Amniotic stem cells

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Amniotic stem cells are multipotent stem cells of mesenchymal origin extracted from amniotic fluid.[1] They are able to differentiate into various tissue type, such as skin, cartilage, cardiac tissue, nerves, muscle, and bone,[2] and have potential medical applications, especially in organ regeneration.[3]

Amniotic fluid stem cells are harvested without destroying embryos, although amniocentesis does carry a small procedure-related excess risk of pregnancy loss (estimated at 0.06%). The use of amniotic fluid stem cells is therefore generally considered to lack the ethical problems associated with the use of embryos.

Thanks to recent studies,[when?][4] supported in part in England at the Imperial College London,[5] it is possible to bank stem cells derived from amniotic fluid in private stem cells banks.[6]

In 2009, the first US amniotic stem cell bank was opened in Medford, MA, by Biocell Center, an international company specializing in the cryopreservation and private banking of amniotic fluid stem cells.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Cananzi, Mara; Atala, Anthony; De Coppi, Paolo (2009). "Stem cells derived from amniotic fluid: new potentials in regenerative medicine". Reproductive biomedicine online 18 (Suppl 1): 17–27. doi:10.1016/s1472-6483(10)60111-3. PMID 19281660. 
  2. ^ Antonucci, Ivana; Iezzi, Irene; Morizio, Elisena; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Pantalone, Andrea; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Gigante, Antonio; Salini, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Tete, Stefano; Palka, Giandomenico; Stuppia, Liborio; Morizio, E; Mastrangelo, F; Pantalone, A; Mattioli-Belmonte, M; Gigante, A; Salini, V; Calabrese, G; Tetè, S; Palka, G; Stuppia, L (16 February 2009). "Isolation of osteogenic progenitors from human amniotic fluid using a single step culture protocol". BMC Biotechnology 9: 9. doi:10.1186/1472-6750-9-9. PMC 2654889. PMID 19220883. 
    • Perin, L; Giuliani, S; Jin, D; Sedrakyan, S; Carraro, G; Habibian, R; Warburton, D; Atala, A; De Filippo, R E (December 2007). "Renal differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells". Cell proliferation 40 (6): 936–948. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2007.00478.x. PMID 18021180. 
    • Perin, Laura; Sedrakyan, Sargis; Da Sacco, Stafano; De Filippo, Roger (2008). "Characterization of human amniotic fluid stem cells and their pluripotential capability". Methods in cell biology. Methods in Cell Biology 86: 85–99. doi:10.1016/S0091-679X(08)00005-8. ISBN 9780123738769. PMID 18442645. 
    • Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Marton, Erika; Rosner, Margit; Bettelheim, Dieter; Lubec, Gent; Pollack, Arnold; Bernaschek, Gerhard; Hengstschläger, Markus (July 2004). "Neurogenic cells in human amniotic fluid". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 191 (1): 309–314. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2003.12.014. PMID 15295384. 
    • Schmidt, Dörthe; Achermann, Josef; Odermatt, Bernhard; Genoni, Michele; Zund, Gregor; Hoerstrup, Simon P (July 2008). "Cryopreserved amniotic fluid-derived cells: a lifelong autologous fetal stem cell source for heart valve tissue engineering". The Journal of Heart Valve Disease 17 (4): 446–455; discussion 455. PMID 18751475. 
    • Siegel, N; Rosner, M; Hanneder, M; Freilinger, A; Hengstschläger, M (August 2008). "Human amniotic fluid stem cells: a new perspective". Amino Acids 35 (2): 291–293. doi:10.1007/s00726-007-0593-1. PMID 17710362. 
  3. ^ Abdi, Reza; Fiorina, Paolo; Adra, Chaker N; Atkinson, Mark; Sayegh, Mohamed H (July 2008). "Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells: a potential therapeutic strategy for type 1 diabetes". Diabetes 57 (7): 1759–1767. doi:10.2337/db08-0180. PMC 2453631. PMID 18586907. 
    • Centeno, Christopher J; Busse, Dan; Kisiday, John; Keohan, Cristin; Freeman, Michael; Karli, David (June 2008). "Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint disease using percutaneously implanted, autologous mesenchymal stem cells". Pain physician 11 (3): 343–353. PMID 18523506. 
    • Fuchs, Julie R; Kaviani, Amir; Oh, Jung-Tak; LaVan, David; Udagawa, Taturo; Jennings, Russell W; Wilson, Jay M; Fauza, Dario O (June 2004). "Diaphragmatic reconstruction with autologous tendon engineered from mesenchymal amniocytes". Journal of Pediatric Surgery 39 (6): 834–838. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2004.02.014. PMID 15185207. 
    • Hauser, Peter V; De Fazio, Roberta; Bruno, Stefania; Sdei, Simona; Grange, Cristina; Bussolati, Benedetta; Benedetto, Chiara; Camussi, Giovanni (October 2010). "Stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid contribute to acute kidney injury recovery". The American journal of pathology 177 (4): 2011–2021. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2010.091245. PMC 2947295. PMID 20724594. 
    • Kunisaki, Shaun M; Freedman, Deborah A; Fauza, Dario O (April 2006). "Fetal tracheal reconstruction with cartilaginous grafts engineered from mesenchymal amniocytes". Journal of pediatric surgery 41 (4): 675–682; discussion 675–682. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2005.12.008. PMID 16567175. 
    • Le Blanc, Katarina; Frassoni, Francesco; Ball, Lynne; Locatelli, Franco; Roelofs, Helene; Lewis, Ian; Lanino, Edoardo; Sundberg, Berit; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Remberger, Mats; Dini, Giorgio; Egeler, R Maarten; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Fibbe, Willem; Ringdén, Olle; Developmental Committee of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (10 May 2008). "Mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of steroid-resistant, severe, acute graft-versus-host disease: a phase II study". Lancet 371 (9624): 1579–1586. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60690-X. PMID 18468541. 
    • Parolini, Ornella; Soncini, Maddalena; Evangelista, Marco; Schmidt, Dörthe (March 2009). "Amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid-derived cells: potential tools for regenerative medicine?". Regenerative medicine 4 (2): 275–291. doi:10.2217/17460751.4.2.275. PMID 19317646. 
    • Steigman, Shaun A; Ahmed, Azra; Shanti, Rabie M; Tuan, Rocky S; Valim, Clarissa; Fauza, Dario O (June 2009). "Sternal repair with bone grafts engineered from amniotic mesenchymal stem cells". Journal of pediatric surgery 44 (6): 1120–1126; discussion 1126. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2009.02.038. PMC 3556735. PMID 19524727. 
  4. ^ Lewis, Ricki. "Amniotic Fluid + Valproic Acid = New Source of Human Stem Cells". Scientific American Blog. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  5. ^ Brice, Makini (3 July 2012). "Stem Cell Debate Finds Compromise With Use of Amniotic Fluid". Medical Daily. 
  6. ^ "Anticipate the future, Bank amniotic fluid stem cells". Biocell Center. Archived from the original on 2012-02-23.