Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

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"Schiphol" redirects here. For the railway station, see Schiphol railway station.
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Luchthaven Schiphol
Schiphol logo.svg
Amsterdam Schiphol Airport entrance.jpg
IATA: AMSICAO: EHAM
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner Schiphol Group
Operator Schiphol Group
Serves Amsterdam, Netherlands
Location Haarlemmermeer
Hub for
Elevation AMSL -11 ft / −3 m
Coordinates 52°18′29″N 004°45′51″E / 52.30806°N 4.76417°E / 52.30806; 4.76417Coordinates: 52°18′29″N 004°45′51″E / 52.30806°N 4.76417°E / 52.30806; 4.76417
Website schiphol.com
Map
AMS is located in Amsterdam
AMS
AMS
Location within Greater Amsterdam
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
18R/36L 3,800 12,467 Asphalt
06/24 3,500 11,483 Asphalt
09/27 3,400 11,155 Asphalt
18L/36R 3,400 11,155 Asphalt
18C/36C 3,300 10,827 Asphalt
04/22 2,014 6,608 Asphalt
Statistics (2013)
Passengers Increase52,527,699
Freight (tonnes) Increase1,531,086
Aircraft movements Increase425,565
Economic & social impact $27.3 billion[2]
Sources: CBS[3] Schiphol Group[4] and AIP[5]

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (Dutch: Luchthaven Schiphol, Dutch pronunciation: [ˈlʏxtˌɦaːvə(n) ˈsxɪpɦɔl]) (IATA: AMSICAO: EHAM) is the main international airport of the Netherlands, located 20 minutes (4.9 NM (9.1 km; 5.6 mi)[5]) southwest of Amsterdam, in the municipality of Haarlemmermeer. It is the fourth busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers.

Schiphol is the primary hub for KLM[6] and its regional affiliate KLM Cityhopper as well as for Arkefly,[7] Corendon Dutch Airlines,[citation needed] Martinair,[8] and Transavia.com.[citation needed] The airport also serves as a European hub for Delta Air Lines[1] and as a base for easyjet[citation needed] and Vueling.[citation needed] Schiphol is considered to be an airport city.[citation needed] The airport's official English name, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, reflects the original Dutch word order (Luchthaven Schiphol).

Description[edit]

Schiphol is an important European airport, ranking as Europe's 4th busiest and the world's 14th busiest by total passenger traffic in 2013 (16th in 2012). It also ranks as the world's 6th busiest by international passenger traffic and the world's 16th busiest for cargo tonnage. 52.569 million passengers passed through the airport in 2013, a 3% increase compared with 2012.[4] Schiphol's main competitors in terms of passenger traffic and cargo throughput are London Heathrow Airport, Frankfurt Airport, Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport and Madrid–Barajas Airport.

In 2010, 65.9% of passengers using the airport flew to and from Europe, 11.7% to and from North America and 8.8% to and from Asia; cargo volume was mainly between Schiphol and Asia (45%) and North America (17%).[9]

In 2010, 106 carriers provided a total of 301 destinations on a regular basis. Passenger destinations were offered by 91 airlines. Direct (non-stop) destinations grew by 9[when?] to 274. Regular destinations serviced exclusively by full freighters (non-passenger) grew by 8[when?] to a total of 27.[10]

The airport is built as one large terminal (a single-terminal concept), split into three large departure halls, which connect again once airside. The most recent of these was completed in 1994, and expanded in 2007 with a new section, called Terminal 4, although it is not considered a separate building. Plans for further terminal expansion exist, including the construction of a separate new terminal between the Zwanenburgbaan and Polderbaan runways that would end the one-terminal concept.

Because of intense traffic and high landing fees, some low-cost carriers decided to move their flights to smaller airports, such as Rotterdam The Hague Airport and Eindhoven Airport. Many low-cost carriers, such as EasyJet, however, continue to operate from Schiphol, using the low-cost H-pier.

Schiphol is equipped with 18 double jetway gates in preparation for airlines introducing the Airbus A380. Emirates was the first airline to fly the A380 to Schiphol in August 2012, deploying the aircraft on its daily Dubai–Amsterdam service.[11]

History[edit]

A Ford being used to power a winch for towing gliders at Schiphol in 1933.

Schiphol's name is derived from a former fortification named Fort Schiphol which was part of the Stelling van Amsterdam defence works.[12] Before 1852, the Haarlemmermeer polder in which the airport lies was a large lake with some shallow areas. There are multiple stories of how the place got its name. The most popular story is that in the shallow waters sudden violent storms could claim many ships. This was the main reason for reclaiming it. In English, Schiphol translates to 'Ship Grave', a reference to many ships supposedly lost in the lake. When the lake was reclaimed, however, no ship wrecks were found. Another possible origin of the name is the word 'scheepshaal'. A scheepshaal is a ditch or little canal in which ships would be towed from one lake to another. A third explanation would be that the name derived from the words 'scip hol'. This is a low lying area of land (hol, like in the name Holland) from where wood would be obtained to build ships.[13]

Schiphol opened on 16 September 1916 as a military airbase, with a few barracks and a field serving as platform and runways. When civil aircraft started to use the field (17 December 1920) it was often called Schiphol-les-bains. The Fokker aircraft manufacturer started a factory near Schiphol airport in 1919.[14] The end of the First World War also saw the beginning of civilian use of Schiphol Airport and the airport eventually lost its military role completely.

By 1940, Schiphol had four asphalt runways at 45-degree angles, all 1,020 metres (3,350 ft) or less. One was extended to become today's runway 04/22; two others crossed that runway at 52°18′43″N 4°48′00″E / 52.312°N 4.800°E / 52.312; 4.800. The airport was captured by the German military that same year and renamed Fliegerhorst Schiphol. A large amount of anti-aircraft defences were installed in the vicinity of the airport and fake decoy airfields were constructed in the vicinity near Bennebroek, Vijfhuizen and Vogelenzang in an attempt to confuse allied bombers. A railway connection was also constructed. Despite these defences, the airfield was still bombed intensively, and an exceptionally heavy attack on the 13th of December 1943 caused so much damage that it rendered the airfield unusable as an active base. After that it served only as an emergency landing field, until the Germans themselves destroyed the remainders of the airfield at the start of Operation Market Garden. At the end of the war, the airfield was restored quickly, with the first aircraft, a Douglas DC-3, landing again on the 8th of July 1945.[15]

The air traffic control tower at Schiphol in 1960
The apron in 1965

A new terminal building was completed in 1949 and it was decided that Schiphol was to become the primary airport of the Netherlands. Expansion came at the cost of a small town called Rijk, which was demolished to make room for the growing airport. The name of this town is remembered in the name of the present Schiphol-Rijk industrial estate. In 1967, Dutch designer Benno Wissing created signage for Schiphol Airport well known for its clear writing and thorough color-coding; to avoid confusion, he prohibited any other signage in the shades of yellow and green used.[16] This was part of the new terminal building which replaced the older facilities once located on what is now the east side of the airport. The A-Pier of the airport was modified in 1970 to allow Boeing 747 aircraft to make use of the boarding gates.

The construction of a new Air Traffic Control tower was completed in 1991 as the existing tower could no longer oversee all of the airport. New wayfinding signage was designed that year as well by Paul Mijksenaar.[17] A sixth runway was completed at quite some distance west of the rest of airport in 2003 and was nicknamed the Polderbaan, with the connecting taxiway crossing the A5 motorway. The distance of this runway means that taxi times to and from this runway can take between 10 and 20 minutes. It also required the construction of an additional Air Traffic Control tower as the primary tower is too far away to oversee this part of the airfield.[18]

On 25 February 2005, a diamond robbery occurred at Schiphol's cargo terminal. The robbers used a stolen KLM van to gain airside access. The estimated value of the stones was around 75 million euros, making it one of the largest diamond robberies ever.[19] Later that year a fire broke out at the airport's detention centre, killing 11 people and injuring 15. The complex was holding 350 people at the time of the incident. Results from the investigation almost one year later showed that fire safety precautions were not in force. A national outrage resulted in the resignation of Justice Minister Donner (CDA) and Mayor Hartog of Haarlemmermeer. Spatial Planning Minister Dekker (VVD) resigned as well, because she bore responsibility for the construction, safety, and maintenance of state-owned buildings.

Infrastructure[edit]

Map showing the six runways of Schiphol
Air Traffic Control Towers at Schiphol
Schiphol Airport Library

Terminal[edit]

Schiphol uses a one terminal concept, where all facilities are located under a single roof, radiating from the central 'plaza'. The terminal, though, is divided into three sections or halls designated 1, 2 and 3. To all of these halls, piers or concourses are connected. However, it is possible, on both sides of security or border inspection, to walk from between piers, even those connected to different halls. The exception to this is the low-cost pier M: once airside (past security), passengers cannot access any other areas. Border control separates Schengen from non-Schengen areas. Schiphol Airport has approximately 165 boarding gates.

Schiphol has large shopping areas as a source of revenue and as an additional attraction for passengers. Schiphol Plaza is the shopping centre before customs, hence it is used by air travelers and non-traveling visitors.

Departure Hall 1[edit]

Departure Hall 1 consists of Piers B and C, both of which are dedicated Schengen areas. Pier B has 14 gates and Pier C has 21 gates.

Departure Hall 2[edit]

Departure Hall 2 consists of Piers D and E.

Pier D is the largest pier and has two levels. The lower floor houses non-Schengen flights, and the upper floor is used for Schengen flights. By using stairs, the same jetways are used to access the aircraft. Schengen gates are numbered beginning with D-59, non-Schengen gates are numbered from D-1 to D-57.

Pier E is a dedicated non-Schengen area and has 14 gates. It is typically home to SkyTeam hub airlines Delta Air Lines and KLM, along with other members, such as China Airlines and China Southern Airlines. Other Middle Eastern and Asian airlines such as EVA Air, Etihad Airways, Iran Air, Air Astana, and Malaysia Airlines also typically operate out of Pier E.

Departure Hall 3[edit]

Departure Hall 3 consists of piers F, G, H and M. Pier F has 8 gates and is typically dominated by SkyTeam members such as primary airline KLM, Kenya Airways, and other members, such as China Airlines and China Southern Airlines. Pier G has 13 gates and is the only terminal that handles daily Airbus A380 service, by Emirates. Piers H and M have 7 gates each and are home to low-cost airlines. Piers F, G and H are non-Schengen areas. Pier M is a dedicated Schengen area.

General Aviation Terminal[edit]

A new General Aviation Terminal was opened in 2011 on the east side of the airport, operated as the KLM Jet Center. The new terminal building has a floorspace of 6,000 m2 (65,000 sq ft); 1,000 m2 (11,000 sq ft) for the actual terminal and lounges, 4,000 m2 (43,000 sq ft) for office space and 1,000 m2 (11,000 sq ft) for parking.[20] Due to the high traffic volume of Schiphol and the surrounding airspace, a slot must be requested for both inbound and outbound General Aviation flights, with an exception of state, emergency and humanitarian flights.[21]

Further facilities[edit]

The Rijksmuseum operates an annex at the airport, offering a small overview of both classical and contemporary art.[22] Admission to the exhibits is free.

In summer 2010, Schiphol Airport Library opened alongside the museum, providing passengers access to a collection of 1,200 books (translated into 29 languages) by Dutch authors or on subjects relating to the country's history and culture. The 968 sq ft (89.9 m2) library offers e-books and music by Dutch artists and composers that can be downloaded free of charge to a laptop or mobile device.[23]

For aviation enthusiasts, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol has a large rooftop viewing area, called the Panoramaterras. It is not accessible to connecting passengers unless they first exit the airport. Enthusiasts and the public can enter, free of charge, from the airport's landside. Since June 2011, it is the location for a KLM Cityhopper Fokker 100, modified to be a viewing exhibit.[24] Besides the Panoramaterras, Schiphol has other spotting sites, especially along the newest Polderbaan runway and at the McDonald's restaurant at the north side of the airport.

Schiphol has its own mortuary, where the dead can be handled and kept before departure or after arrival. Since October 2006, people can also hold a wedding ceremony at Schiphol.[25]

Schiphol is building a new state of the art Hilton Hotel, with 433 rooms. The new building designed by the architect firm Mecanoo will have a cube shape, with rounded corners and diamond shaped windows. The spacious atrium will have a 35 foot high ceiling made of glass, and will be in the heart of the building. A covered walkway will connect the hotel directly to the Terminal. In 2015 the hotel will be completed.[26]

Future Expansions[edit]

In 2012, Schiphol Group announced a big expansion of Schiphol, featuring a new Pier,[27] an expansion of the Terminal and a new parking garage.[28] Pier A will be part of Departure Hall 1 which already has Pier B (14 gates) and Pier C (21 gates). The new Pier A will have 10 gates. Schiphol wants to build the Pier and the Terminal according to the latest sustainability standards.The first activities are expected to start in 2016 and to be completed in 2018. The expansions will cost about 500 million euros.

The new Pier A will be built next to the Pier B, this place is now used as a freight-platform for planes. The Pier A will mainly be used for flights within Europe. To handle the extra passengers that come with this new Pier, Schiphol will expand the Terminal and build new facilities for check-ins and arrivals. From the new building, direct access will be made to the platforms of the underground railway station. When finished, Schiphol wants to grow to around 65 million passengers in 2020.[29]

Tower[edit]

The Schiphol air traffic control tower, with a height of 101 m (331 ft), was the tallest in the world when constructed in 1991.[citation needed] Schiphol is geographically one of the world's lowest major commercial airports. The entire airport is below sea level; the lowest point sits at 11 ft (3.4 m) below sea level (or 4.5 ft (1.4 m) below the Dutch Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP)); the runways are around 3 m (9.8 ft) below NAP.[30][31]

Runways[edit]

Schiphol has six runways, one of which is used mainly by general aviation aircraft.[5] The northern end of the Polderbaan, the last runway to be constructed, is 7 km (4.3 mi) north of the control tower, causing taxi times of up to 20 minutes to the terminal.

Number Runway direction/code Length
(in metres and feet)
Runway common name Source of the name Surface Notes
1 18R/36L 3,800 m
12,467 ft
Polderbaan Decided via contest. 'Polder' is the Dutch word for land reclaimed from a body of water. Schiphol Airport is situated in a polder. Asphalt Newest runway, opened 2003.
Located to reduce the noise impact on the surrounding population; aircraft have a lengthy 15-minute taxi to and from the Terminal. The intended landing runway for Turkish Airlines Flight 1951, which crashed in a field just short of the runway.
2 06/24 3,500 m
11,483 ft
Kaagbaan Named after the Kagerplassen which lies at the end of the runway Asphalt The Kaagbaan offered a location for spotters until the spotting location was closed in January 2008.[32]
3 09/27 3,453 m
11,329 ft
Buitenveldertbaan Named after Buitenveldert, a part of Amsterdam Asphalt El Al Flight 1862 was trying to make an emergency landing on this runway when it crashed into a block of flats in the Bijlmermeer.[33]
4 18L/36R 3,400 m
11,155 ft
Aalsmeerbaan Named after Aalsmeer Asphalt
5 18C/36C 3,300 m
10,826 ft
Zwanenburgbaan Named after the village Zwanenburg Asphalt El Al Flight 1862 took off from this runway before crashing into flats in the Bijlmermeer when the plane was trying to return to the airport.[33]
6 04/22 2,014 m
6,608 ft
Oostbaan Most Eastern (Oost) of all runways Asphalt In October 2010 a B-737 of Corendon Airlines overshot this short runway and ended up with its nosegear in the mud.[34]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

Arkefly Boeing 737-800 in Amsterdam
EgyptAir Boeing 737-800 in Amsterdam
easyJet Airbus A319 in Amsterdam
KLM Boeing 777-200ER in Amsterdam
El Al Boeing 737-800 in Amsterdam

Note: The piers listed are not definite since very few airlines have dedicated piers or gates; the piers listed below are based on typical conditions.

Airlines Destinations Gates
Adria Airways Ljubljana B, C, D
Aegean Airlines Seasonal: Heraklion (begins 21 April 2015), Rhodes (begins 25 April 2015) TBA
Aer Lingus Cork, Dublin D
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo D, G
Air Arabia Maroc Casablanca, Nador, Tangier D, G
Air Astana Atyrau D, E
Air Cairo Charter: Cairo G
Air Canada Toronto–Pearson (resumes 6 June 2015)[35] E, G
Air Europa Madrid C
Air France Marseille, Paris–Charles de Gaulle C
Air France
operated by HOP!
Clermont–Ferrand, Nantes, Strasbourg C, D
Air Lituanica Vilnius ???
Air Malta Malta B
Air Serbia Belgrade D
Air Transat Seasonal: Calgary, Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver E, G
airBaltic Riga, Vilnius (begins 28 October 2014)[36] B
Alitalia Milan–Linate, Rome–Fiumicino B
Arkefly Antalya, Arrecife (Lanzarote), Aruba, Banjul, Boa Vista, Bodrum, Bonaire, Burgas, Cancún, Curaçao, Dalaman, Dubai–International, Faro, Fortaleza, Fuerteventura, Funchal (Madeira), Gran Canaria, Heraklion, Holguín, Hurghada, Mahon (Menorca), Málaga, Palma de Mallorca (Mallorca), Miami, Montego Bay, Natal, Orlando/Sanford, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Rhodes, Sal, Sharm el-Sheikh, Tenerife–South, Varadero, Zanzibar
Seasonal: Aqaba, Corfu, Dakar, Djerba, Enfidha, Girona, Ibiza, İzmir, Jerez de la Frontera, Karpathos, Kefalonia, Kittilä, Kos, Marsa Alam, Mombasa, Mytilene (Lesbos), Ohrid, Ponta Delgada (São Miguel), Pula, Samos, Sitia, Terceira, Zakynthos
C, D, E, G
Arkefly
operated by Jetairfly
Brussels, Miami, Orlando/Sanford ???
Arkia Israel Airlines Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion G
Austrian Airlines operated by Tyrolean Airways Vienna B
Belavia Minsk–National D
Blue Islands Jersey D
British Airways London–Gatwick, London–Heathrow D
British Airways
operated by BA CityFlyer
London–City D
Bulgaria Air Sofia
Seasonal: Burgas
D
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong G
China Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Taipei–Taoyuan E, F
China Southern Airlines Beijing–Capital, Guangzhou E, F, G
CityJet Cambridge (ends 25 October 2014), London–City
Seasonal: Avignon, Brive, Perpignan
C, D
Corendon Airlines Ankara, Antalya, Bodrum, Dalaman, Gazipaşa, Istanbul–Atatürk, Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen, İzmir, Kayseri, Konya D, G
Corendon Dutch Airlines Antalya, Bodrum, Elazığ, Ercan, Gran Canaria, Hurghada, Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen, Nador, Tetouan
Seasonal: Aqaba, Arrecife (Lanzarote), Banjul, Burgas, Eilat–Ovda, Fuerteventura, Heraklion, Málaga, Marrakesh, Marsa Alam, Ohrid, Palma de Mallorca
D, G
Croatia Airlines Zagreb
Seasonal: Dubrovnik, Pula
D
Cyprus Airways Larnaca B
Czech Airlines Prague B, C
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Mumbai, New York–JFK, Newark, Portland (OR), Seattle/Tacoma
Seasonal: Salt Lake City (begins 2 May 2015)[37]
D, E, G
easyJet Belfast–International, Berlin–Schönefeld, Bordeaux, Bristol, Dubrovnik (begins 10 May 2015), Edinburgh, Glasgow–International, Hamburg (begins 3 November 2014), Lisbon, Liverpool, London–Gatwick, London–Luton, London–Southend, London–Stansted, Manchester, Milan–Malpensa, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nice (begins 8 May 2015), Olbia (begins 9 May 2015), Prague, Rome–Fiumicino, Toulouse (begins 1 April 2015), Venice (begins 8 May 2015)
Seasonal: Split
H, M
easyJet Switzerland Basel/Mulhouse, Geneva M
EgyptAir Cairo G
El Al Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion G
Emirates Dubai–International G
Estonian Air Tallinn B, D
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi E
Etihad Regional
operated by Darwin Airline
Dresden, Leipzig/Halle B, D
Eurolot Gdańsk, Kraków C, D
Europe Airpost Gran Canaria, Málaga, Tangier
Seasonal: Heraklion, Nador
D
EVA Air Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Taipei–Taoyuan E, G
Finnair Helsinki B
Flybe Birmingham, East Midlands, Exeter, Inverness, London–City (begins 1 November 2014),[38] Manchester (begins 26 October 2014),[38] Southampton D, H
Garuda Indonesia Jakarta-Soekarno–Hatta, London-Gatwick D, G
Georgian Airways Tbilisi D
Germanwings Hamburg, Stuttgart (begins 29 March 2015) B
Iberia
operated by Iberia Express
Madrid B
Icelandair Reykjavík–Keflavík C
Iran Air Tehran–Imam Khomeini E
Israir Airlines Seasonal: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion G
Jet2.com Leeds/Bradford H
Jetairfly Tangier ???
Kenya Airways Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta F
KLM Aalborg, Aberdeen, Abu Dhabi, Accra, Almaty, Aruba, Athens, Atlanta, Bahrain, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Barcelona, Beijing–Capital, Bergen, Berlin–Tegel, Billund, Birmingham, Bogotá (resumes 31 March 2015),[39] Bonaire, Bordeaux, Bucharest, Budapest, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cairo, Calgary, Cali (begins 31 March 2015),[39] Cape Town, Chengdu, Chicago–O'Hare, Copenhagen, Curaçao, Dammam, Dar es Salaam, Delhi, Denpasar/Bali, Doha, Dubai–International, Edinburgh, Edmonton (begins 3 May 2015),[40] Entebbe, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Geneva, Glasgow–International, Gothenburg–Landvetter, Guayaquil, Hamburg, Hangzhou, Harare (ends 25 October 2014),[41] Havana, Helsinki, Hong Kong, Houston–Intercontinental, Istanbul–Atatürk, Jakarta/Soekarno–Hatta, Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo, Kiev–Boryspil, Kigali, Kilimanjaro, Kuala Lumpur, Kuwait, Lagos, Lima, Lisbon, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Luanda, Lusaka (ends 25 October 2014),[41] Madrid, Manchester, Manila, Mexico City, Milan–Linate, Montréal–Trudeau, Moscow–Sheremetyevo, Munich, Muscat, Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta, New York–JFK, Osaka–Kansai, Oslo–Gardermoen, Panama City, Paramaribo, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Quito, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Rome–Fiumicino, Saint Petersburg, Stuttgart, San Francisco, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Santiago de Chile, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, St. Maarten, Stavanger, Stockholm–Arlanda, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Tokyo–Narita, Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver, Venice–Marco Polo, Vienna, Warsaw–Chopin, Washington–Dulles, Xiamen, Zürich
Seasonal: Dallas/Fort Worth, Kristiansand, Toulouse
B, C, D, E, F
KLM
operated by KLM Cityhopper
Aalborg, Ålesund, Basel/Mulhouse, Berlin–Tegel, Bilbao, Billund, Bologna, Bordeaux, Bremen, Bristol, Brussels, Cardiff, Cologne/Bonn, Copenhagen, Durham Tees Valley, Düsseldorf, Florence, Frankfurt, Geneva, Gothenburg–Landvetter, Hamburg, Hanover, Helsinki, Humberside, Kristiansand, Leeds/Bradford, Linköping, London–Heathrow, Luxembourg, Lyon, Manchester, Munich, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nice, Norwich, Nuremberg, Prague, Sandefjord, Stuttgart, Toulouse, Trondheim, Turin, Venice–Marco Polo, Vienna, Zagreb, Zürich B, C, D
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon F
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw–Chopin C, D
Lufthansa Frankfurt B
Lufthansa Regional operated by Lufthansa CityLine Frankfurt, Munich B, C, D
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur G
Norwegian Air Shuttle Copenhagen, Oslo–Gardermoen, Stockholm–Arlanda D, M
Onur Air Istanbul–Atatürk (begins 26 October 2014),[42] TBA
Pegasus Airlines Antalya, Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen D, G
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca, Nador, Tangier
Seasonal: Al Hoceima, Oujda
D, G
Royal Jordanian Amman–Queen Alia D, G
SATA International Seasonal: Ponta Delgada ???
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen, Oslo–Gardermoen, Stockholm–Arlanda C
Singapore Airlines Singapore G
Sky Work Airlines Bern B
Sun d'Or International Airlines
operated by El Al
Seasonal: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion G
SunExpress İzmir
Seasonal: Antalya, Kayseri
G
Surinam Airways Paramaribo G
Swiss International Air Lines
operated by Swiss European Airlines
Zürich B, C, D
TACV Cabo Verde Airlines Sal, Sao Vicente D, G
TAP Portugal Lisbon B
TAP Portugal
operated by Portugália
Porto B, C, D
TAROM Bucharest D
Transavia.com Agadir, Alicante, Antalya, Arrecife, Athens, Barcelona, Casablanca, Erbil, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Gazipaşa, Gran Canaria, Innsbruck, Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen (ends 29 March 2015), La Palma, Lisbon, Málaga, Marrakech, Naples, Nice, Paphos, Pisa, Porto, Seville, Tenerife–South, Thessaloniki, Turin, Valencia, Venice-Marco Polo
Seasonal: Ajaccio, Almería, Banjul, Bari, Boa Vista, Bodrum, Burgas, Catania, Chambéry, Chania, Chios, Corfu, Dalaman, Dubai, Girona, Heraklion, Ibiza, İzmir, Kalamata, Kavala, Kefalonia, Kos, Lamezia Terme, Malta, Mytilini, Olbia, Palermo, Palma de Mallorca, Preveza, Rhodes, Sal, Salzburg, Samos, Santorini, Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Verona, Zakynthos
B, C, D, E
Tunisair Tunis D, G
Turkish Airlines Ankara, Istanbul–Atatürk, Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen G
Ukraine International Airlines Kiev–Boryspil D
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark, Washington–Dulles E, G
US Airways Philadelphia E, G
Vueling Alicante, Barcelona, Bilbao, Málaga, Rome-Fiumicino
Seasonal: Ibiza, Palma de Mallorca, Santiago de Compostela, Seville, Valencia
B
WOW Air Seasonal: Reykjavík-Keflavík C
Zagrosjet Erbil ???

Cargo[edit]

Airlines Destinations
AirBridgeCargo Airlines Chengdu,[43] Chicago–O'Hare, Khabarovsk,[44] Moscow–Domodedovo, Novosibirsk,[45] Zhengzhou
Air China Cargo Shanghai–Pudong, Tianjin[46]
Cargolux Luxembourg
Cathay Pacific Cargo Chennai, Dubai, Frankfurt, Hong Kong
China Airlines Cargo Abu Dhabi, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Prague, Taipei–Taoyuan[47]
China Cargo Airlines Shanghai–Pudong, Tianjin, Zhengzhou
DHL Aviation Leipzig-Halle Airport
China Southern Cargo Chongqing,[48] Guangzhou, Shanghai–Pudong, Vienna
Emirates SkyCargo Dubai-International[49]
Etihad Crystal Cargo
operated by Atlas Air
Abu Dhabi, Bogotá (begins 12 November 2014),[50] Nairobi
FedEx Express Oslo-Gardermoen, Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Kalitta Air Bahrain, Newark[51]
Korean Air Cargo Seoul
LAN Cargo Campinas–Viracopos, Santiago de Chile, Curitiba, Buenos Aires, Cabo Frio
Lufthansa Cargo Aguadilla, Bogotá, Frankfurt
Martinair/KLM Cargo Aguadilla, Bahrain, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Bogotá, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Campinas–Viracopos, Chennai, Delhi, Guadalajara, Doha, Dammam, Dar es Salaam, Dubai–Al Maktoum, Entebbe, Guayaquil, Harare, Hong Kong, Johannesburg, Khartoum, Kigali, Kuwait, London–Stansted, Miami, Montevideo, Mumbai, Muscat, Nairobi, Quito, Riyadh, San José, Santiago de Chile, Sharjah, Singapore[52]
KLM only: Almaty[53]
MASkargo Dubai-Al Maktoum, Kuala Lumpur[54]
MNG Airlines Istanbul–Atatürk, Munich, Tripoli–Mitiga[55]
Nippon Cargo Airlines Tokyo–Narita
Qatar Airways Cargo Doha, Chicago–O'Hare
Saudia Cargo Jeddah, Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo, Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta
Silk Way Airlines Baku[56]
Singapore Airlines Cargo Bangalore, Chennai, Chicago–O'Hare, Copenhagen, Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo, Mumbai, Sharjah, Singapore[57]
Thai Airways Bangkok, Chennai
TMA Cargo Beirut, Cairo, Riyadh, Sharjah, Tripoli[58]
Yangtze River Express Shanghai–Pudong

Other users[edit]

Other regular users of Schiphol are the Dutch Coast Guard whose aircraft are operated by the Royal Netherlands Air Force, the Dienst Luchtvaart Politie and the Dutch Dakota Association.

Statistics[edit]

Busiest European Routes from Amsterdam Airport (2013)[59]
Rank City Passengers Top Carriers
1 London (Heathrow), United Kingdom 1,443,670 British Airways, KLM, KLM Cityhopper
2 Barcelona, Spain 1,186,682 KLM, Transavia.com, Vueling
3 Paris (Charles de Gaulle), France 1,126,680 Air France, KLM
4 Rome (Fiumicino), Italy 956,580 Alitalia, easyJet, KLM, Vueling
5 Copenhagen, Denmark 805,925 KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines
6 London (Gatwick), United Kingdom 750,856 British Airways, easyJet
7 Madrid, Spain 748,426 Air Europa, KLM, Iberia Express
8 Antalya, Turkey 745,753 Arkefly, Corendon Airlines, Corendon Dutch Airlines, Freebird Airlines, Onur Air, Pegasus Airlines, SunExpress, Transavia.com
9 Frankfurt, Germany 717,143 KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Lufthansa
10 Zürich, Switzerland 697,658 KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Swiss International Air Lines
11 Munich, Germany 693,233 KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Lufthansa, Lufthansa Regional
12 Manchester, United Kingdom 691,660 easyJet, KLM, KLM Cityhopper
13 Lisbon, Portugal 672,122 easyJet, KLM, TAP Portugal, Transavia.com
14 Stockholm (Arlanda), Sweden 660,124 KLM, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines
15 Geneva, Switzerland 627,260 easyJet Switzerland, KLM, KLM Cityhopper
16 Istanbul (Atatürk), Turkey 612,997 Corendon, Freebird Airlines, KLM, Turkish Airlines
17 Oslo (Gardermoen), Norway 604,396 KLM, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines
18 Edinburgh, United Kingdom 561,256 easyJet, KLM
19 Milan (Linate), Italy 546,140 Alitalia, Alitalia CityLiner, KLM
20 Vienna, Austria 519,432 Austrian Airlines, KLM, KLM Cityhopper
Busiest Intercontinental Routes from Amsterdam Airport (2013)
Rank City Passengers Top Carriers
1 Detroit, United States 648,798 Delta
2 New York (JFK), United States 628,499 Delta, KLM
3 Dubai, United Arab Emirates 610,431 Arkefly, Emirates, KLM, Transavia.com
4 Atlanta, United States 595,469 Delta, KLM
5 Minneapolis/Saint Paul, United States 462,945 Delta
6 Bangkok (Suvarnabhumi), Thailand 459,850 China Airlines, EVA Air, KLM
7 Nairobi, Kenya 397,131 Kenya Airways, KLM
8 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 396,084 KLM, Malaysia Airlines
9 Curaçao, Curaçao 390,266 Arkefly, KLM
10 Toronto, Canada 378,495 Air Transat, Arkefly, KLM
11 Hong Kong, Hong Kong 368,444 Cathay Pacific, KLM
12 Tel Aviv, Israel 343,545 Arkia Israel Airlines, El Al, Israir, KLM, Transavia.com
13 Houston, United States 317,751 KLM, United Airlines
14 Singapore, Singapore 314,581 KLM, Singapore Airlines
15 Shanghai (Pudong), China 301,778 KLM
16 Beijing (Capital), China 301,008 China Southern Airlines, KLM
17 Tokyo (Narita), Japan 280,561 KLM
18 Seattle, United States 276,331 Delta
19 Washington (Dulles), United States 274,249 KLM, United Airlines
20 Boston, United States 269,967 Delta

Other facilities[edit]

The Convair Building, which houses KLM Cityhopper and KLM offices, and the original Schiphol control tower

The TransPort Building on the Schiphol Airport property houses the head offices of Martinair and Transavia.com.[60] Construction of the building, which has 10,800 m2 (116,000 sq ft) of rentable space, began on 17 March 2009. Schiphol Group and the architect firm Paul de Ruiter designed the building, while De Vries and Verburg, a firm of Stolwijk, constructed the building.[61]

The World Trade Center Schiphol Airport houses the head office of SkyTeam,[62][63] the Netherlands office of China Southern Airlines,[64] and the Netherlands offices of Iran Air.[65] The head office of Schiphol Group, the airport's operator, is located on the airport property.[66] The Convair Building, with its development beginning after a parcel was earmarked for its development in 1999, houses KLM offices,[67] including KLM Recruitment Services and the head office of KLM Cityhopper.[68][69] The original control tower of Schiphol Airport, which the airport authorities had moved slightly from its original location, now houses a restaurant.[67] The area Schiphol-Rijk includes the head offices of Arkefly and Amsterdam Airlines.[70][71]

At one time KLM had its head office on the grounds of Schiphol Airport.[72] Its current head office in Amstelveen had a scheduled completion at the end of 1970.[73] Previously Martinair had its head office in the Schiphol Center (Dutch: Schiphol Centrum) at Schiphol Airport.[74][75] Formerly, the head office of Transavia.com was in the Building Triport III at Schiphol Airport.[76][77][78] NLM Cityhopper and later KLM Cityhopper previously had their head offices in Schiphol Airport building 70.[79][79]

Nippon Cargo Airlines has its Europe regional headquarters at Schiphol.[80] The National Aerospace Museum Aviodome–Schiphol was previously located at Schiphol.[81] In 2003 the museum moved to Lelystad Airport and was renamed the "Aviodrome."[82]

Ground transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

The construction of the tunnel and railway station in 1992

The Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS), the national Dutch train operator, has a major passenger railway station directly underneath the passenger terminal complex that offers transportation into Amsterdam, Utrecht, The Hague, Rotterdam and many other cities.[83] There are intercity connections to Amsterdam Centraal, Utrecht Centraal, both The Hague Centraal and The Hague HS, Rotterdam Centraal, Eindhoven, Leeuwarden, Groningen, Enschede, Arnhem, Nijmegen and Heerlen. Schiphol is also a stop for the Thalys international high-speed train, connecting the airport directly to Antwerp, Brussels and Paris.

Bus[edit]

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is also easily accessible by bus, as many services call or terminate at the bus station located outside in front of the terminal building.[84] Bus journeys can be planned using the 9292 nationwide journey planner.

Destination Service(s) Notes
Aalsmeer 198
Alphen aan den Rijn 370
Amstelveen 186, 199, 300, night bus N30
Amsterdam, Leidseplein 197, night bus N97 Leidseplein is the closest destination to Amsterdam's city centre that is served by bus from Schiphol.
Amsterdam, Osdorp 69, 192
Amsterdam, Slotervaart 69, 195
Amsterdam, Amsterdam–Zuid and Buitenveldert 310
Haarlem 300, night bus N30
Hoofddorp 300, 310, night bus N30
Keukenhof Gardens 58 (seasonal)
Lisse 361
Leimuiden 370
Ouderkerk aan de Amstel 300, night bus N30
Noordwijk 361 through Sassenheim
Vijfhuizen 300, night bus N30

Car[edit]

Schiphol Airport can easily be reached by car via the A4 and A9 motorways. Schiphol offers several car parking facilities,[85] which include short term parking,[86] valet parking[87] and other parking offers.

Incidents and accidents[edit]

The crash site of El Al Flight 1862 in 1992
The crash site of Turkish Airlines Flight 1951 on 25 February 2009
A makeshift memorial at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, Netherlands for victims of flight MH17, July 2014
  • On 14 November 1946, a Douglas C-47 operated by KLM from London approached Schiphol during bad weather conditions. The first two attempts to land failed. During the third attempt, the pilot realized that the airplane was not lined up properly with the runway. The aircraft made a sharp left turn at low speed, causing the left wing to hit the ground. The airplane crashed and caught fire, killing all 26 people on board, including the plane's crew of five.
  • On 4 October 1992, El Al Flight 1862, a Boeing 747 cargo airplane heading to Tel Aviv suffered physical engine separation of both right-wing engines (#3 and #4) just after taking off from Schiphol and crashed into an apartment building in the Bijlmer neighbourhood of Amsterdam while attempting to return to the airport. A total of 43 people were killed, including the plane's crew of three and a "non-revenue passenger". Several others were injured.
  • On 4 April 1994, Flight KL433 to Cardiff, a Saab 340 operated by KLM Cityhopper, returned to Schiphol after setting the number two engine to flight idle because the crew mistakenly believed that the engine suffered from low oil pressure because of a faulty warning light. On final approach at a height of 90 ft (27 m), the captain decided to go-around and gave full throttle on only the number one engine leaving the other in flight idle. The airplane rolled to the right, pitched up, stalled and hit the ground at 80 degrees bank. Of the twenty-four people on board, three were killed including the captain. Nine others were seriously injured.
  • On 25 February 2009, Turkish Airlines Flight 1951, a Boeing 737-800 from Istanbul crashed on approach, just 1 km (0.6 mi) short of the airport's Polderbaan runway. The plane carried 128 passengers and 7 crew on board. 9 people were killed and a further 86 were injured, including six with serious injuries. Four of the dead were employees of Boeing, involved in an advanced radar deal with Turkey. An initial report from the Dutch Safety Board revealed that the left radio altimeter had failed to provide the correct height above the ground and suddenly reported −8 ft (−2.4 m). As a result of this the autothrottle system closed the thrust levers to idle, as it is programmed to reduce thrust when below 27 ft (8.2 m) radio altitude. This eventually resulted in a dropping airspeed which was not acted upon until it was too late to recover, and the aircraft stalled and crashed in a field.

See also[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

  • Heuvel, Coen van den. Schiphol, een Wereldluchthaven in Beeld, Holkema & Warendorf, 1992, 978-9-0269-6271-4

External links[edit]