Amy Johnson c. 1930
1 July 1903|
Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England
|Died||5 January 1941
Cause of death
|Aircraft crash into water|
|None – body never retrieved|
|Education||Bachelor of Arts in Economics|
|Alma mater||University of Sheffield|
First Officer ATS
|Parents||John William Johnson and Amy Johnson|
Amy Johnson CBE, (1 July 1903 – 5 January 1941) was a pioneering English aviator.[N 1] Flying solo or with her husband, Jim Mollison, Johnson set numerous long-distance records during the 1930s. Johnson flew in the Second World War as a part of the Air Transport Auxiliary where she died during a ferry flight.
Johnson was born in Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, and was educated at Boulevard Municipal Secondary School (later Kingston High School). and the University of Sheffield, where she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics. She then worked in London as secretary to the solicitor, William Charles Crocker. She was introduced to flying as a hobby, gaining a pilot's "A" Licence, No. 1979 on 6 July 1929 at the London Aeroplane Club under the tutelage of Captain Valentine Baker. In that same year, she became the first British woman to obtain a ground engineer's "C" licence.
Johnson's father, always one of her strongest supporters, offered to help her buy an aircraft. With funds from her father and Lord Wakefield she purchased G-AAAH, a second-hand de Havilland DH.60 Gipsy Moth she named "Jason", not after the voyager of Greek legend, but after her father's business trade mark.[N 2]
Johnson achieved worldwide recognition when, in 1930, she became the first woman pilot, or in the language of the time, "aviatrix", to fly solo from England to Australia. Flying G-AAAH, a Gipsy Moth which was the first of her aircraft named "Jason", she left Croydon, south of London, on 5 May of that year and landed in Darwin, Northern Territory, on 24 May after flying 11,000 miles (18,000 km). Her aircraft for this flight can still be seen in the Science Museum in London. She received the Harmon Trophy as well as a CBE in recognition of this achievement, and was also honoured with the No. 1 civil pilot's licence under Australia's 1921 Air Navigation Regulations.[N 3]
In July 1931, Johnson and her co-pilot Jack Humphreys, became the first pilots to fly from London to Moscow in one day, completing the 1,760 miles (2,830 km) journey in approximately 21 hours. From there, they continued across Siberia and on to Tokyo, setting a record time for flying from Britain to Japan. The flight was completed in G-AAZV de Havilland DH.80 Puss Moth, named "Jason II".
In 1932, Johnson married Scottish pilot Jim Mollison, who had, during a flight together, proposed to her only eight hours after they had met.
In July 1932, Johnson set a solo record for the flight from London to Cape Town, South Africa in a Puss Moth, "G-ACAB", named Desert Cloud, breaking her new husband's record. Her next flights were as a duo, flying with Mollison, she flew G-ACCV, named "Seafarer," a de Havilland DH.84 Dragon I nonstop from Pendine Sands, South Wales, to the United States in 1933. However, their aircraft ran out of fuel and crash-landed in Bridgeport, Connecticut; both were injured. After recuperating, the pair were feted by New York society and received a ticker tape parade down Wall Street.
The Mollisons also flew in record time from Britain to India in 1934 in G-ACSP, named "Black Magic", a de Havilland DH.88 Comet as part of the Britain to Australia MacRobertson Air Race. They were forced to retire from the race at Allahabad because of engine trouble.
In 1938, Johnson overturned her glider when landing after a display at Walsall Aerodrome in England, but was not seriously hurt. The same year, she divorced Mollison. Soon afterwards, she reverted to her maiden name.
Second World War
In 1940, during the Second World War, Johnson joined the newly formed Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA), whose job was to transport Royal Air Force aircraft around the country – and rose to First Officer. (Her ex-husband Jim Mollison also flew for the ATA throughout the war.)
On 5 January 1941, while flying an Airspeed Oxford for the ATA from Blackpool to RAF Kidlington near Oxford, Johnson went off course in adverse weather conditions. Reportedly out of fuel, she bailed out as her aircraft crashed into the Thames Estuary.
The crew of the HMS Haslemere[N 4] spotted Johnson's parachute coming down and saw her alive in the water. Conditions were poor – there was a heavy sea and a strong tide, snow was falling and it was intensely cold. Lt Cmdr Walter Fletcher, the commander of Haslemere, dived into the water in an attempt to rescue Johnson. However, he died in the attempt. Johnson died and her body was never recovered.
There is still some mystery about the accident, as the exact reason for the flight is still a government secret and there is some evidence that besides Johnson and Fletcher a third person (possibly someone she was supposed to ferry somewhere) was also seen in the water and also died. Who the third party was is still unknown. Johnson was the first member of the Air Transport Auxiliary to die in service. Her death in an Oxford aircraft was ironic, as she had been one of the original subscribers to the share offer for Airspeed.
However, in 1999 it was reported that Tom Mitchell, from Crowborough, Sussex, claimed to have shot the heroine down when she twice failed to give the correct identification code during the flight. He said: "The reason Amy was shot down was because she gave the wrong colour of the day [a signal to identify aircraft known by all British forces] over radio." Mr. Mitchell explained how the aircraft was sighted and contacted by radio. A request was made for the signal. She gave the wrong one twice. "Sixteen rounds of shells were fired and the plane dived into the Thames Estuary. We all thought it was an enemy plane until the next day when we read the papers and discovered it was Amy. The officers told us never to tell anyone what happened."
Honours and tributes
During her life, Johnson was recognised in many ways. In June 1930, Johnson's flight to Australia was the subject of a contemporary popular song, "Amy, Wonderful Amy", composed by Horatio Nicholls and recorded by Harry Bidgood, Jack Hylton, Arthur Lally, Arthur Rosebery and Debroy Somers. She was also the guest of honour at the opening of the first Butlins holiday camp, in Skegness in 1936. From 1935 to 1937, Johnson was the President of the Women's Engineering Society.
A collection of Amy Johnson souvenirs and mementos was donated by her father to Sewerby Hall in 1958. The hall now houses a room dedicated to Amy Johnson in its museum. In 1974, Harry Ibbetson's statue of Amy Johnson was unveiled in Prospect Street, Hull where a girls' school was named after her (the school later closed in 2004). A blue plaque commemorates Johnson at Vernon Court, Hendon Way, in Cricklewood, London.
Buildings named in Johnson's honour include
- "Amy Johnson Building" housing the department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering at the University of Sheffield.
- "Amy Johnson Primary School" situated on Mollison Drive on the Roundshaw Estate, Wallington, Surrey, which is built on the former runway site of Croydon Airport.
- "The Hawthornes @ Amy Johnson" in Hull, a major housing development by Keepmoat Homes on the site of the former Amy Johnson School.
Street names named in her honour include
- "Amy Johnson Avenue", a major arterial road in Darwin, Australia connecting Tiger Brennan Drive and the Stuart Highway to McMillan's Road
- "Amy Johnson Avenue" in Bridlington, East Riding of Yorkshire
- "Amy Johnson Way", close to Blackpool Airport, in Blackpool, Lancashire
- "Amy Johnson Way" in the Rawcliffe area of York
- "Johnson View" and "Mollison Rise" in Whiteley, Hampshire.
- "Mollison Way" in Queensbury, London.
- "Amy Johnson Place" in Eagle Farm Brisbane Australia where she landed in 1930
In 2011 the Royal Aeronautical Society established the annual Amy Johnson Named Lecture to celebrate a century of women in flight[N 5] and to honour Britain's most famous woman aviator. Carolyn McCall, Chief Executive of EasyJet, delivered the Inaugural Lecture on 6 July 2011 at the Society's headquarters in London. The Lecture is held on or close to 6 July every year to mark the date in 1929 when Amy Johnson was awarded her pilot’s licence.
- In 1942, a film of Johnson's life, They Flew Alone, was made by director-producer Herbert Wilcox, starring Anna Neagle as Johnson, and Robert Newton as Mollison. The movie is known in the United States as Wings and the Woman.
- Amy Johnson inspired the song "Flying Sorcery" from Scottish singer-songwriter Al Stewart's album, Year of the Cat (1976).
- Amy! (1980) is the subject of and also is the title of an avant-garde documentary written and directed by feminist film theorist Laura Mulvey and noted semiologist Peter Wollen.
- Amy Johnson was the subject of a £500,000 question on the UK version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? (2000). Contestant Duncan Bickley, coincidentally a pilot (she flew from Sherburn Aerodrome), failed by answering that the aircraft in which she flew solo from Britain to Australia was called "Pegasus" (the correct answer is "Jason").
- In the 2007 British film adaption of Noel Streatfeild's 1936 novel "Ballet Shoes", Petrova talks of her ambitions of becoming an aviatrix like Amy Johnson. Her friend and only supporter, boarder Mr. Simpson, takes her to see an Amy Johnson film which featured a real compilation of British Pathé footage taken over several years of her career. Just when it seems that Petrova will never be able to achieve her dream because of her family's financial hardships and the possibility of losing her ally Mr. Simpson, Petrova's great uncle Matthew returns to London after years of going on an expedition around the world. He tells Petrova he will give her flying lessons; having been taught how to fly during a trip to Argentina by Amy Johnson herself. Earlier in the film, Petrova can also briefly be seen reading a May 1930 issue of "The Graphic" magazine featuring an article on Amy Johnson.
- Queen of the Air (2008) by Peter Aveyard is a musical tribute to Johnson.
- A Lone Girl Flier and Just Plain Johnnie (Jack O’Hagan) sung by Bob Molyneux.
- Johnnie, Our Aeroplane Girl sung by Jack Lumsdaine.
- In 2013, Doctor Who Magazine ran a comic story entitled "A Wing and a Prayer", in which the time-travelling Doctor encounters Johnson in 1930. He tells Clara Oswald her death is a fixed point in time. However Clara realises what's important is that it appears Amy died. They save her from drowning then take her to the planet Cornucopia.
- Johnson was the first female pilot to fly alone from Britain to Australia.
- Her father was a partner in the Andrew Johnson Knuditzon Fish Merchants.
- A de Havilland DH 60G Gipsy Moth G-ABDV, named "Jason III" was given to Johnson on her return to England.
- HMS Haslemere was a small, former ferry that in Royal Navy wartime service was being used as a Barrage balloon ship.
- In 1911, Hilda Hewlett became the first British woman to earn her pilot's licence.
- "8 Unsung Women Explorers." Our Amazing Planet, LiveScience.com, 30 April 2012. Retrieved: 30 April 2012.
- "Amy Johnson pioneering aviator". Hull Local Studies Library, Hull City Council. Archived from the original on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- Dunmore 2004, pp. 194–195.
- Aitken 1991, p. 440.
- Dunmore 2004, p. 195.
- "Brearley Pilot's Licences." Treasures of the Battye Library, State Library of Western Australia. Retrieved: 15 July 2007.
- "Amy Johnson." The Science Museum (South Kensington. UK), 2013.
- "Helliwells aircraft component factory at Walsall airport." Black Country Bugle, 25 November 2010. Retrieved: 19 May 2013.
- Smith 2004, pp. 312–313.
- "Heroes Of Air Raids Civil Defence Awards, Rescues In Face Of Danger." The Times (London), Issue 48928, 17 May 1941, p. 2. Retrieved: 27 December 2012.
- McKee 1982, pp. 139–152, 293.
- Gray, Alison. "I think I shot down Amy Johnson." The Scotsman, 6 February 1999.
- "Past Presidents." Women's Engineering Society. Retrieved: 21 November 2010.
- "Amy Johnson." Hull History Centre via hullhistorycentre.org.uk. Retrieved: 14 December 2010.
- "Plaque: Johnson, Amy (1903-1941)." English Heritage. Retrieved: 5 August 2012.
- "Amy Johnson Primary School." lgfl.net, 2010. Retrieved: 25 December 2010.
- Bossom, Emma. "Carolynn McCall to speak at inaugural Amy Johnson Named Lecture." Royal Aeronautical Society's Amy Johnson Named Lecture via aerosocietychannel.com. Retrieved: 9 June 2011.
- Dyer, Kim. "Review of 'Flying Sorcery'." alstewart.com. Retrieved: 27 October 2010.
- "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? – Duncan Bickley misses his £500,000 question." on YouTube. Retrieved: 5 July 2010.
- "Queen of the Air: Peter Aveyard's tribute to Amy Johnson." queenoftheair.co.uk. Retrieved: 24 September 2010.
- National Film and Sound Archive of Australia: Songs about Amy Johnson in "Our Heroes of the Air." The National Film and Sound Archive of Australia. Retrieved: 1 January 2014.
- "National Film and Sound Archive of Australia: Songs about Amy Johnson; Our Heroes of the Air." National Film and Sound Archive of Australia. Retrieved: 18 May 2012.
- "Doctor who Magazine #263." doctorwhonews.net, 24 July 2013. Retrieved: 1 January 2014.
- Aitken, Kenneth. "Amy Johnson (The Speed Seekers)." Aeroplane Monthly, Vol. 19, no. 7, Issue no. 219, July 1991.
- Dunmore, Spencer. "Undaunted: Long-Distance Flyers in the Golden Age of Aviation" Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2004. ISBN 0-7710-2937-3
- McKee, Alexander. Great Mysteries of Aviation. New York: Stein & Day, 1982. ISBN 0-8128-2840-2.
- Moolman, Valerie. Women Aloft (The Epic of Flight). Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1981. ISBN 0-8094-3287-0.
- Nesbitt, Roy. "What did Happen to Amy Johnson?" Aeroplane Monthly (Part 1), Vol. 16, no. 1, January 1988, (Part 2) Vol. 16, no. 2, February 1988.
- Smith, Constance Babington. Amy Johnson. Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: The History Press Ltd., 2004. ISBN 978-0-75093-703-0.
- Turner, Mary. The Women's Century: A Celebration of Changing Roles 1900–2000. Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK: The National Archives, 2003. ISBN 1-903365-51-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Amy Johnson.|
- Science Museum exhibit on Amy Johnson
- BBC Humber article on Johnson
- BBC page on Amy Johnson's death
- Sewerby Hall, Bridlington, includes a display of Johnson memorabilia
- The RAF Museum, Hendon, includes another Johnson display
- RAF History page on Amy Johnson
- Amy Johnson on Find-A-Grave
- CWGC record
- Amy Johnson: Pioneer Aviator, Article by LaRue Scott
- Tom Campbell Black
- 75th Anniversary of the Great Air Race October 1934 Tom Campbell Black
- Comet Racer G-ACSP Restoration
- British Library - 'The Story of My Flight' Amy Johnson describes her flight to Australia in a National Sound Archive recording.
- Listen to songs inspired by, and recordings of, famous aviators including Charles Kingsford Smith, Amy Johnson and Bert Hinkler talking about their journeys on the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia's website: "Our Heroes of the Air"