|Jmol-3D images||Image 1
|Melting point||138 °C (280 °F; 411 K)|
|Boiling point||326.7 °C (620.1 °F; 599.8 K)|
|Flash point||151 °C (304 °F; 424 K)|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down. Subsequently, the level of GABA is increased in tissues. At concentrations high enough to fully inhibit 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity, aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats.
Aminooxyacetic acid is a general inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes (this includes GABA-T). It functions as an inhibitor by attacking the Schiff base linkage between PLP and the enzyme, forming oxime type complexes.
Aminooxyacetic acid inhibits aspartate aminotransferase, another PLP-dependent enzyme, which is an essential part of the malate-aspartate shuttle. The inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle prevents the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by the mitochondria in nerve terminals. Also in the nerve terminals, aminooxyacetic acid prevents the mitochondria from utilizing pyruvate generated from glycolysis, thus leading to a bioenergetic state similar to that of hypoglycemia. Aminooxyacetic acid has been shown to cause excitotoxic lesions of the striatum, similar to Huntington's disease, potentially due to its impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Aminooxyacetic acid was previously used in a clinical trial to reduce symptoms of Huntington's disease by increasing GABA levels in the brain. However, the patients who received the aminooxyacetic acid treatment failed to show clinical improvement and suffered from side effects such as drowsiness, ataxia, seizures, and psychotic behavior when the dosage was increased beyond 2 mg per kilogram per day. Also, the inhibition of aspartate aminotransferase by aminooxyacetic acid has clinical implications for the treatment of breast cancer, since a decrease in glycolysis disrupts breast adenocarcinoma cells more than normal cells.
Aminooxyacetic acid has been studied as a treatment for tinnitus. One study showed that about 20% of patients with tinnitus had a decrease in its severity when treated with aminooxyacetic acid. However, about 70% of those patients reported side effects, mostly nausea and disequilibrium. Thus, the investigators of the study concluded that the incidence of the side effects makes aminooxyacetic acid unsuitable to treat tinnitus.
Aminooxyacetic acid was first described by Werner in 1893, and was prepared by the hydrolysis of ethylbenzhydroximinoacetic acid. In 1936, Anchel and Shoenheimer used aminooxyacetic acid to isolate ketones from natural sources. Also in 1936, Kitagawa and Takani described the preparation of aminooxyacetic acid by the condensation of benzhydroxamic acid and ethyl bromoacetate, followed by hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid.
- Wallach, D. (1961). "Studies on the GABA pathway. I. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-ketoglutaric acid transaminase in vitro and in vivo by U-7524 (amino-oxyacetic acid)". Biochemical pharmacology 5: 323–331. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(61)90023-5. PMID 13782815.
- Wolfgang Löscher; Dagmar Hönack; Martina Gramer (1989). "Use of Inhibitors of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Transaminase for the Estimation of GABA Turnover in Various Brain Regions of Rats: A Reevaluation of Aminooxyacetic Acid". Journal of Neurochemistry 53 (6): 1737–1750. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1989.tb09239.x.
- Beeler, T.; Churchich, J. (1976). "Reactivity of the phosphopyridoxal groups of cystathionase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 251 (17): 5267–5271. PMID 8458.
- Risto A. Kauppinen; Talvinder S. Sihra; David G. Nicholls (1987). "Aminooxyacetic acid inhibits the malate-aspartate shuttle in isolated nerve terminals and prevents the mitochondria from utilizing glycolytic substrates". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 930 (2): 173–178. doi:10.1016/0167-4889.2887.2990029-2.
- Beal, M.; Swartz, K.; Hyman, B.; Storey, E.; Finn, S.; Koroshetz, W. (1991). "Aminooxyacetic acid results in excitotoxin lesions by a novel indirect mechanism". Journal of Neurochemistry 57 (3): 1068–1073. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1991.tb08258.x. PMID 1830613.
- Perry, T.; Wright, J.; Hansen, S.; Allan, B.; Baird, P.; MacLeod, P. (1980). "Failure of aminooxyacetic acid therapy in Huntington disease". Neurology 30 (7 Pt 1): 772–775. doi:10.1212/wnl.30.7.772. PMID 6446691.
- Thornburg, J. M.; Nelson, K. K.; Clem, B. F.; Lane, A. N.; Arumugam, S.; Simmons, A.; Eaton, J. W.; Telang, S.; Chesney, J. (2008). "Targeting aspartate aminotransferase in breast cancer". Breast Cancer Research 10 (5): R84. doi:10.1186/bcr2154. PMC 2614520. PMID 18922152.
- Reed, H.; Meltzer, J.; Crews, P.; Norris, C.; Quine, D.; Guth, P. (1985). "Amino-oxyacetic acid as a palliative in tinnitus". Archives of otolaryngology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) 111 (12): 803–805. PMID 2415097.
- Blair, P.; Reed, H. (1986). "Amino-oxyacetic acid: A new drug for the treatment of tinnitus". The Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society : official organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society 138 (6): 17–19. PMID 3734755.
- Guth, P.; Risey, J.; Briner, W.; Blair, P.; Reed, H.; Bryant, G.; Norris, C.; Housley, G.; Miller, R. (1990). "Evaluation of amino-oxyacetic acid as a palliative in tinnitus". The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology 99 (1): 74–79. PMID 1688487.
- Davanzo, J.; Greig, M.; Cronin, M. (1961). "Anticonvulsant properties of amino-oxyacetic acid". The American journal of physiology 201: 833–837. PMID 13883717.
- Wood, J.; Peesker, S. (1973). "The role of GABA metabolism in the convulsant and anticonvulsant actions of aminooxyacetic acid". Journal of Neurochemistry 20 (2): 379–387. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1973.tb12137.x. PMID 4698285.
- Broun, R.; Mayak, S. (1981). "Aminooxyacetic acid as an inhibitor of ethylenesynthesis and senescence in carnation flowers". Scientia Horticulturae 15 (3): 277–282. doi:10.1016/0304-4238(81)90038-8.
- Zuliana, R.; Boyce, A. N.; Nair, H.; Chandran, S. (2008). "Effects of aminooxyacetic acid and sugar on the longevity of pollinated Dendrobium Pompadour". Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 7 (7): 654–659. doi:10.3923/ajps.2008.654.659. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Werner, A. (1893). "Ueber Hydroxylaminessigsäure und Derivate derselben". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 26 (2): 1567–1571. doi:10.1002/cber.18930260274.
- Werner, A.; Sonnenfeld, E. (1894). "Ueber Hydroxylaminessigsäure und α-Hydroxylaminpropionsäure". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 27 (3): 3350–3354. doi:10.1002/cber.189402703141.
- Anchel, Marjorie; Schoenheimer, Rudolf (1936). "Reagents for the isolation of carbonyl compounds from unsaponifiable material". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 114 (2): 539–546. Retrieved 2011-05-20.
- Borek, E.; Clarke, H. T. (1936). "Carboxymethoxylamine". Journal of the American Chemical Society 58 (10): 2020–2021. doi:10.1021/ja01301a058.
- Kitagawa, Matsunosuke; Takani, A. (1936). J. Biochem. (Tokio) 23: 181–185.