|An-148 / An-158|
|Antonov An-148 in landing configuration|
|Role||Regional jet airliner|
|Built by||Antonov Serial Plant (Ukraine),|
|First flight||17 November 2004|
|Introduction||2 June 2009|
|Status||In production, in service|
|Primary users||Rossiya Airlines
Cubana de Aviación
Ukraine Air Enterprise
|Program cost||US$ 592 million|
|Developed into||Antonov An-178|
The Antonov An-148 (Ukrainian: Антонов Ан-148) is a regional jet aircraft designed by the Ukrainian Antonov company and produced by Antonov itself and also on outsource by Russia's Voronezh Aircraft Production Association. Development of the plane was started in the 1990s, and the maiden flight took place on 17 November 2004. The plane completed its certification programme on 26 February 2007. The An-148 has a maximum range of 2,100–4,400 kilometers and is able to carry 68–85 passengers, depending on the configuration. The Antonov An-158 is a stretched fuselage version of the aircraft, accommodating up to 99 passengers.
The An-148 aircraft is a high-wing monoplane with two turbofan jet engines mounted in pods under the wing. This arrangement protects the engines and wing structure against damage from foreign objects (FOD). A built-in auto-diagnosis system, auxiliary power unit, high reliability, as well as the wing configuration allow the An-148 to be used at poorly equipped airfields. Modern flight and navigation equipment, featuring five 15 cm by 20 cm (6" by 8") liquid crystal display (LCD) panels built by Russia’s Aviapribor and a fly-by-wire system enable the An-148 aircraft to operate day and night, under Instrument flight rules (IFR) and Visual flight rules (VFR) weather conditions on high density air routes. Similar to the Boeing 737, the main landing gear rotates into the belly of the aircraft when in flight, with partial doors covering the legs and the sides of the tires remaining exposed. Other design advantages include the high fuel-efficiency of the Motor Sich D-436-148 engines and entrance stairs that enable boarding and deboarding the plane without extra ground equipment.
Design, development and production
The beginning of the An-148 project dates to the early 1990s, when work on the Antonov An-74 passenger modification started, headed by Petro Balabuev. In 2001, the project was renamed to An-148. The An-74 fuselage was extended and the new plane's wing design was created from scratch. The developers initially used the Motor Sich D-436-148 engines. Other variants with Western-made engines with thrust of 6000–8000 kgf (such as the General Electric CF34 or Rolls-Royce BR700) are being considered.
In 2002, production of the first 3 prototypes was begun at AVIANT. On 17 November 2004, the first prototype completed its maiden flight. Second prototype joined the testing programme in April 2005. During the certification programme, the two prototypes performed about 600 flights in total. On 26 February 2007 the aircraft, its D-436-148 engine and the AI-450-МS auxiliary power unit were certified by the Interstate Aviation Committee of Russia and the State Aviation Administration of Ukraine. On 28 June 2009, the first serially produced An-148, manufactured at VASO in Voronezh took to the skies.
The An-148 is manufactured by the Ukrainian Kiev AVIANT plant (now "Antonov Serial Production Plant") and Russia's Voronezh Aircraft Production Association (VASO). Although numerous companies are involved in the project, at least 70% of the aircraft's hardware is made by Russian manufacturers. Due to its technical parameters, the An-148 has become popular on the regional passenger airliner market. The An-148's list price is about $24–30 million. The main problem with the project has been increasing the plane's sluggish production rate. The then-independent AVIANT plant initially failed to satisfy to growing orders, leading to VASO's growing involvement in the plane's assembly.
The An-148-100 regional aircraft is the main model of the An-148. It seats 70 passengers at 34 inch pitch (864 mm) or up to 80 passengers at 762 mm (30 in) pitch in a one class 2+3 seating layout. The aircraft is also configurable in a multiple-class layout which can carry fewer passengers, typically with 4 abreast business class.
For Siberian operators, Antonov plans a model with a higher gross weight and additional fuel capacity in the center tank, extending the range with 75 passengers from 1,187 nautical mile (nmi) to 1,943 nmi. An “E” variant is also planned to offer a special 2,752-nmi-range, which would serve as a platform for the "E1", capable of for non-stop Moscow-Vladivostok (3,777 nm) services carrying 44 passengers.
- main version of the An-148. It has a passenger capacity of 75 in a one-class standard configuration (85 dense) or 68 in a two-class configuration and a range of 2,100 kilometres (1,300 mi);
- extended range version up to 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi);
- extended range version up to 4,400 kilometres (2,700 mi) and a maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 43.7 tonnes;
- unified with An-158 by the rear part of the fuselage. Hence maximum seating capacity is increased to 89 passengers in dense configuration, comparing to 85 for An-148-100. Planned for production in Kiev with An-158.
- previously called An-168, business variant, seating between 8 and 40 passengers, with a range up to 7000 km;
- stretched fuselage version for 99 passengers in a one-class standard configuration. Other changes include the installation of wingtip fences. The airplane successfully completed its first flight on 28 April 2010, with flight certification tests planned to be completed before the end of 2010; on 3 March 2011, it was given Russian certification. Nowadays, after flight and land test in night lands airports of Ecuador (Latacunga / Cotopaxi International Airport, 2806 m AMSL) and Bolivia (La Paz / El Alto International Airport, 4061 m AMSL) in November 2013 prepare documentation for obtaining correspondent supplements to the type certificate of this airplane.
- cargo variant, with a payload capacity of 15 tons;
- HESA IrAn-148
- Designation of An-148 aircraft proposed for licence production from knocked down kits in Iran.
Orders and operational history
In April 2005, the Ilyushin Finance (IFC) leasing company ordered the first series of An-148 for the Krasair airline. Lease agreement calls for 10 aircraft with an option on 5 units valued at $270 million.
On 2 June 2009, the first An-148 entered commercial service with the Ukrainian carrier Aerosvit. The first passenger flight was from Kharkov to Kiev; the plane had the civilian registration UR-NTA. By November 2009, Aerosvit was operating the An-148 on the Kiev–Odessa and Simferopol–Lviv routes, performing two flights a day with the average flight time of 4–5 hours.
On 21 December 2009, the An-148 was put into service in Russia with Rossiya airline. The first passenger flight was FV135 from Pulkovo Airport in Sankt Petersburg to Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow. By 20 May 2010, Rossiya's An-148 fleet had accumulated a total of 915 flight hours and performed 710 landings. Rossiya complained that the aircraft experienced some reliability problems. There were some technical problems with the plane, and pilot training could not be ramped up fast enough, leading to pilot shortages. However, by 2011 the situation had clearly improved.
On 18 April 2013, the first serial An-158 version was delivered to the Cuban flagship airline Cubana de Aviación. According to Antonov, Cubana additionally ordered 2 more planes, while other sources report this order to be for 10 aircraft.
On 28 April 2013, Ukraine’s Antonov aircraft maker handed over a third An-158 passenger airliner to Cuba and signed a contract for the delivery of three more.
The Russian ambassador in Bolivia and the government of Evo Morales are negotiating the acquisition of one plane of this type for the use as the presidential carrier and other 8 for the state-owned airlines: Boliviana de Aviación (BoA) and Transporte Aéreo Militar (TAM).
Incidents and accidents
- 5 March 2011: An Antonov An-148 (assembled by VASO) carrying test registration 61708 crashed during a test flight in Belgorod region, Russia, after an inflight break-up killing all 6 crew members on board. An investigation commission found that the crew permitted the aircraft to accelerate more than 60 knots above its "Never Exceed" speed in an emergency descent, which led to the inflight break-up. Witnesses on the ground reported a wing had separated from the aircraft in flight. The aircraft was due to be delivered to Myanmar, where two of the dead were from. The order was cancelled shortly after the incident.
|Seating capacity||85 (1-class, dense)
75 (1-class, typical)
68 (2-class, typical)
|99 (1-class, dense)
90 (1-class, typical)
86 (2-class, typical)
|Seat pitch||30 in (1-class, dense)
32 in (1-class, typical)
35 & 32 in (2-class, typical)
|30 in (1-class, dense)
32 in (1-class, typical)
34 & 31 in (2-class, typical)
|Length||29.13 metres (95 ft 7 in)||30.83 metres (101 ft 2 in)|
|Wingspan||28.91 metres (94 ft 10 in)||28.56 metres (93 ft 8 in)|
|Wing area||87.32 square metres (939.9 sq ft)||–|
|Height||8.19 metres (26 ft 10 in)||8.20 metres (26 ft 11 in)|
|Cabin Width||3.15 metres (10 ft 4 in)|
|Cabin Height||2.00 metres (6 ft 7 in)|
|Maximum take-off weight||38,550 kilograms (84,990 lb)||41,950 kilograms (92,480 lb)||43,700 kilograms (96,300 lb)|
|Maximum payload||9,000 kilograms (20,000 lb)||9,800 kilograms (21,600 lb)|
|Cargo capacity||14.60 m3 (516 cu ft)||–|
|Takeoff run at MTOW||1,560 metres (5,120 ft)||1,800 metres (5,900 ft)||1,885 metres (6,184 ft)||1,900 metres (6,200 ft)|
|Service ceiling||12,200 metres (40,000 ft)|
|Cruising speed||800 km/h to 870 km/h (497 mph to 541 mph)|
|Range fully loaded
(with 75 pax for 148 variant)
|2,100 kilometres (1,300 mi)||3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi)||4,400 kilometres (2,700 mi)||2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi)|
|Fuel consumption||1,550 kg/h (3,417 lb/h)||1,600 kg/h (3,527 lb/h)||1,650 kg/h (3,638 lb/h)||1,800 kg/h (3,968 lb/h)|
|Engine (x 2)||Progress D-436|
|Max. thrust (x 2)||6,400 Kgf
14,080 lbf (63.0 kN)
15,026 lbf (67.0 kN)
Current orders and deliveries
|Ministry of Defence||15||5|||
|Ministry of Emergency Situations||2||2|||
|President airforce SLO Rossia||5||3|||
|Ukraine Air Enterprise||2||2|||
|Border Guard Service of Russia||3||2|||
|Cubana de Aviación||6||5|||
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
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- Bombardier CRJ700 series
- Comac ARJ21
- Embraer E-Jet family
- Fokker 70
- Mitsubishi MRJ 70/MRJ 90
- Sukhoi Superjet 100
- Tupolev Tu-334
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antonov An-148.|
- Aviant Kyiv Aviation Plant An-148 description page[dead link]
- Antonov An-148 page on the Antonov website
- Antonov An-158 page on the Antonov website
- Promotional video of the An-148 by Antonov
- 3D-model Antonov ASTC. An-148 twin jet airliner for the ″3D Buildings″ layer inside Google Earth
- 3D-model An-148 jet aircraft take off, Kyiv for the ″3D Buildings″ layer inside Google Earth