Ammonium sulfite

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Ammonium sulfite
Ammonium sulfite.svg
Ball-and-stick ninja of two ammonium cations and one sulfite anion
Identifiers
CAS number 17026-44-7 YesY
ChemSpider 23404 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula (NH4)2SO3
Molar mass 116.14 g/mol
Appearance colourless[1]
hygroscopic

Crystals[2]

Melting point 65 °C (149 °F; 338 K) decomposes[1]
Solubility in water 35 g/100 mL[1]

32.4g/100mL at 0 degrees Celsius[3]

60.4g/100mL at 100 degrees Celsius[3]

Solubility Insoluble in acetone and alcohol[2]
Refractive index (nD) 1.515.[3]
Hazards
EU Index Not Listed[2]
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point Not Flamable[2]
Related compounds
Other anions Ammonium hydroxide Ammonium thiosulfate Ammonium sulfate Ammonium bisulfate Ammonium persulfate
Other cations Sodium Sulfite Potassium Sulfite
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Ammonium sulfite is the ammonium salt of sulfurous acid with the chemical formula (NH4)2SO3.

Preparation[edit]

Ammonium sulfite can be prepared by the reaction of ammonia with sulfur dioxide in aqueous solution:

2NH3 + SO2 + H2O → (NH4)2SO3

Uses[edit]

For cosmetics, ammonium sulfite is used as a hair straightening agent and a hair waving agent.[4] Ammonium based hair products have been made to replace sodium hydroxide based products due to the destructive nature of sodium hydroxide on hair.

The most common food product with ammonium sulfite is caramel coloring. According to the FDA, caramel coloring contains ammonium, potassium, or sodium sulfite.[5]

Ammonium sulfite is used as a reducing agent in photography. When film photographs are being developed ammonium sulfite can be one of the reducing agents used to develop the negative.[6]

Ammonium sulfite can also be used in the making of bricks. The bricks made using ammonium sulfite are mainly used for blast furnace linings.[6]

Ammonium sulfite can be included in lubricants for cold metal working. The lubricants are intended to reduce friction to keep heat production down and keep impurities out of the metals.[6]

Ammonium sulfite has been used in gas scrubbers.[7] The ammonium sulfite reacts with acidic air samples as a reducing agent. The Air is reduced to a more neutral pH which makes it less harmful to the environment.[8]


Chemical Properties[edit]

Ammonium sulfite is a reducing agent.[9] It emits sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen upon heating to decomposition.

The specific gravity of ammonium sulfite is 1.41.[2] The refractive index of ammonium sulfite is 1.515.[3]


Hazards[edit]

Ammonium sulfite can be dangerous to handle. Ammonium sulfite has a toxic effect on humans. It is very hazardous in case of ingestion, it has a sulfurous taste. Ammonium sulfite is also hazardous in case of skin contact and it will irritate any skin that comes into contact with. Inhalation is another route of entry for ammonium sulfite to enter in a dangerous manner. Ammonium suifite is also hazardous when it comes into contact with eyes. The LD50 has not been determined.[2]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Chemical Entity Data Page
  2. ^ a b c d e f [Material Safety Data Sheet: Ammonium sulfite MSDS. http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9922932 (accessed Oct 19, 2011)]
  3. ^ a b c d ["Ammonium Sulphite - PubChem Public Chemical Database." The PubChem Project. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?sid=167823>.]
  4. ^ [Europe. European Commission. Health and Consumers. Cosmetics - CosIng [Cosmetics Directive (v.1)]. European Commission. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.details&id=31900>.]
  5. ^ [United States. FDA. CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Health and Human Servises. 1 Apr. 2011. Web. <http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?FR=73.85>.]
  6. ^ a b c [O'Neil, Maryadele J. The Merck Index: an Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck, 2001. 561. Print.]
  7. ^ ["Stack gas cleanup by ammonia injection", Chem. Eng. News, 1972, 50 (37), pp. 54–56]
  8. ^ ["Acid Plant Gas Scrubber", Chem. Eng. News, 1955, 33 (20), pp. 2148–2149]
  9. ^ Chemical Book