|Area||42,549,000 km2 (16,428,000 mi2)|
|Population||953.7 million (July 2013 estimate) |
|Demonym||American and New Worlder are used; (see usage)|
|Languages||Spanish, English, Portuguese, French, Quechua, Haitian Creole, Guaraní, Aymara, Nahuatl, Dutch and many others|
|Time zones||UTC-10 to UTC|
The Americas, or America, also known as the New World, are the combined continental landmasses of North America and South America, in the Western Hemisphere. Along with their associated islands, they cover 8.3% of the Earth's total surface area (28.4% of its land area). The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that run the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, Mississippi, and La Plata. Extending 14,000 km (8,699 mi) in a north-south orientation, the climate and ecology varies widely across the Americas, from arctic tundra of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America.
Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 40,000 BCE and 15,000 BCE. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed later from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is generally regarded as the settlement by the Indigenous peoples of the Americas. The first European discovery of and settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Ericson. However the colonization never became permanent and was later abandoned. The voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European (and subsequently, other Old World) powers, which led to the Columbian exchange. Diseases introduced from Europe and Africa devastated the Indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonised the Americas.
Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, and forced immigration of African slaves largely replaced the Indigenous Peoples. Beginning with the American Revolution in 1776 and Haitian Revolution in 1791, the European powers began to decolonise the Americas. Currently, almost all of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; however, the legacy of the colonisation and settlement by Europeans is that the Americas share many common cultural traits, most notably Christianity and the use of Indo-European languages; primarily Spanish, English, and Portuguese. More than 900 million people live in the Americas (about 13.5% of the human population), the most populous countries being the United States, Brazil, and Mexico, the most populous cities being New York City, São Paulo, and Mexico City.
- 1 Etymology and naming
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demography
- 4 Terminology
- 5 Politics
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Etymology and naming
The earliest known use of the name America dates to April 25, 1507, where it was applied to what is now known as South America. It appears on a small globe map with twelve time zones, together with the largest wall map made to date, both created by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller in Saint-Dié-des-Vosges in France. These were the first maps to show the Americas as a land mass separate from Asia. An accompanying book, Cosmographiae Introductio, anonymous but apparently written by Waldseemüller's collaborator Matthias Ringmann, states, "I do not see what right any one would have to object to calling this part [that is, the South American mainland], after Americus who discovered it and who is a man of intelligence, Amerigen, that is, the Land of Americus, or America: since both Europa and Asia got their names from women". Americus Vespucius is the Latinized version of the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci's name, and America is the feminine form of Americus. Amerigen is explained as Amerigo plus gen, the accusative case of the Greek word for 'earth', and meaning 'land of Amerigo'. (See etymology.) Amerigo itself is an Italian form of the medieval Latin Emericus (see also Saint Emeric of Hungary), which through the German form Heinrich (in English, Henry) derived from the Germanic name Haimirich.
Vespucci was apparently unaware of the use of his name to refer to the new landmass, as Waldseemüller's maps did not reach Spain until a few years after his death. Ringmann may have been misled into crediting Vespucci by the widely published Soderini Letter, a sensationalized version of one of Vespucci's actual letters reporting on the mapping of the South American coast, which glamorized his discoveries and implied that he had recognized that South America was a continent separate from Asia; in fact, it is not known what Vespucci believed on this count, and he may have died believing what Columbus had, that they had reached the East Indies in Asia rather than a new continent. Spain officially refused to accept the name America for two centuries, saying that Columbus should get credit, and Waldseemüller's later maps, after Ringmann's death, did not include it; however, usage was established when Gerardus Mercator applied the name to the entire New World in his 1538 world map. Acceptance may have been aided by the "natural poetic counterpart" that the name America made with Asia, Africa, and Europa.
In modern English, North and South America are generally considered separate continents, and taken together are called the Americas in the plural, parallel to similar situations such as the Carolinas. When conceived as a unitary continent, the form is generally the continent of America in the singular. However, without a clarifying context, singular America commonly refers in English to the United States of America.
The northernmost point of the Americas is Kaffeklubben Island, which is the most northerly point of land on Earth. The southernmost point is the islands of Southern Thule, although they are sometimes considered part of Antarctica. The mainland of the Americas is the world's longest north-to-south landmass. The distance between its two polar extremities, the Boothia Peninsula in northern Canada and Cape Froward in Chilean Patagonia, is roughly 14,000 km (8,700 mi). The mainland's most westerly point is the end of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska; Attu Island, further off the Alaskan coast to the west, is considered the westernmost point of the Americas. Ponta do Seixas in northeastern Brazil forms the easternmost extremity of the mainland, while Nordostrundingen, in Greenland, is the most easterly point of the continental shelf.
South America broke off from the west of the supercontinent Gondwana around 135 million years ago, forming its own continent. Around 15 million years ago, the collision of the Caribbean Plate and the Pacific Plate resulted in the emergence of a series of volcanoes along the border that created a number of islands. The gaps in the archipelago of Central America filled in with material eroded off North America and South America, plus new land created by continued volcanism. By three million years ago, the continents of North America and South America were linked by the Isthmus of Panama, thereby forming the single landmass of the Americas. The Great American Interchange resulted in many species being spread across the Americas, such as the cougar, porcupine, opossums, armadillos and hummingbirds.
The geography of the western Americas is dominated by the American cordillera, with the Andes running along the west coast of South America and the Rocky Mountains and other North American Cordillera ranges running along the western side of North America. The 2,300-kilometer-long (1,400 mi) Appalachian Mountains run along the east coast of North America from Alabama to Newfoundland. North of the Appalachians, the Arctic Cordillera runs along the eastern coast of Canada.
The ranges with the highest peaks are the Andes and Rocky Mountain ranges. Although high peaks exist in the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Range, on average there are not as many reaching a height greater than 14,000 feet. In North America, the greatest number of fourteeners are in the United States, and more specifically in the U.S. state of Colorado. The highest peaks of the Americas are located in the Andes, with Aconcagua of Argentina being the highest; in North America Mount McKinley (Denali) in the U.S. state of Alaska is the tallest.
Between its coastal mountain ranges, North America has vast flat areas. The Interior Plains spread over much of the continent, with low relief. The Canadian Shield covers almost 5 million km² of North America and is generally quite flat. Similarly, the north-east of South America is covered by the flat Amazon Basin. The Brazilian Highlands on the east coast are fairly smooth but show some variations in landform, while farther south the Gran Chaco and Pampas are broad lowlands.
The climate of the Americas varies significantly from region to region. Tropical rainforest climate occurs in the latitudes of the Amazon, American Cloud forests, Florida and Darien Gap. In the Rocky Mountains and Andes, a similar climate is observed. Often the higher altitudes of these mountains are snow capped.
Southeastern North America is well known for its occurrence of tornadoes and hurricanes, of which the vast majority of tornadoes occur in the United States' Tornado Alley. Often parts of the Caribbean are exposed to the violent effects of hurricanes. These weather systems are formed by the collision of dry, cool air from Canada and wet, warm air from the Atlantic.
With coastal mountains and interior plains, the Americas have several large river basins that drain the continents. The largest river basin in North America is that of the Mississippi, covering the second largest watershed on the planet. The Mississippi-Missouri river system drains most of 31 states of the U.S., most of the Great Plains, and large areas between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. This river is the fourth longest in the world and tenth most powerful in the world.
In North America, to the east of the Appalachian Mountains, there are no major rivers but rather a series of rivers and streams that flow east with their terminus in the Atlantic Ocean, such as the Hudson River, Saint John River, and Savannah River. A similar instance arises with central Canadian rivers that drain into Hudson Bay; the largest being the Churchill River. On the west coast of North America, the main rivers are the Colorado River, Columbia River, Yukon River, Fraser River, and Sacramento River.
The Colorado River drains much of the Southern Rockies and parts of the Great Basin and Range Province. The river flows approximately 1,450 miles (2,330 km) into the Gulf of California, during which over time it has carved out natural phenomena such as the Grand Canyon and created phenomena such as the Salton Sea. The Columbia is a large river, 1,243 miles (2,000 km) long, in central western North America and is the most powerful river on the West Coast of the Americas. In the far northwest of North America, the Yukon drains much of the Alaskan peninsula and flows 1,980 miles (3,190 km) from parts of Yukon and the Northwest Territory to the Pacific. Draining to the Arctic Ocean in North America, the Mackenzie River drains waters from the great lakes of Canada. This river is the largest in Canada and drains 1,805,200 square kilometres (697,000 sq mi).
The largest river basin in South America is that of the Amazon, which has the highest volume flow of any river on Earth. The second largest watershed of South America is that of the Paraná River, which covers about 2.5 million km².
North America and South America began to developed a shared population of flora and fauna around 2.5 million years ago, when continental drift brought the two continents into contact via the Isthmus of Panama. Initially, the exchange of biota was roughly equal, with North American genera migrating into South America in about the same proportions as South American genera migrated into North America. This exchange is known as the Great American Interchange. The exchange became lopsided after roughly a million years, with the total spread of South American genera into North America far more limited in scope than the spread on North American genera into South America.
The total population of the Americas is about 859,000,000 people and is divided as follows:
- North America: 2001 with 495 million and in 2002 with 501 million (includes Central America and the Caribbean)
- South America: 2001 with 352 million and in 2002 with 357 million
Largest urban centers
There are three urban centers that each hold titles for being the largest population area based on the three main demographic concepts:
- A city proper is the locality with legally fixed boundaries and an administratively recognized urban status that is usually characterized by some form of local government.
- An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets. Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization and do not include large swaths or rural land, as do metropolitan areas.
- Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market.
In accordance with these definitions, the three largest population centers in the Americas are: Mexico City, anchor to the largest metropolitan area in the Americas; New York City, anchor to the largest urban area in the Americas; and São Paulo, the largest city proper in the Americas. All three cities maintain Alpha classification and large scale influence.
|Urban Centers within the Americas|
|Country||City||City proper population||Urban area population||Metro area population|
|United States||New York City||8,175,133||20,710,000||18,897,109|
The population of the Americas is made up of the descendants of four large ethnic groups and their combinations.
- The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, being Amerindians, Inuit, and Aleuts.
- Those of European ancestry, mainly Spanish, British and Irish, Portuguese, Italian, French, Polish, German, Dutch, Russians and Scandinavians.
- Those of Black African ancestry, mainly of West African descent. The majority are descendents of slaves.
- Asians, that is, those of Eastern, South, and Southeast Asian ancestry.
- Mestizos, those of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry.
- Metis people, those of mixed European and First Nations ethnic ancestry in Canada
- Mulattoes, people of mixed Black African and European ancestry.
- Zambos (Spanish) or Cafusos (Portuguese), those of mixed Black African and Amerindian ancestry.
The majority of the population live in Latin America, named for its predominant cultures, rooted in Latin Europe (including the two dominant languages, Spanish and Portuguese, both Romance languages), more specifically in the Iberian nations of Portugal and Spain (hence the use of the term Ibero-America as a synonym). Latin America is typically contrasted with Anglo-America, where English, a Germanic language, is prevalent, and which comprises Canada (with the exception of francophone Canada rooted in Latin Europe (France)—see Québec and Acadia) and the United States. Both countries are located in North America, with cultures deriving predominantly from Anglo-Saxon and Germanic roots.
The most prevalent faiths in the Americas are as follows:
- Christianity (North America: 85 percent; South America: 93 percent)
- Roman Catholicism (practiced by 88 percent of the Mexican population; approximately 74 percent of the population of Brazil, whose Roman Catholic population of 182 million is the greatest of any nation's; approximately 24 percent of the United States' population; and more than 40 percent of all of Canadians)
- Protestantism (practiced mostly in the United States, where half of the population are Protestant, and Canada, with slightly more than a quarter of the population; there is a growing contingent of Evangelical and Pentecostal movements in predominantly Catholic Latin America)
- Eastern Orthodoxy (found mostly in the United States and Canada—1 percent of the U.S. citizenry; this Christian group is growing faster than many other Christian groups in Canada and now represents roughly 3 percent of the Canadian population)
- Non-denominational Christians and other Christians (some 1,000 different Christian denominations and sects practiced in the Americas)
- Irreligion (includes atheists and agnostics, as well as those who profess some form of spirituality but do not identify themselves as members of any organized religion)
- Islam (practiced by 2 percent of Canadians [580,000 persons] and 0.6 percent of the U.S. population [1,820,000 persons]). Together, Muslims constitute about 1 percent of the North American population and 0.3 percent of all Latin Americans. Argentina has the largest Muslim population in Latin America with up to 600,000 persons, or 1.9 percent of the population.
- Judaism (practiced by 2 percent of North Americans—approximately 2.5 percent of the U.S. population and 1.2 percent of Canadians—and 0.23 percent of Latin Americans—Argentina has the largest Jewish population in Latin America with 200,000 members)
Other faiths include Buddhism; Hinduism; Sikhism; Bahá'í Faith; a wide variety of indigenous religions, many of which can be categorized as animistic; new age religions and many African and African-derived religions. Syncretic faiths can also be found throughout the continent.
Various languages are spoken in the Americas. Some are of European origin, others are spoken by indigenous peoples or are the mixture of various idioms like the different creoles.
The dominant language of Latin America is Spanish, though the most populous nation in Latin America, Brazil, speaks Portuguese. Small enclaves of French-, Dutch- and English-speaking regions also exist in Latin America, notably in French Guiana, Suriname, and Belize and Guyana respectively, and Haitian Creole, of French origin, is dominant in the nation of Haiti. Native languages are more prominent in Latin America than in Anglo-America, with Nahuatl, Quechua, Aymara and Guaraní as the most common. Various other native languages are spoken with less frequency across both Anglo-America and Latin America. Creole languages other than Haitian Creole are also spoken in parts of Latin America.
The dominant language of Anglo-America is English. French is also official in Canada, where it is the predominant language in Quebec and an official language in New Brunswick along with English. It is also an important language in the US state of Louisiana, and in parts of New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont. Spanish has kept an ongoing presence in the Southwestern United States, which formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, especially in California and New Mexico, where a distinct variety of Spanish spoken since the 17th century has survived. It has more recently become widely spoken in other parts of the United States due to heavy immigration from Latin America. High levels of immigration in general have brought great linguistic diversity to Anglo-America, with over 300 languages known to be spoken in the United States alone, but most languages are spoken only in small enclaves and by relatively small immigrant groups.
The nations of Guyana, Suriname, and Belize are generally considered[by whom?] not to fall into either Anglo-America or Latin America due to lingual differences with Latin America, geographic differences with Anglo-America, and cultural and historical differences with both regions; English is the primary language of Guyana and Belize, and Dutch is the official and written language of Suriname.
Most of the non-native languages have, to different degrees, evolved differently from the mother country, but are usually still mutually intelligible. Some have combined, however, which has even resulted in completely new languages, such as Papiamento, which is a combination of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch (representing the respective colonizers), native Arawak, various African languages, and, more recently English. Portuñol, a mixture of Portuguese and Spanish, is spoken in the border regions of Brazil and neighboring Spanish-speaking countries. More specifically, Riverense Portuñol is spoken by around 100,000 people in the border regions of Brazil and Uruguay. Due to immigration, there are many communities where other languages are spoken from all parts of the world, especially in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica and Uruguay—very important destinations for immigrants.
Speakers of English generally refer to the landmasses of North America and South America as the Americas, the Western Hemisphere, or the New World. The adjective American may be used to indicate something pertains to the Americas, but this term is primarily used in English to indicate something pertains to the United States. Some non-ambiguous alternatives exist, such as the adjective Pan-American, or New Worlder as a demonym for a resident of the Americas. Use of America in the hemispherical sense is sometimes retained, or can occur when translated from other languages. For example, the Association of National Olympic Committees (ANOC) in Paris maintains a single continental association for "America", represented by one of the five Olympic rings.
The English-language use of "American" as the demonym for citizens the United States has caused offense to some from Latin America who may identify themselves with the term "American" and feel that using the term solely for the United States misappropriates it. To avoid this usage, they prefer constructed terms in their languages derived from "United States" or even "North America". In Canada, its southern neighbor is often referred to as "the United States", "the U.S.A.", or (informally) "the States," while citizens are generally referred to as Americans. Most Canadians resent being referred to as Americans, but some are said to have protested the use of American as a national demonym.
In Spanish, América is a single continent composed of the subcontinents of Sudamérica and Norteamérica, the land bridge of Centroamérica, and the islands of the Antillas. Americano/a in Spanish refers to a person from América in a similar way that europeo or europea refers to a person from Europa. The terms sudamericano/a, centroamericano/a, antillano/a and norteamericano/a can be used to more specifically refer to the location where a person may live.
Citizens of the United States of America are normally referred to by the term estadounidense (rough literal translation: "United Statesian") instead of americano or americana which is discouraged, and the country's name itself is officially translated as Estados Unidos de América (United States of America), commonly abbreviated as Estados Unidos. Also, the term norteamericano (North American) may refer to a citizen of the United States. This term is primarily used to refer to citizens of the United States, and less commonly to those of other North American countries.
In Portuguese, América is a single continent composed of two landmasses, América do Sul and América do Norte, and the word americano refers to the whole of América. But, in Brazil, Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries in Africa and Asia, it is widely used to refer to the citizens of the United States. The least ambiguous terms, estadunidense (used in Brazil, something like "United Statesian"). The term "norte-americano" is, also, widely used to refer to the citizens of the United States. América can be used as synonym for the country, but almost never in print and in more formal environments, where the country is called either Estados Unidos da América (i.e. United States of America) or simply Estados Unidos (i.e. United States). There is some difference between the usage of these words in Portugal and in Brazil, with the Portuguese being more prone to apply the term América to the country. Historically, Brazil is a special case, since it is the only Portuguese-speaking country situated in America. In colonial times, Portugal treated it as something different and not connected to the rest of America. For political reasons, Brazil was seen as a land mass separated from the rest of America by large rivers and lakes, which is not far from the truth. Sometimes it was even shown that it was a separated continent or a big island. Brazil is, in fact, another word for America, since the word Brazil was used to refer to a legendary island situated somewhere in the Western Atlantic Ocean.
In French, as in English, the word américain is most often used for things relating to the United States; however, it may also be used for things relating to the Americas. Panaméricain may be used to refer to the Americas without ambiguity.
The noun Amérique sometimes refers to the whole as one continent, and sometimes two continents, Amérique du Nord and Amérique du Sud; the United States is generally referred to as les États-Unis d'Amérique, les États-Unis, or les USA. In Quebec, the United States are sometimes called les États or even simply les states in daily informal conversation. However, the use of Amérique to refer to the United States does still have some currency in France.
In Dutch, the word Amerika mostly refers to the United States. Although the United States is equally often referred to as de Verenigde Staten or de VS, Amerika relatively rarely refers to the Americas, but it is the only commonly used Dutch word for the Americas. This often leads to ambiguity; and to stress that something concerns the Americas as a whole, Dutch uses a combination, namely Noord- en Zuid-Amerika (North and South America).
Latin America is generally referred to as Latijns Amerika or Midden-Amerika for Central America.
The adjective Amerikaans is most often used for things or people relating to the United States. There are no alternative words to distinguish between things relating to the United States or to the Americas. Dutch uses the local alternative for things relating to elsewhere in the Americas, such as Argentijns for Argentine, etc.
Countries and territories
There are 35 sovereign states in the Americas, as well as an autonomous country of Denmark, three overseas departments of France, three overseas collectivities of France, eight overseas territories of the United Kingdom, three constituent countries of the Netherlands, three public bodies of the Netherlands, and two unincorporated territories of the United States.
|Country or territory||Area
|Languages (official in bold)||Capital|
|Anguilla ! Anguilla (United Kingdom)||91||15,000||164.8||English||The Valley|
|Antigua and Barbuda ! Antigua and Barbuda||442||88,000||199.1||Creole, English||St. John's|
|Argentina ! Argentina||2,766,890||40,482,000||14.3||Spanish||Buenos Aires|
|Aruba ! Aruba (Netherlands)||180||107,000||594.4||Papiamentu, Spanish, Dutch||Oranjestad|
|Bahamas ! Bahamas, The||13,943||342,000||24.5||Creole, English||Nassau|
|Barbados ! Barbados||430||256,000||595.3||Bajan, English||Bridgetown|
|Belize ! Belize||22,966||307,000||13.4||Spanish, Kriol, English||Belmopan|
|Bermuda ! Bermuda (United Kingdom)||54||65,000||1,203.7||English||Hamilton|
|Bolivia ! Bolivia||1,098,580||9,863,000||8.4||Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, 35 additional indigenous languages||La Paz and Sucre |
|Bonaire ! Bonaire (Netherlands)||294||12,093||41.1||Papiamentu, Spanish, Dutch||Kralendijk|
|Brazil ! Brazil||8,514,877||191,241,714||22.0||Portuguese||Brasília|
|British Virgin Islands ! British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom)||151||23,000||152.3||English||Road Town|
|Canada ! Canada||9,984,670||33,573,000||3.4||English, French||Ottawa|
|Cayman Islands ! Cayman Islands (United Kingdom)||264||56,000||212.1||English||George Town|
|Chile ! Chile||756,950||16,928,873||22||Spanish||Santiago|
|Colombia ! Colombia||1,138,910||45,928,970||40||Spanish||Bogotá|
|Costa Rica ! Costa Rica||51,100||4,579,000||89.6||Spanish||San José|
|Cuba ! Cuba||109,886||11,204,000||102.0||Spanish||Havana|
|Curacao ! Curaçao (Netherlands)||444||140,794||317.1||Papiamentu, Dutch||Willemstad|
|Dominica ! Dominica||751||67,000||89.2||French Patois, English||Roseau|
|Dominican Republic ! Dominican Republic||48,671||10,090,000||207.3||Spanish||Santo Domingo|
|Ecuador ! Ecuador||283,560||14,573,101||53.8||Spanish, Quechua||Quito|
|El Salvador ! El Salvador||21,041||6,163,000||293.0||Spanish||San Salvador|
|Falkland Islands ! Falkland Islands (United Kingdom)||12,173||3,140||0.26||English||Port Stanley|
|French Guiana ! French Guiana (France)||91,000||221,500||2.7||French||Cayenne|
|Greenland ! Greenland (Denmark)||2,166,086||57,000||0.026||Greenlandic, Danish||Nuuk (Godthåb)|
|Grenada ! Grenada||344||104,000||302.3||English||St. George's|
|Guadeloupe ! Guadeloupe (France)||1,628||401,784||246.7||French||Basse-Terre|
|Guatemala ! Guatemala||108,889||14,027,000||128.8||Spanish, Garifuna and 23 Mayan languages||Guatemala City|
|Guyana ! Guyana||214,999||772,298||3.5||English||Georgetown|
|Haiti ! Haiti||27,750||10,033,000||361.5||Creole, French||Port-au-Prince|
|Honduras ! Honduras||112,492||7,466,000||66.4||Spanish||Tegucigalpa|
|Jamaica ! Jamaica||10,991||2,719,000||247.4||Patois, English||Kingston|
|Martinique ! Martinique (France)||1,128||397,693||352.6||Patois, French||Fort-de-France|
|Mexico ! Mexico||1,964,375||112,322,757||57.1||Spanish, 68 indigenous languages||Mexico City|
|Montserrat ! Montserrat (United Kingdom)||102||6,000||58.8||Creole English, English||Plymouth; Brades|
|Navassa Island ! Navassa Island (United States)||5||0||0.0||No||—|
|Nicaragua ! Nicaragua||130,373||5,743,000||44.1||Spanish||Managua|
|Panama ! Panama||75,417||3,454,000||45.8||Spanish||Panama City|
|Paraguay ! Paraguay||406,750||6,831,306||15.6||Guaraní, Spanish||Asunción|
|Peru ! Peru||1,285,220||29,132,013||22||Spanish, Quechua, Aymara||Lima|
|Puerto Rica ! Puerto Rico (United States)||8,870||3,982,000||448.9||Spanish, English||San Juan|
|Saba ! Saba (Netherlands)||13||1,537||118.2||English, Dutch||The Bottom|
|Saint Barthelemy ! Saint Barthélemy (France)||21||7,448||354.7||French||Gustavia|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis ! Saint Kitts and Nevis||261||52,000||199.2||English||Basseterre|
|Saint Lucia ! Saint Lucia||539||172,000||319.1||English, French Creole||Castries|
|Saint Martin ! Saint Martin (France)||54||29,820||552.2||French||Marigot|
|Saint Pierre and Miquelon ! Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France)||242||6,000||24.8||French||Saint-Pierre|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines ! Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||389||109,000||280.2||English||Kingstown|
|Sint Eustatius ! Sint Eustatius (Netherlands)||21||2,739||130.4||Dutch, English||Oranjestad|
|Sint Maarten ! Sint Maarten (Netherlands)||34||40,009||1,176.7||English, Spanish, Dutch||Philipsburg|
|South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands ! South Georgia and
South Sandwich Islands (United Kingdom)
|Suriname ! Suriname||163,270||472,000||3||Dutch, Hindi-Urdu, Srana, Javanese, English Creole||Paramaribo|
|Trinidad and Tobago ! Trinidad and Tobago||5,130||1,339,000||261.0||English||Port of Spain|
|Turks and Caicos Islands ! Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom)||948||33,000||34.8||Creole English, English||Cockburn Town|
|United States ! United States[note 1]||9,629,091||311,630,000||32.7||English||Washington, D.C.|
|United States Virgin Islands ! United States Virgin Islands (United States)||347||110,000||317.0||English, Spanish||Charlotte Amalie|
|Uruguay ! Uruguay||176,220||3,477,780||19.4||Spanish||Montevideo|
|Venezuela ! Venezuela||916,445||26,814,843||30.2||Spanish||Caracas|
Multinational organizations in the Americas
- Alliance for Progress
- American Capital of Culture
- Andean Community of Nations
- Association of Caribbean States
- Bank of the South
- Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas
- Caribbean Community
- CARICOM Single Market and Economy
- Central American Common Market
- Central American Parliament
- Contadora Group
- Free Trade Area of the Americas
- Latin American Free Trade Agreement
- Latin American Parliament or (Parlatino)
- List of Parliamentary Speakers in the Americas in 1984
- Mercosur or Mercosul
- North American Free Trade Agreement
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
- Organization of American States
- Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
- Organization of Ibero-American States
- Pan American Sports Organization
- Regional Security System
- Rio Group
- School of the Americas
- Summit of the Americas
- Union of South American Nations
- YOA Orchestra of the Americas
- Americas (terminology)
- Amerrique Mountains
- British North America
- Decolonization of the Americas
- Ethnic groups in Central America
- Former American countries
- French America
- La Merika
- List of conflicts in the Americas
- List of countries in the Americas by population
- Middle America (Americas)
- Monarchies in the Americas
- New Spain
- New Sweden
- Northern America
- Southern Cone
- Includes the US state of Hawaii, which is distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean and therefore more commonly associated with the other territories of Oceania.
- "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- "American". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.
- "New Worlder". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.
- See for example: america – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved on January 27, 2008; "dictionary.reference.com america". Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Accessed: January 27, 2008.
- Marjorie Fee and Janice MacAlpine, Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage (2008) page 36 says "In Canada, American is used almost exclusively in reference to the United States and its citizens." Others, including The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary, The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, The Australian Oxford Dictionary and The Concise Oxford English Dictionary all specify both the Americas and the United States in their definition of "American".
- "America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: "[16c: from the feminine of Americus, the Latinized first name of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454–1512). The name America first appeared on a map in 1507 by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, referring to the area now called Brazil]. Since the 16c, a name of the western hemisphere, often in the plural Americas and more or less synonymous with the New World. Since the 18c, a name of the United States of America. The second sense is now primary in English: ... However, the term is open to uncertainties: ..."
- Webster's New World College Dictionary, 2010 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio.
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- "continent n. 5. a." (1989) Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press ; "continent1 n." (2006) The Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th edition revised. (Ed.) Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press; "continent1 n." (2005) The New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd edition. (Ed.) Erin McKean. Oxford University Press; "continent [2, n] 4 a" (1996) Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. ProQuest Information and Learning ; "continent" (2007) Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 January 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
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- Juan Bialet Massé en su informe sobre "El estado de las clases obreras en el interior del país"
- SOCIAL IDENTITY Marta Fierro Social Psychologist.
- Etnicidad y ciudadanía en América Latina.
- Burchfield, R. W. 2004. Fowler's Modern English Usage. (ISBN 0-19-861021-1) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; p. 48.
- "America." Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage. (ISBN 0-19-541619-8) Fee, Margery and McAlpine, J., ed., 1997. Toronto: Oxford University Press; p. 36.
- Pan-American - Definition from the Merriam Webster dictionary.
- Reader's Digest Oxford Complete Wordfinder. 1993. (ISBN 0-276-42101-9) New York, USA: Reader's Digest Association; p. 45.
- The Olympic symbols. International Olympic Committee. 2002. Lausanne: Olympic Museum and Studies Centre. The five rings of the Olympic flag represent the five inhabited, participating continents: (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania).
- "America." Microsoft Encarta Dictionary. 2007. Microsoft. Archived October 31, 2009.
- Mencken, H. L. (December 1947). "Names for Americans". American Speech (American Speech) 22 (4): 241–256. doi:10.2307/486658. JSTOR 486658.
- "American." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X); McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 35.
- "Estados Unidos". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. October 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
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- Diccionario panhispánico de dudas:Norteamérica. Real Academia Española. 2005.
- Diccionario panhispánico de dudas: Estados Unidos. Real Academia Española. 2005. "debe evitarse el empleo de americano para referirse exclusivamente a los habitantes de los Estados Unidos" ("the use of the term americano referring exclusively to the United States inhabitants must be avoided")
- "panaméricain". Office québéqois de la langue français. 1978. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
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- "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 20 September 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- Unless otherwise noted, land area figures are taken from Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- Unless otherwise noted, population estimates are taken from Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). World Population Prospects, Table A.1 (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
- Sara Louise Kras (2008). Antigua and Barbuda. Marshall Cavendish. p. 95. ISBN 0-7614-2570-5.
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- Paul M. Lewis (2009). "Languages of Bahamas". Dallas: Ethnologue.
- Paul M. Lewis, ed. (2009). "Languages of Barbados". Dallas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World.
- "Belize 2000 Housing and Population Census". Belize Central Statistical Office. 2000. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
- La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia;
- Population estimates are taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics Netherlands Antilles. "Statistical information: Population". Government of the Netherlands Antilles. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- "Households by the most spoken language in the household Population and Housing Census 2001". Central Bureau of Statistics.
- Includes Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean, a Chilean territory frequently reckoned in Oceania. Santiago is the administrative capital of Chile; Valparaíso is the site of legislative meetings.
- Paul M. Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009). "Languages of Dominica". Dallas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- David Levinson (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 347. ISBN 1-57356-019-7.
- Claimed by Argentina.
- "Falkland Islands: July 2008 population estimate". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- (Jan. 2009) (French) INSEE, Government of France. "Population des régions au 1er janvier". Retrieved 2009-01-20.
- "Insee - Populations légales 2008 - 971-Guadeloupe". Insee.fr. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "Insee - Populations légales 2008 - 972-Martinique". Insee.fr. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- Paul M. Lewis, ed. (2009). "Languages of Martinique". Dallas: Ethnologue.
- Paul M. Lewis, ed. (2009). "Languages of Montserrat". Dallas: Ethnologue.
- Due to ongoing activity of the Soufriere Hills volcano beginning in July 1995, much of Plymouth was destroyed and government offices were relocated to Brades. Plymouth remains the de jure capital.
- Land area figures taken from "The World Factbook: 2010 edition". Government of the United States, Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- These population estimates are for 2010, and are taken from "The World Factbook: 2010 edition". Government of the United States, Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- Claimed by Argentina; the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean are commonly associated with Antarctica (due to proximity) and have no permanent population, only hosting a periodic contingent of about 100 researchers and visitors.
- Lewis, Paul (2009). "Languages of Suriname". Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue.
- Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Languages of Turks and Caicos Islands". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas: SIL International.
- "Americas". The Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online. 2006. New York: Columbia University Press.
- "Americas". Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th ed. 1986. (ISBN 0-85229-434-4) Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
- Burchfield, R. W. 2004. Fowler's Modern English Usage. (ISBN 0-19-861021-1) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
- Fee, Margery and McAlpine, J. 1997. Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage. (ISBN 0-19-541619-8) Toronto: Oxford University Press.
- Kane, Katie Nits Make Lice: Drogheda, Sand Creek, and the Poetics of Colonial Extermination Cultural Critique, No. 42 (Spring, 1999), pp. 81–103 doi:10.2307/1354592
- Pearsall, Judy and Trumble, Bill., ed. 2002. Oxford English Reference Dictionary, 2nd ed. (rev.) (ISBN 0-19-860652-4) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
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- What's the difference between North, Latin, Central, Middle, South, Spanish and Anglo America? Geography at about.com.
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- United Nations population data by latest available Census: 2008–2009
- Organization of American States
- Council on Hemispheric Affairs
- Henry Gannett, Ernest Ingersoll, George Parker Winship and others (1905). "America". New International Encyclopedia.