Amir Mohammad Khan

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Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani
3 rd Governor of West Pakistan
In office
12 April 1960 – 18 September 1966
President Muhammad Ayub Khan
Preceded by Akhter Husain
Succeeded by Last
Malik Amir Muhammad Khan (1910–1967), Ex-Governor West Pakistan

Malik Amir Mohammad Khan Awan also known by some as Nawab of Kalabagh[1] (Urdu: نواب کالا باغ‎) was a prominent feudal lord, politician and the seventh chief of Kalabagh, in Mianwali District of north western Punjab, Pakistan. He belonged to the Awan tribe. He also served as Governor of West Pakistan. He belonged to the nobility of the sword as his ancestors were warrior chiefs for nearly 900 years[2][3][4]

History of Kalabagh[edit]

Kalabagh, on the bank of Indus River, was a territory ruled by the Awans for long. The tribe believed that:

All branches of the tribe (Awans) are unanimous in stating that they originally came from neighourhood of Ghazni to India, and all trace their genealogy to Hazrat Ali the son-in-law of the Prophet. Kutab Shah, who came from Ghazni with Sultan Mahmud, was the common ancestor of the Awans. It was only in the Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Shahpur districts that they became of any political importance…. In Shahpur District, the Awans held the hilly country to the north west, Jalar, Naoshera and Sukesar, where the head of the tribe still resides.

—From Sir Lepel H. Griffin, The Panjab Chiefs' (1865 Edition) p.570-571.

[5]

It is asserted that Qutb Shah and six of his sons accompanied and assisted Mahmud in his early eleventh century conquests of what today forms parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northern India. It is claimed that in recognition of their services and valour, Mahmud bestowed upon Qutb Shah and his sons (who, according to tribal traditions, settled primarily in the Salt Range) the title of Awan, meaning "helper".[6]

Kalabagh, on the bank of Indus River, was claimed to have been a quasi-independent territory, ruled over by the Awan Chief, supposedly since the time of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. It is also claimed that this area was later taken over by the Sikhs during the early 19th century, and later, during the British Raj, it was returned to the Chief family as Kalabagh jagir.

The learned author of "Chiefs and families of note in the Delhi, Jalandhar, Peshawar and Derajat divisions of the Panjab" states that, "Kalabagh, the home for generations of the local Awan maliks, is one of the most ancient towns in this part of Panjab".[7]

It is stated in the Imperial gazetteer of India that "Kalabagh Estate. — Estate in the District and tahsil of Mianwali, Punjab, with an area of 107 square miles. It is held by Muhammad Khan Malik Yar, the AwanMalik of Kalabagh. Over 300 years ago the Awan Maliks settled at Dhankot, a natural fastness on the Indus above Kalabgh."[8]

Sir Ibbetson Denzil writes in "Panjab Caste," that "Their story is that they are descended from Qutb Shah of Ghazni, him-self a descendant of Ali, the son-in-law of the Islamic Prophet Mohammad, but by a wife other than the Prophet's daughter, who came from Hirat about 1035 A.D. and settled in the neighbourhood of Peshawar. Thence they spread along the Salt-range, forming independent clans by whom the Chief of Kalabagh was acknowledged as the head of the tribe. In the genealogical tree of the Kalabagh family which used to be the chief family of the tribe, in which tree their descent is traced from Qutb Shah.”[9]

Family tree[edit]

@@

 
 
 
 
Malik Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Malik Muhammad Azam Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Malik Allah Yar Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khan Bahadur Muzzafar Khan
(Died 1885)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khan Bahadur Yar Muhammad Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khan Bahadar Malik Atta Muhammad Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Malik Amir Mohammad Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Career[edit]

He was appointed Chairman Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation with the rank of a Central Minister in 1959, and subsequently Governor of West Pakistan on 12 April 1960 by Pakistan President General Ayub Khan. Both Amir Mohammad Khan and Sandhurst trained General Wajid Ali Khan Burki were instrumental in Ayub Khan's Rise to power, until today the three families retain adjoining houses in Islamabad.

His role during the Indo-Pak war of 1965 is praised as he kept the law and order, controlled the prices, trafficking of the raw material and prevented the smuggling.

He has also been described as a man of principles and traditions. He liked to remain in the national dress and his cabinet members tried to please him by doing so. He once declined to shake hands with the British Queen Elizabeth II on her visit to Pakistan. Ayub Khan asked him to receive her at Airport but he didn't do that.

Amir Muhammad Khan(left) with president Ayub Khan (right)

After a distinguished military career, Lt. Gen. Jahandad Khan served as Governor of Sind during 1984–87. In 1965–66 he was Military Secretary to the then Governor of West Pakistan, the Nawab of Kalabagh. He wrote a book, Pakistan Leadership Challenges, in which Kalabagh comes across as a sound, no-nonsense and commonsensical administrator, firmly wedded to the values and traditions of the feudal class. British assessment of Kalabagh was very similar. In his book, Jahandad hints at a somewhat sinister aspect of the Ayub regime. In 1963 the regime faced strong opposition from the Jamaat-i-Islami. Ayub himself “felt gravely threatened by Maudoodi”. “Some sycophants” sought to persuade him that “the physical elimination” of the Maulana would bring peace to the country.

Descendants[edit]

His son Malik Muzaffar Khan won the National Assembly seat from NW-44, Mianwali-I in December 1970 elections. His other son Malik Allah Yar also remained the member of Majlis-e-Shoora during General Zia-ul-Haq's military regime. His grandson Malik Amad Khan won the National Assembly seat from NA-71 Mianwali-I, in February 2008 elections as an independent candidate. His granddaughter, Sumaira Malik, is still a member of the National Assembly.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Panjab Caste, by Sir Ibbetson, Denzil, p.170
  • Siysat ke Firauns, (Pharaohs of Politics), by Wakil Anjam, Ferozsons Ltd, 1992. p. 423–436
  • Tarikh-ul-Awan, by Malik Sher Muhammad Khan Awan Lahore.
  • The Panjab Chiefs: Historical and Biographical Notices of the Principal Families in the Lahore and Rawalpindi Divisions of the Panjab, Volume 2, Lepel Henry Griffin
  • Gazetteer of the Jhelum District, 1904 & Punjab Census Report, 1911
  • Chiefs and families of note in the Delhi, Jalandhar, Peshawar and Derajat divisions of the Panjab, by Charles Francis Massy p. 543
  • Imperial gazetteer of India, Volume 14 p. 290
  • PANJAB CASTES, by : Ibbetson, Denzil, Sir, 1847–1908, p169-170

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nawab of Kalabagh is a courtesy title of the Awan chiefs of Kalabagh in Mianwali District of north western Punjab, Pakistan
  2. ^ Tarikh-ul-Awan, by Malik Sher Muhammad Khan Awan Lahore.
  3. ^ PANJAB CASTES, by: Ibbetson, Denzil, Sir, 1847–1908, p169-170
  4. ^ District Gazetteer of Mianwali 1915, http://www.mianwalionline.com/History-gazateer.shtml
  5. ^ The Panjab Chiefs: Historical and Biographical Notices of the Principal Families in the Lahore and Rawalpindi Divisions of the Panjab, Volume 2, Lepel Henry Griffin
  6. ^ Gazetteer of the Jhelum District, 1904 & Punjab Census Report, 1911
  7. ^ Chiefs and families of note in the Delhi, Jalandhar, Peshawar and Derajat divisions of the Panjab, by Charles Francis Massy p. 543
  8. ^ Imperial gazetteer of India , Volume 14 p.290
  9. ^ PANJAB CASTES, by : Ibbetson, Denzil, Sir, 1847–1908, p169-170
Political offices
Preceded by
Akhter Husain
Governor of West Pakistan
1960–1966
Succeeded by
Gen (R) Muhammad Musa