Moscow A2
/oʊ/ /uː/ brooch A2
/ɪ/ /iː/ pi(t)ta B2, Tunisia
/iː/ /ɪ/ been B2
/iːʃ/ /ɪtʃ/ niche A2,B2
/jɜː/ /juː/ milieu
/juː/ /uː/ (Excluding words with predictable yod-dropping) barracuda, puma A2
/ɔː/ /æ/ falcon A2
/s/ /z/ asthma
/ʃ/ /sk/ schedule B2
/t/ /θ/ Anthony A2,B2
/ts/ /z/ piazza A2
/ʊ/ /ɪ/ kümmel
/ʊ/ /uː/ Buddha A2
/ʊ/ /ʌ/ brusque, hummus
/uː/ /aʊ/ route A2
/uː/ /oʊ/ cantaloup(e)
/ʌ/ /oʊ/ covert A2,B2
/ziː/ /ʃ/ transient A2, nausea A2

Multiple differences[edit]

The slashes normally used to enclose IPA phonemic transcriptions have been omitted from the following table to improve legibility.

Spelling BrE IPA AmE IPA Notes
boehmite (1) ˈbɜːmaɪt
(2) ˈboʊmaɪt
(1) ˈbeɪmaɪt
(2) ˈboʊmaɪt
The first pronunciations approximate German [ø] (spelled ö or oe); the second ones are anglicized.
bouquet (1) buːˈkeɪ
(2) ˈbuːkeɪ
(1) boʊˈkeɪ
(2) buːˈkeɪ
 
boyar (1) ˈbɔɪɑː
(2) boʊˈjɑː
(1) boʊˈjɑr
(2) ˈbɔɪjər
 
buoy ˈbɔɪ ˈbuːi The U.S. pronunciation would be unrecognised in the UK. The British pronunciation occurs in America, more commonly for the verb than the noun, still more in derivatives buoyant, buoyancy.
canton kænˈtuːn (1) kænˈtɑːn
(2) kænˈtoʊn
difference is only in military sense "to quarter soldiers"
dilettante dɪləˈtænti (1) ˈdɪlətɑːnt
(2) ˌdɪləˈtɑːnt
BrE reflects the word's Italian origin; AmE approximates more to French.
enquiry/inquiry ɪŋˈkwaɪ(ə)ri (1) ˈɪnkwəri
(2) ɪŋˈkwaɪri
BrE uses two spellings and one pronunciation. In AmE the word is usually spelled inquiry.
febrile ˈfiːbraɪl (1) ˈfɛbriːl
(2) ˈfɛbrəl
The BrE pronunciation occurs in AmE
fracas ˈfrækɑː (1) ˈfreɪkəs
(2) ˈfrækəs
(3) frəˈkɑː
The BrE plural is French fracas /ˈfrækɑːz/. For AmE examples (1) and (2), the plural is anglicized fracases
glacier (1) ˈɡlæsiə
(2) ˈɡleɪsiə
ˈɡleɪʃər  
jalousie (1) ʒælʊˈziː
(2) ˈʒælʊziː
ˈdʒæləsi  
lapsang souchong ˈlæpsæŋ suːʃɒŋ ˌlɑːpsɑːŋ ˈsuːʃɑːŋ  
lasso ləˈsuː ˈlæsoʊ The BrE pronunciation is common in AmE
lieutenant (1) lɛfˈtɛnənt
(2) ləˈtɛnənt
luːˈtɛnənt The 2nd British pronunciation is restricted to the Royal Navy. Standard Canadian and Australian pronunciation is the same as the British.
lychee (1) ˈliːtʃiː
(2) laɪˈtʃiː
ˈliːtʃiː Spelling litchi has pronunciation /ˈlɪtʃiː/. The BrE pronunciation /laɪˈtʃiː/ also occurs in AmE.
mama[198] (1) ˈmamə
(2) məˈmɑː
ˈmɑːmə  
Molière ˈmɒliɛə moʊlˈjɛr  
moustache[199] mʊˈstɑːʃ ˈmʌs.tæʃ  
oblique əbˈliːk əbˈlaɪk AmE is as BrE except in military sense "advance at an angle"
penchant pɑ̃ˈʃɑ̃ ˈpɛntʃənt The AmE pronunciation is anglicized; the BrE is French.
penult pɛˈnʌlt (1) ˈpiːnʌlt
(2) pɪˈnʌlt
 
premature[200] ˈpremətʃə (1)ˌpriːməˈtʃʊr
(2) ˌpriːməˈtʊr
 
premier (1) ˈprɛmjə
(2) ˈprɛmɪə
(1) ˈpriːmɪər
(2) prɪmˈɪər
 
première ˈprɛmɪɛə (1) prɪˈmɪər
(2) prɪmˈjɛr
 
provost ˈprɒvəst (1) ˈproʊvoʊst
(2) ˈproʊvəst
The BrE pronunciation also occurs in AmE
quinine ˈkwɪniːn (1) ˈkwaɪnaɪn
(2) ˈkwɪnaɪn
 
resource (1) rɨˈzɔːs
(2) rɨˈsɔːs
ˈriːsɔːrs  
respite ˈrɛspaɪt (1) ˈrɛspɪt
(2) rɨˈspaɪt
 
reveille rɪˈvæliː ˈrɛvəli  
slough slaʊ slʌf sense "bog"; in metaphorical sense "gloom", the BrE pronunciation is common in AmE. Homograph "cast off skin" is /slʌf/ everywhere.
toward(s)[201] ˌtʊˈwɔːd(z) (1) tɔːrd(z)
(2) toʊrd(z)
The same difference applies to "untoward".
Tunisia tjuːˈnɪziə (1) tuˈniʒə
(2) tuˈniʃə
 
vase vɑːz (1) veɪs
(2) veɪz
The BrE pronunciation also occurs in AmE
z (the letter) zɛd ziː The spelling of this letter as a word corresponds to the pronunciation: thus Commonwealth (including, Canada) zed and U.S. zee.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ballet (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "ballet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  2. ^ "barrage (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  3. ^ "baton". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  4. ^ "beret". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  5. ^ "bidet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  6. ^ "blasé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  7. ^ "brevet". Merriam-Webster. 
  8. ^ "brochure". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  9. ^ "buffet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  10. ^ "café". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  11. ^ "canard (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "canard". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  12. ^ "chagrin". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  13. ^ "chalet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "chalet (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  14. ^ "chauffeur". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "chauffeur (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "chauffeur (BrE)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  15. ^ "chiffon". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  16. ^ "cliché". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  17. ^ "coupé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  18. ^ "croissant". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  19. ^ "debris". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  20. ^ "debut". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  21. ^ "décor". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  22. ^ "detail". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "detail (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  23. ^ "détente (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "détente (BrE)". Macmillan Dictionary. "détente (AmE)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  24. ^ "flambé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  25. ^ "frappé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  26. ^ "garage". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  27. ^ "gateau". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  28. ^ "gourmet (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "gourmet (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  29. ^ "lamé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  30. ^ "montage". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  31. ^ "parquet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  32. ^ "pastel". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  33. ^ "pastille". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  34. ^ "pâté". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  35. ^ "précis". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  36. ^ "sachet". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  37. ^ "salon". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  38. ^ "soupçon". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  39. ^ "vaccine". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  40. ^ "matinée". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  41. ^ "négligée". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  42. ^ "nonchalant". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  43. ^ "nondescript (BrE)". Macmillan Dictionary. "nondescript (AmE)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  44. ^ "Calais (BrE)". Collins Dictionary. "Calais (AmE)". Collins Dictionary. 
  45. ^ "Degas (BrE)". Collins Dictionary. "Degas (AmE)". Collins Dictionary. 
  46. ^ "Dijon (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Dijon (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  47. ^ "Dumas (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Dumas (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  48. ^ "Manet (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Manet (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  49. ^ "Renault (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Renault (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  50. ^ "Rimbaud (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Rimbaud (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  51. ^ "attaché". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  52. ^ "consommé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  53. ^ "décolleté". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  54. ^ "démodé (BrE)". Macmillan Dictionary. "démodé (AmE)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  55. ^ "denouement". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  56. ^ "distingué (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "distingué (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  57. ^ "escargot (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "escargot (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  58. ^ "exposé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  59. ^ "fiancé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "fiancée". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "fiancé (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  60. ^ "retroussé (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "retroussé (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  61. ^ "Debussy (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Debussy (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  62. ^ "Dubonnet (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Dubonnet (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  63. ^ "address". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  64. ^ "limousine (BrE)". Macmillan Dictionary. "limousine (AmE)". Macmillan Dictionary. "limousine". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  65. ^ "magazine". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  66. ^ "mayonnaise". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  67. ^ "partisan". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  68. ^ "liaison". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  69. ^ "renaissance". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  70. ^ "escalope (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "escalope (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  71. ^ "castrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  72. ^ "cremate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "cremate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  73. ^ "dictate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "dictate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  74. ^ "donate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "donate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  75. ^ "locate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "locate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  76. ^ "migrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  77. ^ "narrate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "narrate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  78. ^ "placate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  79. ^ "prostrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  80. ^ "pulsate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  81. ^ "rotate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  82. ^ "striate (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "striate (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  83. ^ (AmE) "translate (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  84. ^ "vacate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. (AmE) "vacate". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  85. ^ "vibrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  86. ^ "migratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  87. ^ "vibratory(AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  88. ^ "elongate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  89. ^ "infiltrate (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. (AmE) "infiltrate". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  90. ^ "remonstrate (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "remonstrate (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  91. ^ "tergiversate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  92. ^ "celebratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  93. ^ "participatory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  94. ^ "regulatory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  95. ^ "compensatory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  96. ^ "compensatory (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  97. ^ "laboratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "laboratory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  98. ^ "adult (BrE)". Macmillan Dictionary. "adult (AmE)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  99. ^ "aristocrat (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "aristocrat (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  100. ^ "basalt". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  101. ^ "caffeine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "caffeine (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  102. ^ "cannot (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "cannot (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  103. ^ "casein (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "casein (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  104. ^ "communal (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "communal (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  105. ^ "harass (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "harass (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  106. ^ "kilometre (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "kilometer (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  107. ^ "omega". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  108. ^ "paprika (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "paprika (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  109. ^ "patina". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  110. ^ "stalactite". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  111. ^ "stalagmite". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  112. ^ "Suez (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Suez (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  113. ^ "subaltern". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  114. ^ "thanksgiving (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "thanksgiving (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  115. ^ "transference". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  116. ^ "ancillary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  117. ^ "Augustine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Augustine (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  118. ^ "capillary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  119. ^ "catenary (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "catenary (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  120. ^ "controversy". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  121. ^ "corollary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  122. ^ "defense (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  123. ^ "fritillary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  124. ^ "hospitable (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "hospitable (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  125. ^ "ice cream". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  126. ^ "marshmallow". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  127. ^ "medullary (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "medullary (main entry AmE-based)". Dictionary.com. 
  128. ^ "miscellany". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  129. ^ "papa (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "papa (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  130. ^ "patronal (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "patronal (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  131. ^ "predicative". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  132. ^ "pretence (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "pretense (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  133. ^ "princess (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "princess (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  134. ^ "saxophonist". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "saxophonist (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  135. ^ "spreadeagled (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "spread-eagled (main entry AmE-based)". Dictionary.com. 
  136. ^ "weekend (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "weekend (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  137. ^ "opportune". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  138. ^ "submarine (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "submarine (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  139. ^ "advertisement". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  140. ^ "submariner (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  141. ^ "cockatoo". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  142. ^ "margarine". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  143. ^ "Pyrenees (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Pyrenees (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  144. ^ "arytenoid (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "arytenoid (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  145. ^ "obscurantism". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "obscurantism (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  146. ^ "oregano". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  147. ^ "military (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "military (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  148. ^ "inventory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "inventory (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  149. ^ "testimony". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  150. ^ "library". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  151. ^ "primary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "primary (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  152. ^ "rosemary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  153. ^ "agile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  154. ^ "docile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  155. ^ "facile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  156. ^ "fertile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  157. ^ "fissile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  158. ^ "fragile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  159. ^ "futile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  160. ^ "missile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  161. ^ "puerile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  162. ^ "stabile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  163. ^ "sterile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  164. ^ "tactile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  165. ^ "tensile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  166. ^ "versatile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  167. ^ "virile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  168. ^ "volatile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  169. ^ "decile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "decile (AmE-based)". Dictionary.com. 
  170. ^ "ductile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "ductile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  171. ^ "febrile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. "febrile (AmE)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  172. ^ "hostile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "hostile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  173. ^ "juvenile (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. "juvenile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  174. ^ "mobile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "mobile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  175. ^ "mobile (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries. 
  176. ^ "nubile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  177. ^ "projectile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "projectile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  178. ^ "reptile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "utile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  179. ^ "servile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "servile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  180. ^ "textile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  181. ^ "utile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "utile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  182. ^ "domicile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  183. ^ "infantile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  184. ^ "labile (main entry AmE, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  185. ^ "mercantile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  186. ^ "pensile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  187. ^ "percentile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  188. ^ "senile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  189. ^ "camomile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  190. ^ "mercantile (main entry AmE-based, Collins World English (further down) BrE)". Dictionary.com. 
  191. ^ "mobile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  192. ^ "stabile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "stabile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  193. ^ "imbecile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "imbecile (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  194. ^ "rutile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "rutile (main entry AmE-based)". Dictionary.com. 
  195. ^ http://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/could
  196. ^ "status (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  197. ^ "Haggai (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Haggai (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  198. ^ "mama (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "mama (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  199. ^ "moustache". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  200. ^ "premature". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  201. ^ "toward(s)". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. "toward(s) (AmE)". Cambridge Dictionaries.