Amphimedon queenslandica

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Amphimedon queenslandica
Amphimedon queenslandica adult
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Porifera
Class: Demospongiae
Order: Haplosclerida
Suborder: Haplosclerina
Family: Niphatidae
Genus: Amphimedon
Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864
Species: A. queenslandica
Binomial name
Amphimedon queenslandica
Hooper & Van Soest, 2006[1]
Amphimedon queenslandica stores embryos in its brood chamber.[2] The image is about 4 mm wide.

Amphimedon queenslandica (formerly known as Reniera sp.[2]) is a sponge native to the Great Barrier Reef. Its genome has been sequenced.[3] It has been the subject of various studies on the evolution of metazoan development.[2][4]

A. queenslandica was first discovered in 1998 on Heron Island Reef by Sally Leys during a survey of sponge species,[5] and was formally described by John Hooper and Rob van Soest in 2006.[1] Like most sponges, it has a biphasic life cycle, passing through a planktonic phase whilst a larva, but later becoming a benthic dweller.[5] It is hermaphroditic, and reproduces via spermcast spawning,[3] meaning it releases sperm into water but retains eggs, which are fertilised internally.[6] The embryos develop in brood chambers until they reach a certain size, then disperse as parenchymella larvae.[5] During this larval stage, they have a strong preference for darkness.[5] The sponge is difficult or impossible to maintain in captivity.[5]


The genome of Amphimedon queenslandica was sequenced in 2009 to provide insights into the evolution of animal complexity and remains the only sponge to be sequenced.[7]


  1. ^ a b Hooper, John N.A.; Rob W.M. Van Soeast (2006-09-14). "A new species of Amphimedon (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Niphatidae) from the Capricorn-Bunker Group of Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: target species for the ‘sponge genome project’". Zootaxa (Magnolia Press) 1314: 31–29. Retrieved 2010-04-07. 
  2. ^ a b c Adamska, M.; Degnan, S.; Green, K.; Adamski, M.; Craigie, A.; Larroux, C.; Degnan, B.; Fraser, J. (2007). "Wnt and TGF-beta expression in the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and the origin of metazoan embryonic patterning". In Fraser, James. PLoS ONE 2 (10): e1031. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2.1031A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001031. PMC 2000352. PMID 17925879.  edit
  3. ^ a b Srivastava, M.; Simakov, O.; Chapman, J.; Fahey, B.; Gauthier, M. E. A.; Mitros, T.; Richards, G. S.; Conaco, C.; Dacre, M.; Hellsten, U.; Larroux, C.; Putnam, N. H.; Stanke, M.; Adamska, M.; Darling, A.; Degnan, S. M.; Oakley, T. H.; Plachetzki, D. C.; Zhai, Y.; Adamski, M.; Calcino, A.; Cummins, S. F.; Goodstein, D. M.; Harris, C.; Jackson, D. J.; Leys, S. P.; Shu, S.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Vervoort, M.; Kosik, K. S. (2010). "The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity". Nature 466 (7307): 720–726. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..720S. doi:10.1038/nature09201. PMC 3130542. PMID 20686567.  edit
  4. ^ Tompkins-Macdonald, G. .; Gallin, W. .; Sakarya, O. .; Degnan, B. .; Leys, S. .; Boland, L. . (2009). "Expression of a poriferan potassium channel: insights into the evolution of ion channels in metazoans". The Journal of experimental biology 212 (Pt 6): 761–767. doi:10.1242/jeb.026971. PMID 19251990.  edit
  5. ^ a b c d e Degnan, B. M.; Adamska, M.; Craigie, A.; Degnan, S. M.; Fahey, B.; Gauthier, M.; Hooper, J. N. A.; Larroux, C.; Leys, S. P.; Lovas, E.; Richards, G. S. (2008). "The Demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica: Reconstructing the Ancestral Metazoan Genome and Deciphering the Origin of Animal Multicellularity". Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 2008 (13): pdb.emo108. doi:10.1101/pdb.emo108.  edit
  6. ^ Bishop, J. D. D.; Pemberton, A. J. (2006). "The third way: spermcast mating in sessile marine invertebrates". Integrative and Comparative Biology 46: 398. doi:10.1093/icb/icj037.  edit
  7. ^ Mansi Srivastava, Oleg Simakov, Jarrod Chapman, Bryony Fahey, Marie E. A. Gauthier, Therese Mitros, Gemma S. Richards, Cecilia Conaco, Michael Dacre (5 August 2010). "The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity". Nature 466 (7306): 720–726. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..720S. doi:10.1038/nature09201. PMC 3130542. PMID 20686567.