Amri, Sindh

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Amri is an ancient settlement in Sindh province of Pakistan that goes back to 3600 BC. The site is located south of Mohenjo Daro on Hyderabad-Dadu Road about 110 kilometres north of Hyderabad.

Archaeology[edit]

This site has multi-level occupation, although it was never a big city.[1]

Pre-Harappan stage[edit]

The earliest phase was a fortified town which flourished from 3600 to 3300 BC, and belonged to the Pre-Harappan stage of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Situated near foothills of Kirthar Mountains, this was an important earlier urban center in Lower Sindh. Amri is close to Balochistan where development of earlier farming communities from 6000BC to 4000BC ultimately led to urbanization. On timeline, Amri is dated after Rehman Dheri.

The ancient mounds of 8 hectares on the west bank of Indus River have been extensively excavated. The pottery discovered here had its own characteristics and known as Amri Ware. Like other Pre Harappa towns, no writings were found at this site. There is evidence of widespread fire at the town around 2500BC.

Later phases[edit]

In period II (ca. 2750-2450 BC), more and more elements of the Indus Valley culture appear.

Period III (ca. 2450-1900 BC) belongs almost entirely to Indus Valley culture.

Period IV (ca. 1900-1300 BC) is marked by the mingling of cultural layers. Elements of the Jhukar culture appear, and co-exist with the last phase of the Indus Valley culture.[2] Later, the elements of the Jhangar culture also appear.

Period V is Muslim, and dated much later.

Based on the evidence from this site, it is believed that the Indus culture was probably not developed directly from the Amri culture. Also, at least at this location, rather than suddenly being replaced by the Amri culture, there was a co-existence of both cultures.[3]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  • J.M. Casal: Fouilles d’Amri, Paris 1964
  1. ^ Charles Higham, Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing, 2009 ISBN 1438109962 p. 9
  2. ^ Sigfried J. de Laet, Ahmad Hasan Dani, eds. History of Humanity: From the third millennium to the seventh century B.C. UNESCO, 1996 ISBN 9231028111 p.674
  3. ^ Based on the German Wikipedia article.

Coordinates: 25°54′35″N 67°55′25″E / 25.90972°N 67.92361°E / 25.90972; 67.92361