Ammonium hydrosulfide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Ammonium hydrosulfide
Ammonium-2D.svg
Hydrogen sulfide ion.svg
Names
IUPAC name
ammonium hydrosulfide
Other names
ammonium bisulfide
ammonium hydrogen sulfide
Identifiers
12124-99-1 YesY
ChemSpider 23805 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image
RTECS number BS4900000
Properties
H5NS
Molar mass 51.111 g/mol
Appearance Yellow-orange fuming liquid.
Density 1.17 g/cm3[1]
Boiling point 56.6 °C (133.9 °F; 329.8 K)
Miscible
Solubility soluble in alcohol, liquid ammonia, liquid hydrogen sulfide; insoluble in benzene, hexane and ether
1.74
Hazards
Main hazards Toxic
R-phrases R11, R23, R24, R25.
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g., gasoline) Health code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gas Reactivity (yellow): no hazard code Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
168 mg/kg (rat, oral)[2]
Related compounds
Other anions
Ammonium sulfate
Other cations
Sodium hydrosulfide
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Ammonium hydrosulfide is the chemical compound with the formula (NH4)SH. It is the salt derived from the ammonium cation and the hydrosulfide anion. The salt exists as colourless, water soluble, micaceous crystals. On Earth the compound is encountered mainly as a solution, not as the solid, but NH4SH ice is believed to be a substantial component of the cloud decks of the gas-giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, with sulfur produced by its photolysis responsible for the color of some of those planets' clouds. It can be generated by mixing hydrogen sulfide and ammonia.

Preparation[edit]

Solutions of ammonium hydrosulfide can be prepared by passing hydrogen sulfide gas through concentrated ammonia solution.[3] According to a detailed 1895 report, hydrogen sulfide reacts with concentrated aqueous ammonia solution at room temperature to give (NH4)2S·2NH4HS. When this species is cooled to 0 °C and treated with additional hydrogen sulfide, one obtains (NH4)2S·12NH4HS.[4] An ice-cold solution of this substance kept at 0 °C and having hydrogen sulfide continually passed through it gives the hydrosulfide.

The common "stink bomb" consists of an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfide. The mixture easily converts to ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gases. This conversion illustrates the ease of the following equilibrium:

(NH4)SH\overrightarrow{\leftarrow} NH3 + H2S

Both ammonia and hydrogen sulfide have a powerfully unpleasant smell.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
  2. ^ Record of ammonium hydrosulfide in the GESTIS Substance Database of the IFA, accessed on October 22, 2010
  3. ^ Goodman, J. T.; Rauchfuss, T. B., (2002). "Tetraethylammonium-tetrathioperrhenate [Et4N][ReS4]". Inorganic Syntheses 33: 107–110. doi:10.1002/0471224502.ch2. 
  4. ^ W. P. Bloxam (1895). "The Sulphides and Polysulphides of Ammonium". J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 67: 283. doi:10.1039/CT8956700277.