15 April 1862|
|Died||8 September 1929
|Institutions||Sapienza University of Rome
Ospedale riuniti di Roma
|Alma mater||Sapienza University of Rome|
|Known for||Marchiafava-Bignami disease
Transmission of malaria
Amico Bignami (15 April 1862 – 8 September 1929) was an Italian physician, pathologist, malariologist and sceptic. He was professor of pathology at University of Rome (now Sapienza Università di Roma). His most important scientific contribution was in the discovery of transmission of human malarial parasite in mosquito. With Ettore Marchiafava he also described a neurological disease, which is now given an eponymous name Marchiafava–Bignami disease.
Amico Bignami was born in Bologna to Francesco Mazzoni and Eugenia. He earned his medical degree from University of Rome (Sapienza University of Rome) in Rome in 1887. He was immediately appointed as assistant to Tommasi Crudelli in the Institute of General Pathology, where he remained up to 1891. In 1891 he joined the Institute of Pathological Anatomy under by Ettore Marchiafava. In 1890, he became extraordinary professor of pathology at the University of Rome and was promoted to full professor in 1906. In 1917, he became professor of medicine, a post he occupied until his retirement in 1921. In addition he was practising assistant physician at the Ospedale riuniti di Roma since 1896. He was interested particularly in the pathology of the brain and discovered the clinical nature of alcoholics now known as Marchiafava-Bignami disease. He also made pioneering work in isolation of Bacterium coli (now Escherichia coli) in humans. He also contributed to the study of leukemia. He died in Rome in 1929.
Bignami and his colleague Machiafava published a classic 169-page monograph On Summer-Autumnal Fevers in 1892, which was translated into English in 1894. They were the first to distinguish symptoms of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of tertian malaria, from benign forms. They found that the malaria parasites were spherical in nature (rather than filamentous, as generally believed), mainly intraerythrocytic (rather than free living), that the liberation of spores at segmentation (schizont rupture) caused fever, and that there were different species of malaria parasites (each with its own different characteristics, notably fever periodicity). They observed that malignant malaria was caused only by the parasite species causing aestivo-autumnal malaria. With Giuseppe Bastianelli, he discovered that in malarial patients, it was the young (early staged) Plasmodium that caused fevers, but not the old crescent froms (gametocytes), discovered by Alphonse Laveran. Specifically they found that the crescent forms appeared in the second week of fever. Bignami theorised, in 1896, that the mosquito can be the vector of the disease. To show this, he captured mosquitos in areas with high incidence of malaria and had them bite healhy people. But, like Ronald Ross, A British Amry surgeon working in India on the same mission (following Patrick Manson's mosquito-malaria theory), he failed to bring direct evidences. Ronald Ross was the luckier of the two, and discovered malarial parasites inside mosquito which indicated that mosquito was the carrier. In 1898, Bignami, Giovanni Battista Grassi, Antonio Dionisi and Giuseppe Bastianelli's experiments succeeded. Bignami did not hesitate to be bitten himself and to contract the disease. The three scientists presented on November 28, 1898 the results of their observations to the Accademia dei Lincei. Bignami was elected member of the Accademia dei Lincei in 1923, in 1926 the academy awarded him the Santoro prize for his studies on malaria.
Bignami's major works include Ricerche sull’anatomia patologica delle perniciose (1890), Sulle febbre malariche estivo-automnali(1892) or On Summer-Autumnal Fevers (1894), La malaria e le zanzare (1899), La infezione malarica (1902) and with Grassi Ciclo evolutivo della semilune nell' Anopheles claviger (1899).
- Roncalli Amici, Raffaele (2001). "The history of Italian parasitology". Veterinary Parasitology 98 (1–3): 3–30. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(01)00420-4. PMID 11516576.
- "Amico Bignami". Whonamedit?. Ole Daniel Enersen. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Morton, Leslie T.; Moore, Robert J. (2005). A Bibliography of Medical and Bio-medical Biography (3 ed.). Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-75-465069-0.
- White, N. J.; Turner, G. D. H.; Day, N. P. J.; Dondorp, A. M. (2013). "Lethal malaria: Marchiafava and Bignami were right". Journal of Infectious Diseases 208 (2): 192–198. doi:10.1093/infdis/jit116. PMC 3685223. PMID 23585685.
- Pearson, Stephen H. Gillespie, Richard D. (2001). Principles and Practice of Clinical Parasitology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-47-085172-2.
- Grove, David (2013). Tapeworms, Lice and Prions : a Compendium of Unpleasant Infections. Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 123. ISBN 9780199641024.
- Majori, Giancarlo (2012). "Short history of malaria and its eradication in Italy with short notes on the fight against the infection in the mediterranean basin". Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 4 (1). doi:10.4084/MJHID.2012.016. PMC 3340992. PMID 22550561.
- Cox, Francis EG (2010). "History of the discovery of the malaria parasites and their vectors". Parasites & Vectors 3 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-3-5. PMC 2825508. PMID 20205846.
- Conci, C. 1975. Repertorio delle biografie e bibliografie degli scrittori e cultori italiani di entomologia. Mem. Soc. Ent. Ital. 48 1969(4) 817–1069.
- Conci, C. & Poggi, R. 1996. Iconography of Italian Entomologists, with essential biographical data. Mem. Soc. Ent. Ital. 75 159–382, 418 Fig.
- Biography at L'Encicopedia Italiana