He was born into a Jewish family in Máramarossziget, in Máramaros County, Austria-Hungary (present-day Romania). Following the outbreak of World War II, he was drafted to the Hungarian Army, but in 1944 was deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp. In 1947, he joined the Mossad LeAliyah Bet, an organization dedicated to smuggling Jews into Palestine in defiance of British immigration restrictions, becoming secretary of its Romanian branch in Budapest. He served under the alias "Amos", which he later adopted as his first name. He immigrated to Israel in 1949, and joined the Shin Bet a month afterwards.
Amos Manor is credited with building up the Shin Bet as a national institution capable of handling the many threats posed to internal Israeli security during that time.
In 1964 Manor began serving on the directorial board of several companies, banks and the stock market. He also worked as a business consultant for various textile firms. He was also a partner in the Atlas hotel management company.
Amos Manor spoke fluent Hebrew, Yiddish, English, French, German, Romanian and Hungarian.
In the ISA 1949 - appointed department head in the division for non-Arab affairs, and became the first department director for Eastern Europe.
1950 - appointed unit head within the division for non-Arab affairs.
1952 - appointed Deputy ISA Director
1953 - appointed ISA Director
1964 - retired from the ISA.
Following his service in the ISA, and until he died, Manor worked for a Swiss investment company active in Israel, as a consultant to various companies, and served as director of a number of companies. He was the chairman of the board of directors of a number of banks and of the stock exchange and was also a partner in the Atlas company for hotel management.