American studies

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American studies or American civilization is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the Americas, with a historical emphasis upon the United States.[1] It traditionally incorporates the study of history, literature, and critical theory, but also includes fields as diverse as law, art, the media, film, religious studies, urban studies, women's studies, gender studies, anthropology, sociology, foreign policy and culture of the United States, among others. Fields studying specific American communities, such as African American studies, Chicano studies, Latin American studies, Asian American studies, and American Indian studies are considered to be both included in and independent of the broader American studies discipline.

American studies inside the United States[edit]

During its eighty years of formal development in the United States, American studies has established itself as a distinct interdisciplinary field which promotes a broad humanistic and social scientific understanding of American culture past and present, encourages scholars from diverse disciplines to exchange ideas on America, and examines the ways American life relates to world society. American studies is simultaneously multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary in character, serving as an arena in which scholars from a variety of disciplines share their particular areas of expertise and as a staging ground for innovative topical pursuits.

In pursuing interdisciplinary ways of knowing, American studies seeks to integrate into its own work the newest research of other fields and to develop links among disciplines. In recent years, for example, feminist studies, communication studies, critical historicism, political cultural studies, international comparative studies and other new fields have been incorporated into dynamic American studies programs and scholarship. In alliance with colleagues in newer interdisciplinary fields, such as ethnic and minority studies, American studies scholars are critically examining the myths and realities of American society and seeking answers to complex questions about American history and culture that can not be adequately addressed within established disciplinary boundaries. These collaborations among interdisciplinary scholars are invigorating without displacing the traditional concerns of American studies with questions of culture and citizenship. In crossing so many disciplinary, chronological, and subject boundaries, American studies has led all Americanists increasingly toward a conviction that American history and culture must be understood in a global context.

American studies includes the experiences, values, perspectives, concerns, and contributions of the diverse groups that make up the United States, as well as their encounters and conflicts. It seeks to understand how diversity has been constructed, in a nation of conquered peoples and immigrants, who come not only from Europe, but also Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Latin America. But American studies recognizes that Americans also participate in a larger cultural heritage, a shared system of beliefs, behavior, symbols, and material objects through which Americans give meaning to their lives, drawn from multiple sources throughout the world, and shaped by democratic ideals and practices. It explores both our differences and our commonalities, while preparing students for citizenship in a diverse, democratic state.

The reason for concentrating on American studies[edit]

We study American culture to gain self-knowledge, to understand ourselves. The study of American culture fulfills the precept which the Greeks set down long ago as the highest end of human life: "know thyself." Socrates tells us that "the unexamined life is not worth living." It is only when we examine our own nature that we become conscious of our human existence. But the study of human nature involves far more than the study of the individual human being. "I am part of all I have met." This quotation from Tennyson's Ulysses provides the key to the most important and general use of American studies. We have been shaped individually not only by our personal and family relationships, but also by a multitude of changes in social and cultural life, many occurring centuries ago. It is by the study of this cultural memory that Socrates' dictum, "the unexamined life is not worth living," gains its full meaning.

Our search for self-knowledge, for understanding ourselves as Americans, is a lifelong pursuit and takes place for the most part outside of the academy. This search takes different forms but leads inexorably toward the same end. In this search, we hope to make the best of the world we live in: to live well ourselves, and to work for the betterment of society. American studies encourages us to be sensitive to the different experiences of people. American studies teaches us to depend upon reason, not to establish ultimate truth, but as a useful vehicle for the conduct of personal and social affairs. To American studies students and faculty, education is perhaps the most important thing in the world and, if cultural opportunities can be extended to a wider audience, this will immeasurably enhance the quality of American life.

For our democratic society to function, citizens must be able to reach some common understanding on complex issues. Education (in American studies) helps form these common understandings, a point Thomas Jefferson made long ago in his justly famous dictum:

"I know of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of the society but the people themselves; and if we think them not enlightened enough to exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take it from them but to inform their discretion."

The values, aspirations, and purposes of American studies are central to a democratic society composed of a free people. At the outset, American studies was a movement energized by a sense of social purpose. It was bound up with a New Deal anti-totalitarian version of Progressivism which called for economic as well as juridical and legislative democracy in American society. This democratic ideal must be sustained and renewed by each generation. The common instrument for renewal is the received and developing tradition of American culture studies. It is, therefore, a sort of inherent citizen-right to demand moral and intellectual excellence in American studies.

An academic discipline and beyond[edit]

In the U.S., American studies originally grew out of the dissatisfaction of individual scholars located primarily in History and English departments during the 1920s and 1930s. These individuals were frustrated with the emphasis and preference for European history and culture at the exclusion of an examination of "native" forms of expression. The pre-institutional stage of American studies was characterized by the search for the uniquely American experience. By early 1940s, George Washington University, the University of Pennsylvania and Harvard, among others, established programs and offered courses in American studies. Yale awarded its first Ph.D. in American Civilization in 1933. During the 1950s American studies began to institutionalize as individual courses evolved into departments and programs. By 1956, there were 95 American studies programs: 72 offered the Bachelors, 15 a Masters, and 13 a Doctorate. It was during the 1960s that American studies underwent its greatest transformation. By 1968, cultural stains brought about by the Civil Rights Movement, Vietnam, and the Women's Movement illuminated the great cultural diversity that is the strength of the United States. In response to these forces for change, American studies expanded its boundaries to include black studies, women's' studies, popular culture studies, folklore, film studies, material culture, and ethnic studies. American studies helped to break down disciplinary boundaries to allow for a more inclusive and pluralistic curriculum and scholarship across the disciplines. The value perceived by adherents of American studies can be seen in the rapid increase in the field during the 1970s. By 1975, the number of programs had grown to 305.

Currently, there are over 400 programs and departments of American studies. American studies programs thrive at both small and large colleges and universities, in different regions of the country, in both urban and rural environments, and internationally. During the 1980s, American studies programs and associations were established on all continents as scholars throughout the world turned their attention to the history and culture of the United States. In most countries, American studies is highly regarded as one of the most prestigious programs, and many countries send scholars to the United States to investigate and understand American studies. American studies in the U.S. is by its very definition multi-cultural and interdisciplinary. Because of its flexibility, it is ideally suited for an academic environment in which competing forces of cost effectiveness and the quality of education often prove difficult to balance. The interdisciplinary nature of American studies means its contribution to a campus can not be duplicated by any department or program. American studies offers a unique perspective because it transcends individual fields to allow for a dialogue between the disciplines, and provides an integrated educational experience for the student. American studies prepares the student for citizenship in a pluralistic democracy in which respect for, and understanding of, cultural difference is essential.

Major programs and curricula[edit]

American studies majors normally follow one of four curricular tracks, including the arts, social sciences, history, and literature. In the arts, students may work with scholars in American architecture, art, dance, film, music, and theater; in the social sciences with specialists in anthropology, geography, government, law, and sociology. In history, students focus on different periods or regions, while developing thematic emphases on cultural, intellectual, and social history. In literature, students examine writers inside and outside of the canon and seek connections between texts and contexts in virtually every period of American history. In all these areas faculty and students pursue ideas across conventional disciplinary boundaries.

Introductory American studies courses typically survey American culture from the conquest and colonization of America to the present day. These courses introduce the constituent disciplines, approaches, and perspectives relevant to American studies. Some introductory courses are devoted to a historic period of a decade or more, and approach the American past through a variety of scholarly works and contemporary texts, that include films, fiction, music, painting, photographs, art, and architecture, (e.g., the American Revolution, the Civil War and Reconstruction, and 1960s America). Other introductory courses are thematic, and follow one topic of American culture through a longer period. Thematic topics include American immigration, the American family, American realism, and a series of regional courses on the South, the West, and New England. Still other introductory courses are methodological, (e.g., American autobiography or ethnographic approaches to American culture) and focus on the theory, methods, and historiography of American studies.

During the junior and senior years, students typically focus on several themes or areas of interest which pertains to the American experience. Each student consults with a faculty adviser and develops a major concentration. Possible themes include popular culture, regionalism, race and ethnicity, gender roles, law and society, and expressive forms (e.g., visual arts, humor, folk culture). Students may also combine coursework in American studies with appropriate classes in one or two related fields such as Afro-American studies, anthropology, Chicano studies, communications, English, geography, history, political science, psychology, religion, sociology, and Women's studies. American studies programs usually provide junior or senior seminars, which build on a students previous course work. Although these seminars vary from one institution to the next, they typically explore the traditions of the field in greater depth through advanced readings and provide students with the opportunity for independent work, historical or contemporary, in research and writing.

In developing their programs of study, M.A. and Ph.D. students also work closely with an individual adviser. Graduate students are encouraged to follow their own interests within the framework of American studies. The core courses promote historical understanding of American studies as a scholarly field and critical perspectives on its leading theories and methods. At most institutions, graduate students take a two-term "Introduction to American Studies", and they participate in one semester seminars that serve as foundations for the major fields of inquiry.

Candidates for M.A. as a terminal degree typically spend one academic year in residence and complete at least eight courses, no more than half of which may be in any one discipline. A faculty member designated as a Graduate Adviser helps the student design a program which reflects depth and coherence as well as interdisciplinary method. M.A. candidates satisfy the same requirements and standards as first-year Ph.D. candidates. Some MA. programs require a supervised internship at an approved museum or other cultural institution. Usually M.A. students conduct original research culminating in a thesis.

Candidates for the Ph.D. also spend their first year taking eight courses. The program awards the M.A. after the completion of eight core and elective courses. Doctoral students then concentrate their work on major and secondary fields. These fields are built on existing courses and independent readings and provide the basis for general, qualifying examinations, both oral and written, that may be required for the Ph.D. They may be defined somewhat traditionally (e.g., American social and intellectual history, American literature to 1865) or they may approach the disciplines from thematic or theoretical points of view (e.g., American women writers, geography and region in American culture). Students design their own concentrations. For each concentration the student has a faculty advisor to guide in the development of the field and to serve on the student's oral examination board. After reaching agreement with these advisors, the student submits the proposed fields, and a statement of the unifying theme or elements among them, for the approval of the faculty. A major purpose of the fields is to provide breadth of knowledge of American culture and competence in teaching. Student usually must gain teaching experience to meet the requirements for the Ph.D. degree. Students may serve as teaching assistants to faculty and many also teach undergraduate seminars of their own design within the American studies program.

The doctoral program normally involves two years of courses and preparation for the comprehensive examination and at least a year of teaching experience, after which student go on to research and write their dissertations. Dissertations in American studies are expected to be significant contributions to scholarship, interdisciplinary in scope, conception, and methodology.

Why students choose American studies as a field of concentration, and what they do with it[edit]

Because each major develops a coherent program of study, on the basis of personal and intellectual interests, frequent faculty contact is required. The student-advisor relationship provides a context where a greater recognition and definition of the student's educational interests and goals may be achieved. In addition, since written work is emphasized, with grades based on essay exams, response papers, and research assignments, and culminating in a senior or honors' thesis, each major's work engages the student's emerging interests and reflects developing skills and knowledge. Most American studies classes also encourage substantial undergraduate interaction. The student develops strong bonds with advisors, faculty, and other students that make American studies enjoyable as well as intellectually rewarding.

Careers for people majoring in American studies vary widely, and ultimately they depend on the interests and goals of the individual student. A bachelor's degree, as opposed to an advanced degree (a Master's or Doctorate), is similar to other liberal arts degrees such as literature, history, and political science, insofar as it doesn't guarantee a specific job at the end of college. But it does offers important skills necessary to do professional work in any career: students will acquire the ability to do research, organize material, and communicate they findings to others. Students will also be required to do extensive reading and writing projects. The greatest value of the American studies major is diverse thinking and expression. Very few fields offer students such a wide exposure to learning in so many areas: political, intellectual, social and economic history, literature, religion, music, art, folklore, and material culture are all studies in American studies programs. Of course, it is not possible in an undergraduate program to offer a comprehensive study of all these areas. But it is possible to stimulate the critical and creative thinking essential for drawing connections among the diverse aspects of the American experience, both past and present. The American studies major challenges motivated students to think independently, offers them a well-rounded preparation for life beyond the ivory tower, and provides essential training for careers such as teaching (at the high-school or college level), to law, journalism, social work, medicine, government, business, museum and international work, and city planning, among many others.

Along with the broader analytical and writing skills students will gain in American studies majors, they will add "specialized" knowledge and "technical" skills to their repertoire. For example, American studies requirements are flexible, so a student would have the chance to take some courses in marketing, finance, statistics, journalism, education, or communications. Students usually are required or encouraged to take advantage of internship opportunities (with newspapers, law offices, legislators, research organizations etc.) or summertime employment, thus gaining work experience and practical exposure to possible careers. These experiences will provide students with employer recommendations and strong resumes, as well as self-enrichment.

Among the attractive career possibilities for American studies majors are public sector jobs, located in government agencies or publicly supported institutions, that have some interpretive function, or which have responsibilities to explain those agencies or institutions, their projects, and their activities to the public. We know, for example, that American studies programs are placing their students in the various land agencies, historical societies, museums, and other cultural institutions, at the federal, state, and local levels. We also know from the number and variety of internships held by American studies students that they have marketable skills, whether they decide to seek careers in the public sector or not.

Some of the challenges to the field[edit]

The major challenges to American studies include the relationship between American studies and the traditional disciplines, the relationship between American studies and its subject (the United States), and the relationship between domestic American studies and its international variations.

The relationship between American studies and traditional disciplines is a dynamic and symbiotic one. The disciplines routinely challenge American studies programs about the viability of the interdisciplinary field. Prospective students challenge American studies faculty to answer why the field will serve their intellectual purposes better than the traditional disciplines. At first, traditional disciplines are uneasy with the subjects or topics of American studies, but they are invariably willing to adopt them. When American studies investigates issues that don't settle into traditional disciplines, such areas, for example, as Afro-Creole culture, Anorexia Nervosa, or Landscape Representation and American Cultural Politics, the disciplines respond saying these issues were self-evident all along. But interdisciplinary American studies is invigorated by the rigorous, intellectual cross-examination of its methods and insights by colleagues housed in traditional disciplines. Those colleagues, often at the margins of their department or frontiers of their disciplines, also contribute much of the intellectual energy and scholarly publications of interdisciplinary American studies. Thus, American studies and its constituent disciplines.

The most creative moments for American studies have come in response to subsequent cultural, political, and social challenges to American society. These include challenges such as immigration, multiculturalism, ethnic and racial diversity, class and gender conflict, economic and technological change, to name a few. American studies scholars are demonstrating that much of the current outcry against immigration and multiculturalism fits into the same pattern as sixty or more years ago: innovation, resistance, and reevaluation of what is fundamental to American culture. Contemporary attacks on Hispanic and Asian immigrant culture as inassimilable recapitulate the same predictions and rationales aimed at excluding earlier immigrant and minority groups. Traditional American studies concerns for social change and criticism, based on recognition of both the problems and the achievements of the American democratic project, are now reflected in examinations of the changing nature of citizenship in an era of globalization. Through cross-cultural as well as interdisciplinary ways of knowing, American studies scholars are seeking answers to the challenges raised by feminists, students of ethnic and racial diversity, and proponents of conflict models of social and cultural analysis to our democratic, cultural ideals. The current generation of American studies scholars is confronting new questions, issues, and methods, but these represent not an end to American studies as a field, but only the latest in a long series of cultural challenges and possibilities.

Both the United States and the larger world of which it is a complex part have changed dramatically during the sixty years American studies programs and courses have been around. As the influence of America has spread around the globe, Americans studying their own history, society and culture are increasingly challenged to see themselves as others see them. While American studies sometimes has supported exceptionalist notions of the United States, as it became a more "global" enterprise, it has also been challenged to reveal some of the contradictions of the American democratic project and contested Cold War mentalities. But change in the practice of American studies internationally is inhibited by different traditions of academic discourse. In many countries, American studies is an "area" study rooted in traditional disciplines like history, literature, government, and economics. In the United States, American studies is interdisciplinary but primarily in the humanities. Still, on the international level, American studies scholars increasingly are seeking to collaborate across national boundaries. This cross-national cooperation in turn is stimulating, elaborating, and even redefining the key questions in American studies. The end of the Cold War, however, has presented a serious fiscal challenge to international American studies. Its traditional governmental and foundation supporters are cutting back support precisely at the moment American studies domestically and internationally are striving towards a common ground and the field may be realizing its potential as a globally informed study of the United States.


Outside the United States[edit]

Following World War II and during the Cold War, the U.S. government promoted the study of the United States in several European countries, helping to endow chairs in universities and institutes in American history, politics and literature in the interests of cultural diplomacy. Many scholars and governments in Europe also recognized the need to study the U.S. The field has become especially prominent in Britain and Germany. The British Association for American Studies was founded in 1955, and is a constituent member of the European Association for American Studies.

European centers for American studies include the Center for American Studies in Brussels, Belgium and most notably the John F. Kennedy-Institute for North American Studies in Berlin, Germany. Other centers for American studies in Germany include the Bavarian America-Academy, the University of Munich, the Heidelberg Center for American Studies (HCA) and the Center for North American Studies (Zentrum für Nordamerikaforschung or ZENAF) at Goethe University Frankfurt. Graduate studies in the field of North American studies can also be undertaken at the University of Cologne, which works together in joint partnership with the North American studies program at the University of Bonn.[2] The American Studies Leipzig program at the University of Leipzig offers both BA and MA degrees and is known for the graduate journal aspeers. Founded in 1992, the Center for American Studies at the University of Southern Denmark now offers a graduate program in American studies. In the Netherlands the University of Groningen and the Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen offer a complete undergraduate and graduate program in American studies. The University of Amsterdam, the University of Leiden and the University of Utrecht only offer a graduate program in American studies. Both the University of Sussex and the University of Nottingham in England offer both a number of postgraduate and undergraduate programs. In Sweden, the Swedish Institute for North American Studies at Uppsala University offers a minor in American studies. In Slovakia, the University of Presov and Pavol Jozef Safarik University offer a complete undergraduate and graduate program in American studies combined with British Studies. The Eccles Centre for American Studies at the British Library also offers a range of events and fellowships, as well as promoting the American collections held at the British Library.

Russia's main center for American studies is the Institute for US and Canadian Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1967.[citation needed]

In the Middle East, the oldest American studies program is the American Studies Center at the University of Bahrain in Sakhir. Founded in 1998, the UOB ASC celebrated its 10th year anniversary in 2008.[3] Established as a university minor, the ASC currently offers over 20 different courses for students, heralds weekly movies in its ASC Theater, regularly hosts diverse speakers, and sponsors gatherings and excursions for ASC students. There is a new American studies program at the University of Tehran, Iran. The new program, offered at the Faculty of World Studies, is a multidisciplinary MA program focusing on American culture, politics, history and ethnicity.

In Oceania, the University of Canterbury in Christchurch New Zealand operated a full undergraduate and graduate American studies program until 2012, and in Australia, a postgraduate program in US Studies is run by the United States Studies Centre at the University of Sydney.

In Canada, the University of Alberta has the Alberta Institute for American Studies.[4] The University of Western Ontario has a Centre for American Studies[5] that has both an undergraduate and master's program in American studies, with specializations at the graduate level in American Cultural Studies, and Canadian-American Relations.[6] York University offers an undergraduate program in United States Studies.[7]

In China, due to the lack of communication between China and the United States since the communist party took up the power in 1949, the Chinese recognition of the U.S. was still limited to the communist political propaganda of the Cold War at the time when the two countries established the diplomatic relationship. Therefore, since the Sino-U.S. relationship was normalized in 1979, various research centers have been founded within Chinese universities in order to meet up to the needs of understanding the U.S. Thus, most of the prestigious American studies centers in China established around 1980s, such as American Studies Center (Beijing Foreign Studies University) in 1979, the Institute of American Studies (Chinese Academy of Social Science) in 1981, Center For American Studies (Fudan University) in 1985, American Studies Center (Peking University) in 1980, Center for American Studies (Tongji University), American Studies Center (Sichuan University) in 1985, Johns Hopkins University-Nanjing University Center for Chinese and American Studies in 1986, American Social and Cultural Studies Center (China Foreign Affairs University) and Center for American Studies (East China Normal University) in 2004. These centers do not have undergraduate programs. Based on the requirement of the curriculum setup of the China Department of Education, these centers only have graduate programs. In addition, there are also scholarly journals, such as American Studies Quarterly, set up in 1987 and organized by both the Institute of American Studies of Academy of Social Science and the Chinese Association of American Studies, and Fudan American Review organized by the Center of American Studies of Fudan University.

The American studies in the U.S. is different from the American studies in China. The former focuses more on one aspect, which is “civilization”; and the latter includes almost every aspects of the U.S., among which the civilization is just a constituent (Ye 207). Take the curriculum in the American studies program in Beijing Foreign Studies University (BFSU) as an example. The American studies program in BFSU is not only the oldest one but also the one in which all courses taught in English from the beginning of its founding. To help the students lay a comprehensive and interdisciplinary grounding in American studies, the current ASC curriculum, made up of 28 courses, centers on three major areas: 1) American Government and Diplomacy, 2) American Society and Culture, 3) American Economy and Trade. In addition, there have been short courses and seminars offered by guest speakers from home and abroad to broaden the students’ horizon for better understanding of America.[8] Every master student is required to choose one of the three major areas as his or her study track and chooses the courses accordingly.

The affiliation of each center decides its different research focuses, although sometimes they have some study overlapping. According to the affiliations, these centers can be generally divided into two groups. The one, affiliated to the international relations department, academically tends to focus on U.S. politics, economy, law and diplomacy. The diploma conferred is the Politics. While the other, to the foreign language department, usually concentrate more on racial/gender issues, literature, religion, education, history and culture. The diploma conferred is English Language and Literature. For example, the American Studies Center of BFSU belongs to the School of English and International Studies, and the Center of American Studies of Fudan University is administered by the Institute of International Studies.

The researches on different areas are not equally developed. The researches on economy, politics and foreign policy have been much more developed than that on American culture and thoughts. Out of the all articles from the year of 1987 to 2008 published in American Studies Quarterly, the ones, which deal with the Sino-U.S. relations including American foreign diplomacy, foreign commerce and military policies and strategies, accounts for 50.9%. Whereas, the articles, which have its topics on literature, history, gender, intellectual history, philosophy and culture, only take up about 20% (Ye 207).[9] However, with the accelerating academic exchange between two countries, more and more students are coming to the U.S. to study American studies and at the same time American studies scholars coming to China to do researches and teaching.

International American Studies Association (IASA)[edit]

Founded at Bellagio, Italy in 2000, the International American Studies Association has held four World Congresses at Leyden (2003), Ottawa (2005), Lisbon (2007), Beijing (2009)and Rio de Janeiro (2011). The Sixth World Congress of IASA is going to be held at Szczecin, Poland, 3–6 August 2013. The IASA is the only world-wide, independent, non-governmental association for Americanists. Furthering the international exchange of ideas and information among scholars from all nations and various disciplines who study and teach America regionally, hemispherically, nationally, and transnationally, IASA is registered in The Netherlands as a non-profit, international, educational organization with members in more than forty countries around the world.

Associations and scholarly journals[edit]

The American Studies Association was founded in 1950. It publishes American Quarterly, which has been the primary outlet of American studies scholarship since 1949. The second-largest American studies journal, American Studies, is sponsored by the Mid-America American Studies Association and University of Kansas. Today there are 53 American studies journals in 25 countries.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Winfried Fluck (2003). Theories of American Culture, Theories of American Studies. Gunter Narr Verlag. ISBN 3-8233-4173-1. Retrieved 2011-06-21. 
  2. ^ http://www.northamericanstudies.de/
  3. ^ http://userspages.uob.edu.bh/asc/tenth%20anniversary.htm
  4. ^ http://www.americanstudies.ualberta.ca/
  5. ^ http://cas.uwo.ca/
  6. ^ http://cas.uwo.ca/graduate/grad_program_information.html
  7. ^ http://futurestudents.yorku.ca/program/us-studies
  8. ^ "American Studies Center". Beijing Foreign Studies University. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  9. ^ 叶Ye, 英Ying. "中美两国的美国研究及美国学在中国的学科建 (American Studies in the United States and China and the Curriculum Setup of American Civilization in China)". 西南民族大学学报(Journal of Southwest Universities for Nationalities) 5. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Bieger, Laura, Ramon Saldivar, and Johannes Voelz, eds. The Imaginary and Its Worlds: American Studies After the Transnational Turn (Dartmouth College Press/University Press of New England; 2013) 312 pp
  • Maddox, Lucy, ed. Locating American Studies: The Evolution of a Discipline (Johns Hopkins University Press 1998), ISBN 0-8018-6056-3
  • Pease, Donald E. and Robyn Wiegman, eds. The Futures of American Studies (Duke University Press 2002), ISBN 0-8223-2965-4
  • Lipsitz, George. American Studies in a Moment of Danger (University of Minnesota Press, 2001), ISBN 0-8166-3949-3
  • "American Studies at a Crossroads" http://ragazine.cc/2011/12/discourse-american-studies/

External links[edit]

Library guides[edit]