|Clavulanic acid||Beta-lactamase inhibitor|
|Trade names||Augmentin, Clavamox, Tyclav|
|Licence data||US FDA:|
|(what is this?)|
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (INN) or co-amoxiclav (BAN) is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. It is a combination antibiotic consisting of amoxicillin trihydrate, a β-lactam antibiotic, and potassium clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This combination results in an antibiotic with an increased spectrum of action and restored efficacy against amoxicillin-resistant bacteria that produce β-lactamase.
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system. The BAN has not been widely adopted internationally. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was developed at Beecham Pharmaceuticals and marketed under the trade name Augmentin. It is now available as a generic and marketed under a variety of trade names worldwide.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is widely used to treat or prevent many infections caused by susceptible bacteria, such as:
- urinary tract infections
- respiratory tract infections
- skin and soft tissue infections
- sinus infections
- cat scratches
- infections caused by the bacterial flora of the mouth, such as:
Possible side effects include diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, thrush, and skin rash. These do not usually require medical attention. As with all antimicrobial agents, antibiotic-associated diarrhea due to Clostridium difficile infection—sometimes leading to pseudomembranous colitis—may occur during or after treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
Rarely, cholestatic jaundice (also referred to as cholestatic hepatitis, a form of liver toxicity) has been associated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The reaction may occur up to several weeks after treatment has stopped, and usually takes weeks to resolve. It is more frequent in men, older people, and those who have taken long courses of treatment; the estimated overall incidence is one in 100,000 exposures. In the United Kingdom, co-amoxiclav carries a warning from the Committee on Safety of Medicines to this effect.
A patent was granted in 1985.
Augmentin is the original name used by its inventor.
Suspensions of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid are available for use in children. They must be refrigerated to maintain effectiveness.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is used in numerous animals for a variety of conditions.
- urinary tract infections
- skin and soft tissue infections
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is banned from use in domestic-food animals (cattle, swine, etc.) in both the US and Europe; in the UK, Synulox can be used in domestic-food animals as long as a specified withdrawal period is observed.
Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in veterinary medicine. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is reported to be effective against clinical Klebsiella infections, but is not efficacious against Pseudomonas infections.
- ACINET (Siam Medicare Co., Ltd (Thailand))
- Axitin (Clarion medicals Limited (Nigeria)
- Amokav (Kepler Healthcare Pvt. Ltd.,India)
- Alviclav 625 (Alvis Health Care; India)
- Amoclav (Rowex Ltd., Ireland)
- Amoklavin-BID (deva, Turkey)
- Amoksiklav (Lek Slovenia, Serbia, Bulgaria)
- Amorion Comp (by Orion Corporation Finland)
- AMOX/K CLAV (875mg, Sandoz; US)
- Amoxi Clav (Canada)
- Amoxicilina-Clavulánico (Spain, Mexico)
- Amoxicillin-clavulanate (rINN)
- Amoxicilline-clavulanique (France)
- Amoxiclav (by Teva; Belgium, Israel)
- Amoxiclavulan (by 1A Pharma; Austria)
- Amoxycillin-clavulanate (AU)
- AugMaxcil (Triomed; South Africa)
- Augmentin (GlaxoSmithKline [originally Beecham]; Hungary; Pakistan, Romania, Philippines; United States, Australia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey)
- Augmentin Chewable (GlaxoSmithKline, United States)
- AugmentinXR (GlaxoSmithKline, United States)
- Augmentin XR(GlaxoSmithKline, United States)
- Augpen (Zuventus; India)
- Clamovid (Hovid)
- Clamoxyl Duo Oral Suspension (Australia)
- Topclav 625/375 (Indswift; India)
- CLAMP (Dr. Reddy's, India)
- Claneksi (Sanbe Farma, Indonesia)
- Clavamox (Sandoz, Austria)
- Clavituf (Intas, India)
- Clavulin (Canada, Brazil)
- Co-amoxiclav (UK, KSA, Ireland, South Africa, Iran)
- Curam (Sandoz)
- Curam Duo (New Zealand)
- Clavam (Alkem Laboratories Ltd; India)
- Dafraclav (Dafra Pharma)
- Enhancin (Ranbaxy, Malaysia)
- Fleming (Medreich, India)
- Finemox (Finecure, India)
- Forcid (Astellas)
- Julmentin 2x (Julphar; Egypt; UAE)
- Klamentin (CTCP Duoc Hau Giang, Vietnam)
- Klamoks ( Bilim Pharmaceuticals, Turkey)
- Klavocin (Pliva - Croatia)
- Klavon ( Bilim Pharmaceuticals, Turkey)
- Klavox (Bahrain and Oman)
- Mega-CV (Aristo, India)
- Magnabiotic (Egypt, Sedico)
- MoxClav (Ranbaxy, India)
- Moxiclav (Medochemie LTD, Cyprus)
- Moxiclav Duo (Australia)
- Moxikind (Mankind Pharma, India)
- Natravox (Natrapharm, Inc., Philippines)
- Noroclav (Norbrook, UK)
- New-Clav (Egypt, Alandalous)
- Panklav (Hemofarm - Serbia)
- Optamox (Laboratorios Roemmers, Argentina)
- Penilan DT (Portugal)
- Polyclav 625 (India)
- Sinergia (LIFE, Ecuador)
- Ticasse (Dafra Pharma)
- Ratio Aclavulanate 500/125 (Canada)
- xcilan (ovia pharma pvt. ltd. India)
- Xiclav (GL-Pharma, Austria)
- Аугментин (Russia)
- Zakutex (South Korea)
- Klavox (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)
- Penom Clav 625 (India)
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