Ammonium hydrosulfide

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Ammonium hydrosulfide
Ammonium-2D.svg Hydrogen sulfide ion.svg
Identifiers
CAS number 12124-99-1 YesY
ChemSpider 23805 YesY
RTECS number BS4900000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula H5NS
Molar mass 51.111 g/mol
Appearance Yellow-orange fuming liquid.
Density 1.17 g/cm3[1]
Boiling point 56.6 °C (133.9 °F; 329.8 K)
Solubility in water Miscible
Solubility soluble in alcohol, liquid ammonia, liquid hydrogen sulfide; insoluble in benzene, hexane and ether
Refractive index (nD) 1.74
Hazards
R-phrases R11, R23, R24, R25.
Main hazards Toxic
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g., gasoline) Health code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gas Reactivity (yellow): no hazard code Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
LD50 168 mg/kg (rat, oral)[2]
Related compounds
Other anions Ammonium sulfate
Other cations Sodium hydrosulfide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Ammonium hydrosulfide is the chemical compound with the formula (NH4)SH. It is the salt derived from the ammonium cation and the hydrosulfide anion. The salt exists as colourless, water soluble, micaceous crystals. The compound is encountered mainly as a solution, not as the solid. It is generated by mixing hydrogen sulfide and ammonia.

Preparation[edit]

Solutions of ammonium hydrosulfide can be prepared by passing hydrogen sulfide gas through concentrated ammonia solution.[3] According to a detailed 1895 report, hydrogen sulfide reacts with concentrated aqueous ammonia solution at room temperature to give (NH4)2S·2NH4HS. When this species is cooled to 0 °C and treated with additional hydrogen sulfide, one obtains (NH4)2S·12NH4HS.[4] An ice-cold solution of this substance kept at 0 °C and having hydrogen sulfide continually passed through it gives the hydrosulfide.

The common "stink bomb" consists of an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfide. The mixture easily converts to ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gases. This conversion illustrates the ease of the following equilibrium:

(NH4)SH\overrightarrow{\leftarrow} NH3 + H2S

Both ammonia and hydrogen sulfide have a powerfully unpleasant smell.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
  2. ^ Record of ammonium hydrosulfide in the GESTIS Substance Database from the IFA, accessed on October 22, 2010
  3. ^ Goodman, J. T.; Rauchfuss, T. B., (2002). "Tetraethylammonium-tetrathioperrhenate [Et4N][ReS4]". Inorganic Syntheses 33: 107–110. doi:10.1002/0471224502.ch2. 
  4. ^ W. P. Bloxam (1895). "The Sulphides and Polysulphides of Ammonium". J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 67: 283. doi:10.1039/CT8956700277.