Nasiriyah

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For places in Iran, see Nasiriyah, Iran (disambiguation). For the Sufi order of Tamegroute, Morocco, see Nasiriyya.
Nasiriyah
Arabic: الناصرية
An Nāṣirīyah
Nasiriyah town centre
Nasiriyah town centre
Nasiriyah is located in Iraq
Nasiriyah
Nasiriyah
Coordinates: 31°03′N 46°16′E / 31.050°N 46.267°E / 31.050; 46.267
Country  Iraq
Governorate Dhi Qar Governorate
Founded 1840
Population (2012 Est.)
 • Total 860,200

Nasiriyah (Arabic: الناصرية‎; BGN: An Nāşirīyah; also spelled Nassiriya or Nasiriya) is a city in Iraq. It is on the Euphrates about 225 miles (370 km) southeast of Baghdad, near the ruins of the ancient city of Ur. It is the capital of the province of Dhi Qar. According to the 1987 census the city had a population of 265,937 people; the estimated population in 2003 was 560,200.

The population of Nasiriyah is nearly exclusively[clarification needed] Shī‘a Muslims with small Mandaean and Sunni muslim communities, until 1951 the town was a home to a sizable Jewish community. After the failed uprising of 1991, many families were massacred by Saddam Hussein's forces whilst thousands fled from Iraq to other countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Sweden.

Nasiriyah is the centre of a date-growing area, but many other agricultural products are produced here as well. The city's industries include boatbuilding, carpentry and silver working.

The old parts of the town are built mainly from sun-dried brick and this part of the town is still enclosed by a mud wall. The newer parts are dominated by standard Iraqi block buildings.

The city museum has a large collection of Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Abbasid artifacts. The ruins of the ancient cities of Ur and Larsa are located nearby.

Climate[edit]

Nasiriyah features a desert climate (Bwh in the Köppen climate classification).

Climate data for An Nasiriyah
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 16
(60)
19
(67)
24
(76)
31
(88)
37
(99)
42
(107)
43
(110)
43
(109)
41
(106)
34
(94)
25
(77)
18
(65)
31.1
(88.2)
Average low °C (°F) 7
(45)
10
(50)
14
(57)
19
(67)
24
(75)
27
(81)
29
(84)
28
(82)
26
(78)
21
(69)
13
(56)
9
(49)
18.9
(66.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 20
(0.8)
15
(0.6)
18
(0.7)
15
(0.6)
8
(0.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(0.1)
15
(0.6)
20
(0.8)
114
(4.5)
Source: Weatherbase [1]

History[edit]

The city was founded in 1872 by Sheikh Nasir Al Sadoon of the Muntafiq tribal confederation, after whom it is named. During World War I the British conquered the city, controlled at the time by the Ottoman Empire, in July 1915. Some 400 British and Indian and up to 2,000 Turkish soldiers were killed in the battle for Nasiriyah on 24 July 1915.[2]

Spice shop in Nasiriyah.

Nasiriyah, where the Iraqi Communist Party was founded around 1932, was mostly dominated by secular and leftist groups, and the founder of the Iraqi Baath Party, Foud al‑Rikaby, was from Nasiriyah. During 1932-1963 the city was the center for liberal and progressive thinking.

Nasiriyah, where the Iraqi Communist Party was founded around 1932 and Foud al‑Rikaby, the founder of the Iraqi Baath Party, was born, was mostly dominated by secular and leftist groups, and, in particular during the 1932-1963 time frame, the town was the center for liberal and progressive thinking.

Some of the leading thinkers who grew up around Nasiriyah were Aziz al‑Syed Jasim, Aziz Abdul Sahab, Sadiq Atemish, Mohamed Ali al-Nasiri, along with many poets (e.g., Ayniah al‑Husewani, Aryan Syed Khalif), singers (e.g., Hazery Abu Aziz, Taleb al‑Qayraqwli, Hussein Nameh) and artists (Huessien al‑Halali, Majed al‑Najar).

Flickr - Kindergarten students from Mumsuna school in Nasiriyah attend the opening of Ziggurat of Ur in 2009 (it had been closed following the U.S. invasion in 2003)

During the 1940s Nasiriyah was the main center of opposition to the monarchy and the feudal system. Student unions, peasants associations, and workers played an important role in sensitizing people to the nature of corruption and abuses committed by the government in Baghdad and its supporters. These associations, under the leadership of the Communist Party, were instrumental in setting the stage for the 14 July Revolution in 1958. Hassan al‑atybai and Aziz Al‑Syed Jasim along with many intellectuals led the public celebrations which took place in many part of the governorate immediately after the Revolution.

During the 1991 Gulf War, Nasiriyah marked the furthest point to which coalition forces penetrated Iraq, with the United States 82nd Airborne Division and elements of the 101st Airborne Division reaching the main road just outside the city. In March 1991, following the American withdrawal at the war's end, the Shia population of Nasiriyah took part in the revolt against the rule of Saddam Hussein. The revolt was violently subdued by the Iraqi military with heavy loss of life and much physical damage.

Until the 2003 war, Nasiriyah was home to one of the biggest communities of Mandeans in Iraq.[3]

Iraq War (2003-2010)[edit]

Main article: Battle of Nasiriyah

In March 2003, Nasiriyah was one of the first major battles of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Phillip Mitchell of the International Institute for Strategic Studies so described the town's strategic importance to The Guardian:

Nasiriyah is a major administrative headquarters and is also [Iraqi General] Majid's military district headquarters. It is a major strategic crossing point of the Euphrates. For all those reasons Nasiriyah will be well defended, which will slow the Mech [invasion] down for a while.

On March 23, The U.S. invasion force was ambushed near the city: 11 Marines were killed and Army Private Jessica Lynch and Specialist Shoshana Johnson were taken prisoners of war during the skirmishes. The Battle of Nasiriyah between Iraqi forces and the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Unit under the call sign "Task Force Tarawa" of the U.S. Marine Corps lasted between about March 23 and March 29, in which 18 Marines were killed and over 150 were wounded, including a number hit by friendly fire from Air Force A‑10 aircraft,[4] but the Iraqi resistance was defeated fairly rapidly thereafter. The town has been relatively calm since the fall of Saddam Hussein. A truck bomb killed 19 Italian soldiers and 11 civilians in November 2003 (see 2003 Nasiriyah bombing), and clashes erupted here in April 2004.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for An Nasiriyah, Iraq". Weatherbase. 2011.  Retrieved on November 24, 2011.
  2. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2005). World War I: encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 2009-09-13. 
  3. ^ Dabrowska, Karen (2008). Iraq Then and Now: A Guide to the Country and Its People. Bradt Travel Guides. Retrieved 2009-09-12. 
  4. ^ Marine captain faulted in friendly fire incident - CNN.com

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 31°03′N 46°16′E / 31.050°N 46.267°E / 31.050; 46.267