Umphang District

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Umphang
อุ้มผาง
Amphoe
Amphoe location in Tak Province
Amphoe location in Tak Province
Coordinates: 16°1′0″N 98°51′46″E / 16.01667°N 98.86278°E / 16.01667; 98.86278Coordinates: 16°1′0″N 98°51′46″E / 16.01667°N 98.86278°E / 16.01667; 98.86278
Country  Thailand
Province Tak
Area
 • Total 4,325.4 km2 (1,670.0 sq mi)
Population (2005)
 • Total 25,757
 • Density 6.0/km2 (16/sq mi)
Time zone THA (UTC+7)
Postal code 63170
Geocode 6308

Umphang (Thai: อุ้มผาง) is the southernmost district (amphoe) of Tak Province, Thailand, established by the Royal Decree Establishing Amphoe Umphang, BE 2502 (1959), which came into force as from May 6, 1959.

The district is at the Thai-Burmese border. It is also the name of the town center of the district. Neighboring districts are (North from clockwise): Amphoe Phop Phra; Amphoe Khlong Lan and Amphoe Pang Sila Thong of Kamphaeng Phet Province; Amphoe Mae Wong and King Amphoe Mae Poen of Nakhon Sawan Province; Amphoe Ban Rai of Uthai Thani Province; and Amphoe Thong Pha Phum and Amphoe Sangkhla Buri of Kanchanaburi Province. The western edge of the district has a long boundary with Burma. Surrounded by national parks and wildlife reserves, it is one of the least accessible district in Thailand. Nevertheless, it has one major tourist attraction, Thi Lo Su Waterfall (น้ำตกทีลอซู), the largest waterfall of Thailand.

History[edit]

Umphang was established as a district in 1898. It was named Amphoe Mae Klong (อำเภอแม่กลอง) back then and part of Uthai Thani Province. In 1906 it was renamed Amphoe Umphang and moved to Kamphaeng Phet Province. Its status was changed to King Amphoe and moved to Tak Province effective January 1, 1926.[1] Finally in 1959 it is promoted back to Amphoe status.[2]

Etymology[edit]

It was speculated that the name Umphang came from Karen word Umpa, meaning the act of opening bamboo container, this was performed by Burmese to show passport stored in the bamboo to Thai immigration officers.

Geography[edit]

Most of Umphang is mountainous, geographically separated from the east part of Tak Province by the Thanon Thongchai Range (ทิวเขาถนนธงชัย). In the southern part of Umphang there are the Dawna Hills and the Thungyai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary while in the central part near Umphang town there is the Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary. Directly east of Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary is Mae Wong National Park (in Tak and Kamphaeng Phet Province) and Khlong Lan National Park (in Kamphaeng Phet Province). The area, due to its difficulty of access, were used as a base of Communist Party of Thailand.

An important river in Umphang is Klong River (แม่น้ำกลอง) which originates here and flows southward into Kanchanaburi Province.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Umphang (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
32.8
(91)
34.5
(94.1)
34.8
(94.6)
32.0
(89.6)
29.7
(85.5)
28.9
(84)
28.6
(83.5)
29.6
(85.3)
30.0
(86)
29.5
(85.1)
28.8
(83.8)
30.81
(87.45)
Average low °C (°F) 12.3
(54.1)
12.7
(54.9)
15.9
(60.6)
19.4
(66.9)
21.3
(70.3)
21.8
(71.2)
21.4
(70.5)
21.5
(70.7)
21.2
(70.2)
20.0
(68)
16.7
(62.1)
12.9
(55.2)
18.09
(64.56)
Rainfall mm (inches) 6.8
(0.268)
9.1
(0.358)
47.9
(1.886)
101.3
(3.988)
195.0
(7.677)
187.5
(7.382)
231.6
(9.118)
248.4
(9.78)
247.6
(9.748)
155.8
(6.134)
25.2
(0.992)
5.1
(0.201)
1,461.3
(57.532)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 1 2 4 9 19 26 27 29 24 17 5 1 164
 % humidity 75 68 66 71 81 85 87 88 87 85 81 78 79.3
Source: Thai Meteorological Department (Normal 1981-2010), (Avg. rainy days 1961-1990)

Demographics[edit]

A large number of the population are hill tribes with Karen people making up the largest proportion. As Karens were the original settlers here before Thais began to migrate into the area, many place names are in Karen language.

Transportation[edit]

Curvy section of Highway 1090

The Highway 1090 (Mae Sot-Umphang) is the only road linking Umphang to other parts of Thailand. Another highway, Highway 1167, connects Umphang town to the Burmese border. Highway 1090, 164 km in total, has two lanes during much of the way and contains 1,219 curves, a number proudly displayed at numerous places in Umphang. It is one of the toughest roads for those who suffer from motion sickness. The journey through this highway takes about 3 to 4 hours.

There was a Highway 1117 (Khlong Lan-Umphang) project that would have provided a connection from Amphoe Khlong Lan, Kamphaeng Phet Province but the project was shelved in 1987 pending an environmental study. About 115 km of the highway beginning from Khlong Lan was already constructed, leaving the last 28 km on the Umphang side where it stopped in Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary in 1990. Suggestion to finish this project surfaced a few time but was eventually rejected due to the virgin forest the last 28 km section must cut through. Another project linking Umphang to Amphoe Sangkhla Buri, Kanchanaburi Province was proposed in 2004 but was immediately rejected.

Beside the highway 1090, there is a municipal airport in Umphang.

Places[edit]

Thi Lo Su Waterfall
Speleothem inside Ta Ko Bi Cave

Thi Lo Su Waterfall is one main reason people travel to Umphang. It is the largest waterfall of Thailand, containing many smaller drops combined together for a magnificent view. Its height is about 200 meters and total width is about 400 meters. It is most beautiful during rainy season from June to November because of the larger water flow. However during this period, the road access to the waterfall is closed for safety reason and some hiking is required. The peak season for tourism is in December and January where the water level is still high and the road to waterfall (25 km) is open for public. Only cars with four wheel drive can pass this steep and slipperly road. An alternative way to reach the waterfall is by whitewater rafting downstream along the calm section of Klong River and then continue journey either on foot or by car for another about 12 km. Travelling this way, two waterfalls dropping into Klong River will be seen: Thi Lo Jo Waterfall (น้ำตกทีลอจ่อ), and Sai Rung Waterfall (น้ำตกสายรุ้ง). The name Thi Lo Su, in Karen language, means giant waterfall or black waterfall.

It is only recently that Thi Lo Le Waterfall (น้ำตกทีลอเล) is promoted as an attraction for those who prefer adventure. It is a waterfall dropping directly into Klong River located deep in Thungyai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary with no road access. Only traveling with tour companies is possible. The journey to the waterfall typically involves white water rafting along Klong River of about 40 km through rapids of Class 4 or 5 while the journey back is by walking or riding elephants. The trip takes 2 or 3 days.

Some other places of interest are Ta Ko Bi Cave (ถ้ำตะโค๊ะบิ), a cave formerly used by Communist Party of Thailand; Doi Hua Mot (ดอยหัวหมด), view point above cloud attitude 16°41′N 98°50′E / 16.683°N 98.833°E / 16.683; 98.833;[3] Ban Pa La Ta (บ้านปะละทะ), a Karen village dated back to over 250 years ago.

Administration[edit]

The district is subdivided into 6 subdistricts (Tambon), which are further subdivided into 38 villages (Muban). The township (thesaban tambon) Umphang covers parts of the tambon Umphang.

No. Name Thai name Villages Inh.     
1. Umphang อุ้มผาง 6 4138
2. Nong Luang หนองหลวง 4 2013
3. Mokro โมโกร 7 5488
4. Mae Chan แม่จัน 12 10246
5. Mae Lamung  แม่ละมุ้ง 5 1650
6. Mae Khlong แม่กลอง 4 2222

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง ยุบแยกและตั้งอำเภอในมณฑลนครสวรรค์". Royal Gazette (in Thai) 42 (0 ก): 260–262. January 17, 1926. 
  2. ^ "พระราชกฤษฎีกาตั้งอำเภออุ้มผาง พ.ศ. ๒๕๐๒". Royal Gazette (in Thai) 76 (50 ก): 108–110. May 5, 1959. 
  3. ^ Doi Hua Mot