Amharic Braille

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Amharic Braille
Amharic Braille chart.jpg
Type
alphabet
Languages Amharic
Parent systems
Braille
Print basis
Amharic alphabet

Amharic Braille is the braille alphabet of the Amharic language. Letter values are mostly in line with international usage.

Alphabet[edit]

Amharic Braille is a consonant–vowel alphabet, not an abugida like the print Amharic script. However, because the alphabetic chart (right) is organized by syllable rather than by letter, the vowels, which do not occur alone, are listed given first in the chart below, then the consonants are listed in Ge'ez order.

The syllabic chart at right shows a blank cell being used for the vowel ə. This is perhaps an artefact of the presentation; Unesco (2013) shows it as a zero vowel that is simply not written.[1]

⠢ (braille pattern dots-26)
⠥ (braille pattern dots-136)
-u
⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
-i
⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
-a
⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
-e
⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
-o
⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
-wa
⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
h ሀ
⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
l ለ
⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
ḥ ሐ
⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
m መ
⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)
ś ሠ
⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
r ረ
⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)
s ሰ
⠩ (braille pattern dots-146)
š ሸ
⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
ḳ ቀ
⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
b በ
⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
t ተ
⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
č ቸ
⠱ (braille pattern dots-156)
ḫ ኀ
⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
n ነ
⠬ (braille pattern dots-346)
ñ ኘ
⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356)
ʾ አ
⠅ (braille pattern dots-13)
k ከ
⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)
x ኸ
⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456)
w ወ
⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256)
ʿ ዐ
⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
z ዘ
⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)
ž ዠ
⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
y የ
⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
d ደ
⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
ǧ ጀ
⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
g ገ
⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456)
ṭ ጠ
⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
č̣ ጨ
⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)
p̣ ጰ
⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346)
ṣ ጸ
⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346)
ṣ́ ፀ
⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)
f ፈ
⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234)
p ፐ
⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
v ቨ

ə is not the default vowel in print Amharic, which is instead ä (braille ). For example, el + vowel is written ለ , ሉ lu, ሊ li, ላ la, ሌ le, ል , ሎ lo, ሏ lwa.

CwV and CyV other than Cwa are written with medial w and y: ገ , ጉ gu, ጊ gi, ጋ ga, ጌ ge, ግ , ጎ go, ጐ gwä, ጒ gwi, ጓ gwa, ጔ gwe, ጕ gwə. Note that Cwə is written as if it were Cwu, a sequence which does not occur in Amharic.

Numbers[edit]

Amharic digits do not follow the international pattern. They are also circumfixed with ... :

1 10
2 20
3 30
4 40
5 50
6 60
7 70
8 80
9 90
10 100

The form of 100 suggests that the prefix may occur before each digit, while the suffix occurs only at the end of the number.

Western numbers are marked with as in other braille alphabets.

Punctuation[edit]

Native punctuation is as follows:

Print
Braille ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5)

The last is a 'tonal mark'.

There is also Western punctuation:

Print ? ! ... - / *
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)
Print « ... » ‹ ... › ( ... ) [ ... ]
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Unesco (2013), World Braille Usage, 3rd ed.