Amr ibn Kulthum

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Amr ibn Kulthum Ibn Malik Ibn A`tab Abu Al-Aswad al-Taghlibi (Arabic: عمرو بن كلثوم‎) (died 584), a knight and the leader of the Taghlib tribe which was in Al-Forat island and was famous for its glory, bravery and merciless behavior in battle. Arabs in the past would say in remembrance of the Taghlib "People were about to be eradicated by the Taghlabs, except for the appearance of Islam".


The great Basus War, which was between the Taghlibs and the Bakrs, lasted for approximately forty years until the Lakhmids king of al-Hirah, 'Amr ibn Hind, urged them to make peace with each other on condition that some of their children were to be taken hostages by the king.

The King of Hira said one day to his drinking companions, "Do you know anyone among the Arabs whose mother declines serving my mother?" They replied, "Yes, Amr Ibn Kulthum." The king asked, "Why is that?" His companions replied, "Because her father is Al-Muhalhel Bin Rabī'ah, her uncle is Kolaib a prestigious Arabian, her spouse is Kulthum Ibn Malik Ibn Etab an astounding knight of Arabs and her son is Amr ibn Kulthum chief of his clan."

After that the king sent for Amr Ibn Kulthum asking him to visit along with his mother Layla. Kulthum accepted the king's invitation and visited him with his companions and his mother. After they arrived and while Layla was sitting, the mother of the king (the aunt of Imru' al-Qais) Hind asked her to pass the plate, to which Layla replied, "let the one in need go to her need" and when Hind insisted, Layla shouted saying: "What a humiliation!"

Her son heard her and was so deeply stirred by the insult that he took his sword and decapitated the king of al-Hirah and killed his guards then left.


In his ode, the first eight verses are a wine song which perhaps were added later but suit the poem very well. The next thematic section narrates his lady's departure on her litter (a chair placed on camel's back that veiled women from strangers, dust and sun), and the joy of the sword-fight. Finally he deals with several types of grief - camels over their young, mothers for sons, the departure of lovers and the grief brought by fate. At this point in the ode he covers the philosophy of the uncertainty of life and fate. Next, he addresses the grandfather of the victim - Amr b. Hind - and discusses Arab ideals and defends his mother again. He lauds his ancestors as well.

The following is the opening section of his ode:

أَلاَ هُبِّي بِصَحْنِكِ فَاصْبَحِيْنَـا وَلاَ تُبْقِي خُمُـوْرَ الأَنْدَرِيْنَـا Ha girl! Up with the bowl! Give us our dawn draught And do not spare the wines of al-Andarina,

مُشَعْشَعَةً كَأَنَّ الحُصَّ فِيْهَـا إِذَا مَا المَاءَ خَالَطَهَا سَخِيْنَـا The brightly sparkling, as if by saffron were in them Whenever the mulled water is mingled with them,

تَجُوْرُ بِذِي اللَّبَانَةِ عَنْ هَـوَاهُ إِذَا مَا ذَاقَهَـا حَتَّـى يَلِيْنَـا That swing the hotly desirous from his passion When he has tasted them to gentle mellowness;

تَرَى اللَّحِزَ الشَّحِيْحَ إِذَا أُمِرَّتْ عَلَيْـهِ لِمَـالِهِ فِيْهَـا مُهِيْنَـا You see the skinflint miser, when the cup's passed him, Suddenly holds his prized property in derision.

صَبَنْتِ الكَأْسَ عَنَّا أُمَّ عَمْـرٍوَ كَانَ الكَأْسُ مَجْرَاهَا اليَمِيْنَـا O Umm ‘Amr, you've withheld the beaker from us- From right to right it should have been running-

وَمَا شَـرُّ الثَّـلاَثَةِ أُمَّ عَمْـرٍو بِصَاحِبِكِ الذِي لاَ تَصْبَحِيْنَـا And yet your friend, whom you deny the dawn-draught, O Umm ‘Amr, is not the worst trio,

وَكَأْسٍ قَدْ شَـرِبْتُ بِبَعْلَبَـكٍّ وَأُخْرَى فِي دِمَشْقَ وَقَاصرِيْنَـا And a wine cup I had drank in Baalbek; and other one (wine cup) in Damascus and Qāserīn

وَإِنَّا سَـوْفَ تُدْرِكُنَا المَنَـايَا مُقَـدَّرَةً لَنَـا وَمُقَـدِّرِيْنَـا And of surety the fates will overtake us Predestined for us, as we for them are predestined.

His Works[edit]

He has only four poems that have survived:

  • ALA HOBEY BESAHNEK FASBAHINA ( The Muallaqah ) [1]


External links[edit]