Darth Vader

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Darth Vader
Star Wars character
Portrayed by
Voiced by
Fictional profile
Species Darth Vader: Human/cyborg
Anakin Skywalker: Human
Gender Male
Position Darth Vader: Sith Lord, Supreme Commander of the Imperial Fleet
Anakin Skywalker: Jedi Knight, General in the Grand Army of the Republic
Homeworld Tatooine
Affiliation Darth Vader:
Sith
Galactic Empire
Anakin Skywalker:
Jedi
Galactic Republic

Darth Vader (born Anakin Skywalker) is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe.[1][2][3] He appears in the original trilogy, as well as the prequel trilogy.

The character was created by George Lucas and has been portrayed by numerous actors. His appearances span all six Star Wars films, and he is an important character in the expanded universe of television series, video games, novels, literature and comic books. Originally a Jedi prophesied to bring balance to the Force, he falls to the dark side of the Force and serves the evil Galactic Empire at the right hand of his Sith master, Darth Sidious.[4] He is also the father of Luke Skywalker and Princess Leia Organa.

The American Film Institute listed him as the third greatest movie villain in cinema history on 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains, behind Hannibal Lecter and Norman Bates.[5]

Concept and creation

Ralph McQuarrie, the designer of Darth Vader, visiting ILM in 2008.
Brian Muir sculpted Darth Vader's costume using Ralph McQuarrie's design.[6]

In the first draft of The Star Wars, tall, grim general "Darth Vader" was already close in line with his final depiction,[7] and the protagonist "Anikin Starkiller" had a role similar to Luke Skywalker's as the 16-year-old son of a respected warrior.[8] Vader's mask was originally designed by Ralph McQuarrie as part of Vader's spacesuit and not intended to be part of the regular costume.[7] Brian Muir sculpted Vader's costume based on McQuarrie's design.[6]

After the success of Star Wars, Lucas hired science fiction author Leigh Brackett to write Star Wars II with him. They held story conferences and, by late November 1977, Lucas had produced a handwritten treatment. The treatment is similar to the final film, except that Vader does not reveal he is Luke's father. In the first draft that Brackett would write from this, Luke's father appears as a ghost to instruct Luke.[9] Lucas was disappointed with the script, but Brackett died of cancer before he could discuss it with her.[10] With no writer available, Lucas had to write the next draft himself. In this draft, he made use of a new plot twist: Vader claiming to be Luke's father. According to Lucas, he found this draft enjoyable to write, as opposed to the year-long struggles writing the first film.[11]

The new plot element of Luke's parentage had drastic effects on the series. Michael Kaminski argues in his book that it is unlikely that the plot point had ever seriously been considered or even conceived of before 1978, and that the first film was clearly operating under an alternate storyline where Vader was a separate character from Luke's father;[12] there is not a single reference to this plot point before 1978 as Obi-Wan Kenobi referred to him as "Darth" as if it is his true name rather than the Sith title. After writing the second and third drafts in which the point was introduced, Lucas reviewed the new backstory he had created: Anakin had been Obi-Wan's brilliant student and had a child named Luke, but was swayed to the dark side by Palpatine. Anakin battled Kenobi on the site of a volcano and was badly wounded, but was then reborn as Vader. Meanwhile, Kenobi hid Luke on Tatooine while the Galactic Republic became the tyrannical Galactic Empire and Vader systematically hunted down and killed the Jedi.[13] This change in character would provide a springboard to the "Tragedy of Darth Vader" storyline that underlies the prequels.[14]

After deciding to create the prequels, Lucas indicated the series would be a tragic one depicting Anakin's fall to the dark side. He also saw that the prequels could form the beginning of one long story that started with Anakin's childhood and ended with his death. This was the final step towards turning the film series into a "Saga".[15]

For the first prequel, Lucas made Anakin nine years old to make the character's separation from his mother more poignant.[8] Movie trailers focused on Anakin and a one-sheet poster showing him casting Vader's shadow informed otherwise unknowing audiences of the character's eventual fate.[16] The movie ultimately achieved a primary goal of introducing audiences to Anakin.[1]

Michael Kaminski, in The Secret History of Star Wars, offers evidence that issues in Anakin's fall to the dark side prompted Lucas to make massive story changes, first revising the opening sequence of the third prequel to have Palpatine kidnapped and his apprentice murdered by Anakin as the first act in the latter's turn towards the dark side.[17] After principal photography was complete in 2003, Lucas made even more massive changes in Anakin's character, re-writing his entire turn to the dark side; his fall from grace would now be motivated by a desire to save Padmé Amidala rather than the previous version in which that reason was one of several, including that he genuinely believed that the Jedi were plotting to take over the Republic. This fundamental re-write was accomplished both through editing the principal footage, and new and revised scenes filmed during pick-ups in 2004.[18]

Portrayals

Darth Vader was portrayed by bodybuilder David Prowse and by stunt performer Bob Anderson during the character's intense lightsaber fight scenes.[7] James Earl Jones provided Vader's voice, but was initially uncredited in A New Hope and The Empire Strikes Back because he felt his contributions were too small to warrant recognition.[7] The character has also been voiced by Scott Lawrence and Matt Sloan for several video games.

Anakin Skywalker has been portrayed by Sebastian Shaw in Return of the Jedi, Jake Lloyd in The Phantom Menace,[19] and Hayden Christensen in Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith and appears briefly reprising the role in the final scene of Return of the Jedi. The character has also been voiced by Mat Lucas for the 2003 micro-series and Matt Lanter in the CGI 2008 film and later animated TV series.

Appearances

Original trilogy

Introduced in Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, Darth Vader is depicted as a ruthless cyborg who serves the Galactic Empire. Early in the film, Obi-Wan Kenobi tells Luke Skywalker that Vader is a former Jedi who "betrayed and murdered" Luke's father and helped the Empire destroy the Jedi Order. Along with Grand Moff Tarkin, Vader is charged with recovering the Death Star's technical schematics, which were stolen by the Rebel Alliance seeking to overthrow the Empire. To that end, he captures and tortures Princess Leia Organa, and stands by while Tarkin destroys her home planet of Alderaan with the Death Star's superlaser. While the princess is being rescued, Vader fights Obi-Wan in a lightsaber duel and kills his former master. During the film's climactic battle scene, Vader leads a squadron of TIE fighters and destroys several Rebel fighters. Vader pursues Luke's X-Wing fighter, but an attack from Han Solo's Millennium Falcon clips him and sends him flying into deep space.[20]

Three years later in Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, Darth Vader leads an Imperial starfleet in pursuit of the Rebels. He leads an invasion of the Rebel base on Hoth, but the protagonists escape. He later confers with the Emperor telling him that Luke Skywalker has become a threat to the Empire, and must not become a Jedi. Vader persuades the Emperor that Luke would be a great asset if turned to the dark side of the Force. Vader captures Han Solo, Leia Organa, Chewbacca, C-3PO and R2-D2 on Cloud City and uses them as bait for Luke. He has Han tortured, frozen in carbonite and delivered to bounty hunter Boba Fett, but Leia, Chewbacca and the droids escape thanks to Lando Calrissian. Vader engages Luke in a lightsaber duel, which ends when Vader cuts off Luke's right hand and reveals that he is Luke's father; he then entreats Luke to turn to the dark side so they can "rule the galaxy as father and son". Horrified, Luke throws himself into Cloud City's reactor core and ultimately escapes aboard the Millennium Falcon. Onboard his Star Destroyer, Vader telepathically tells Luke that it is his destiny to join the dark side.[20]

Sebastian Shaw as Anakin Skywalker unmasked and redeemed in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi.

One year later in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, Darth Vader arrives aboard the half-constructed second Death Star. He intimidates the battle station's commander, Moff Jerjerrod, into stepping up construction. When Emperor Palpatine personally arrives, he assures Vader that the two of them will turn Luke to the dark side.

Luke surrenders himself to Vader in the hope that he can turn his father back "to the light side". Vader brings Luke onto the Death Star, where the Emperor tries to seduce Luke to the dark side. A lightsaber duel erupts between father and son, during which Vader learns Leia Organa is Luke's twin sister and threatens to turn her to the dark side if Luke will not submit. Enraged, Luke attacks and overpowers Vader, severing his mechanical right hand. Realizing he is close to suffering his father's fate, Luke refuses the Emperor's command to kill Vader and take his place.

Enraged, the Emperor unleashes a torrent of Force lightning upon Luke. The sight of Luke's agony breaks the dark side's hold on Vader, and Anakin Skywalker kills the Emperor by throwing his former master down the Death Star's reactor shaft. In the process, however, Anakin is mortally wounded by the Emperor's lightning. Redeemed, Anakin asks Luke to remove his helmet so he could look at Luke with his own eyes. With his dying breath, he tells his son that there was good left in him after all. Luke escapes the Death Star with his father's remains, which he later ceremonially burns in a funeral pyre. As the Rebels celebrate the destruction of the Death Star and the fall of the Empire, Luke sees his father's spirit, standing alongside those of Obi-Wan and Yoda.[21]

Prequel trilogy

In Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace, Anakin Skywalker appears as a nine-year-old slave. Raised on the planet Tatooine by his mother Shmi, Anakin had no father, implying miraculous birth.[22] He is a gifted pilot and engineer and has the ability to "see things before they happen". He even creates his own protocol droid, C-3PO. Jedi Master Qui-Gon Jinn meets him after an emergency landing on Tatooine. After discovering that Anakin's blood has an unusually high number of midi-chlorians (a measure of Force potential), Qui-Gon becomes convinced the boy is the "Chosen One" of Jedi prophecy who will bring balance to the Force. Anakin wins his freedom in a podrace, but is forced to part with his mother. Qui-Gon takes Anakin to the Jedi Council, but they forbid training on the grounds that the boy's future is clouded by the fear he exhibits. During the film, Anakin forms a close bond with Naboo queen Padmé Amidala. During the invasion of Naboo, Anakin helps defeat the Trade Federation by destroying their command ship. After Qui-Gon is killed in a duel with Sith Lord Darth Maul, his apprentice Obi-Wan Kenobi promises to train Anakin, a proposal the Jedi Council reluctantly accepts. The Galactic Republic's newly elected Chancellor Palpatine befriends the boy, promising to "watch your career with great interest".[23]

Ten years later in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones, Anakin Skywalker is depicted as the apprentice of Jedi Knight Obi-Wan Kenobi. Chancellor Palpatine assigns Anakin and Obi-Wan to investigate an assassination attempt made on Senator Padmé Amidala. Anakin travels with Padme to Naboo, where they fall in love. Anakin has a vision of his mother in pain and goes to Tatooine, where he learns that she had been kidnapped by Tusken Raiders. He goes to the Tusken camp, where he discovers too late that his mother has been tortured to death. Overcome with rage, Anakin kills the entire Tusken tribe. After he returns with his mother's body, he reveals his crime in devastation. Soon after, Anakin and Padmé travel to Geonosis to rescue Obi-Wan from Sith Lord Count Dooku (Darth Tyranus) and his Separatist army, but they are instead captured and sentenced to death. Anakin and Padmé profess their love for each other moments before being rescued by an army of clone troopers and Jedi. During a lightsaber duel with Tyranus, Anakin loses his right arm and later has it replaced with a prosthetic. At the end of the film, Anakin and Padmé marry in a secret ceremony.[24]

Three years later in Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, Anakin Skywalker is a Jedi Knight and hero of the Clone Wars.

He and Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi lead an attempt to rescue Supreme Chancellor Palpatine after he is kidnapped by Separatist leader General Grievous. During the rescue, Anakin defeats Count Dooku in a lightsaber duel and decapitates him in cold blood on Palpatine's urging. When he returns to Coruscant, he meets with Padmé Amidala, now pregnant with his progeny. That night, he has a vision of Padmé dying in childbirth; he fears it will come true, as it is similar to visions he had before his mother died. Meanwhile, Palpatine names Anakin his representative on the Jedi Council; the Council, suspicious of Palpatine's dictatorial power in the Senate, denies Anakin the rank of Jedi Master and asks him to spy on Palpatine.

Palpatine eventually reveals to Anakin that he is Sith Lord Darth Sidious, the mastermind of the war, and that the dark side holds the power to save Padmé's life. Conflicted, Anakin reports Palpatine to Jedi Master Mace Windu. Despite orders to remain behind, Anakin follows Windu to the Chancellor's office to ensure Palpatine is captured alive. He walks in on Windu ready to kill Palpatine and intervenes on the Sith Lord's behalf, severing Windu's lightsaber arm; Palpatine then kills Windu with a blast of Force lightning. Desperate to save his wife, Anakin pledges himself to the dark side and becomes Palpatine's Sith apprentice Darth Vader.

On Palpatine's order, Vader leads a squadron of clone troopers to kill everyone in the Jedi Temple, and then assassinates the Separatist leaders on Mustafar. There, Vader meets with Padmé, who begs him to flee with her. He refuses, saying that the two of them can overthrow Palpatine and rule the galaxy. When Obi-Wan emerges from Padmé's ship, Vader accuses her of conspiring against him and uses the Force to choke her into unconsciousness. Vader then engages Obi-Wan in a lightsaber duel which ends when Obi-Wan severs Vader's legs and remaining organic arm mid-air. Vader then slides too close to a lava flow and sustains life-threatening third-degree burns. Obi-Wan shouts at Anakin that he was meant to bring balance to the force, not destroy it, picks up his former friend's lightsaber and leaves him to die.

However, Palpatine finds Vader and has his ruined body reconstructed with the cybernetic limbs and the black armor seen in the original trilogy. When Vader regains consciousness, Palpatine tells him Padmé died as a result of his anger, devastates Vader. Vader is last seen alongside Palpatine and Tarkin viewing the original Death Star's construction.[24]

Animation

In the animated series Star Wars: Clone Wars, Anakin Skywalker has many adventures, including: a fierce lightsaber duel with Dark Jedi Asajj Ventress; becoming a Jedi Knight despite the Jedi Council's reservations; and taking part in a mission to free a warrior clan from the Separatists, during which he sees a cryptic vision of his future as Darth Vader.

In the 2008 animated film Star Wars: The Clone Wars and the subsequent television series, Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker takes on Padawan Ahsoka Tano.

He will appear in Star Wars Rebels voiced by James Earl Jones. He hired the Inquisitor to hunt down the remaining Jedi across the galaxy.

Literature

Darth Vader appears numerous times in comic books such as Dark Horse Comics's Star Wars Tales and Marvel Comics' Star Wars series (1977–1986). Vader's Quest (1999) which depicts Vader hiring a bounty hunter to bring him information about the pilot who destroyed the Death Star, ultimately meeting Luke for the first time.

In the novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye (1978), Vader and Luke duel for the first time, and Luke cuts off Vader's right arm.[7] Shadows of the Empire (1996) reveals that Vader is conflicted about trying to turn his son to the dark side of the Force, and knows deep down that there is still some good in him. In James Luceno's Dark Lord: The Rise of Darth Vader (2005), set a few months after the events of Revenge of the Sith, Vader disavows his Anakin identity as he systematically pursues and kills the surviving Jedi and cements his position in the Empire. The novel also reveals that Vader plans to eventually overthrow Palpatine, and that he betrayed the Jedi because he resented their supposed failure to recognize his power. Anakin's redeemed spirit appears in The Truce at Bakura (1993), set a few days after the end of Return of the Jedi. He appears to Leia, imploring her forgiveness. Leia condemns him for his crimes and banishes him from her life. He promises that he will be there for her when she needs him, and disappears. In Tatooine Ghost (2003), Leia learns to forgive her father after learning about his childhood as a slave and his mother's traumatic death. In The Dark Nest trilogy (2005), Luke and Leia uncover old recordings of their parents in R2-D2's memory drive; for the first time, they see their own birth and their mother's death, as well as their father's corruption to the dark side. In The Unifying Force (2003), Anakin tells his grandson Jacen Solo to "stand firm" in his battle with the Supreme Overlord of the Yuuzhan Vong. In Bloodlines (2006), Jacen — who has himself turned to the dark side — uses the Force to "watch" Anakin slaughter the children at the Jedi Temple.

Video games

Darth Vader plays a central role in Star Wars: The Force Unleashed (2008). He is a playable character in the first level of the game, where he and his armies invade Kashyyyk to hunt down a Jedi who had survived the Order's destruction. Vader kills the Jedi and kidnaps the man's young Force-sensitive son, whom he raises as his secret apprentice. Vader sends Starkiller (the game's protagonist) on various missions throughout the galaxy, with an ultimate goal to assassinate Palpatine so that Vader can rule the galaxy himself. Toward the end of the game, however, it is revealed that Vader isn't planning to overthrow Palpatine at all; he is merely using his apprentice to expose the Empire's enemies. At the game's climax, the player chooses between attacking Palpatine to help his Rebel friends escape the Death Star or killing Vader to become the Emperor's new apprentice. He also appears in the sequel Star Wars: The Force Unleashed II as the main antagonist and final boss.

Vader is also a playable character in the video games Lego Star Wars: The Video Game, Lego Star Wars II: The Original Trilogy, Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga, Soulcalibur IV, Star Wars: Battlefront II, Star Wars: Empire at War, Star Wars: Empire at War: Forces of Corruption and Star Wars: Galactic Battlegrounds. He also is an active but non-playable character in Star Wars Galaxies, Star Wars: Battlefront, (as an evil pig) is a non-playable character in Angry Birds Star Wars and is a playable character in Angry Birds Star Wars II.

Anakin Skywalker is a playable character in the video games Star Wars: Battlefront II, Lego Star Wars: The Video Game, Lego Star Wars II: The Original Trilogy, Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga, Star Wars: The Clone Wars - Lightsaber Duels, Star Wars: The Clone Wars - Jedi Alliance, Star Wars: The Clone Wars - Republic Heroes and is featured (as an Angry Bird) in Angry Birds Star Wars II.

Characteristics

In Attack of the Clones, Anakin Skywalker feels "smothered" by Obi-Wan Kenobi and is unable to control his life.[25] By Revenge of the Sith, however, his "father-son" friction with his master has matured into a more equal, brotherly relationship.[26] Once he becomes Darth Vader, each evil act he commits makes it harder for him to return to the light,[27] but ultimately escapes the dark side and redeems himself before he dies by saving his son Luke Skywalker and killing Palpatine in Return of the Jedi.[28]

Eric Bui, a psychiatrist at University of Toulouse Hospital, argued at the 2007 American Psychiatric Association convention that Anakin meets six of the nine diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD), one more than necessary for a diagnosis. He and a colleague, Rachel Rodgers, published their findings in a 2010 letter to the editor of the journal Psychiatry Research. Bui says he found Anakin Skywalker a useful example to explain BPD to medical students.[29] In particular, Bui points to Anakin's abandonment issues and uncertainty over his identity. Anakin's mass murders of the Tusken Raiders in Attack of the Clones and the young Jedi in Revenge of the Sith count as two dissociative episodes, fulfilling another criterion. Bui hoped his paper would help raise awareness of the disorder, especially among teens.[29]

Cultural impact

Darth Vader wearing traditional Ukrainian clothes

Darth Vader's iconic status has made the character a synonym for evil in popular culture; psychiatrists have even considered him as a useful example to explain borderline personality disorder to medical students.[29] Anakin's origin story in The Phantom Menace has been compared to signifiers of African American racial identity,[30] and his dissatisfaction with his life has been compared to Siddartha's before he became Gautama Buddha.[31] A Mexican church advised Christians against seeing The Phantom Menace because it portrays Anakin as a Christ figure.[32] A slime-mold beetle of the genus Agathidium is named after Vader,[33] and several buildings across the globe are regularly compared to him.[34][35][36][37][38][39] A grotesque of Darth Vader looms over the east face of the Washington National Cathedral's northwest tower.[40] During the 2007–08 NHL season, Ottawa Senators goaltender Martin Gerber performed so well in an all-black mask that fans endearingly termed him "Darth Gerber".[41]

Many commentators and comedians have also evoked his visage to satirize politicians and other public figures, and several American political figures have been unflatteringly compared to the character, including General George Custer, the subject of an acrylic painting titled "Darth Custer" by Native American artist Bunky Echohawk.[42] In 2005, Al Gore referred to Tele-Communications Inc.'s John C. Malone as the "Darth Vader of cable",[43] and political strategist Lee Atwater was known by his political enemies as "the Darth Vader of the Republican Party".[44]

On June 22, 2006, U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney referred to himself as the Darth Vader of the Bush administration. Discussing the administration's philosophy on gathering intelligence, he said to CNN's John King, "It means we need to be able to go after and capture or kill those people who are trying to kill Americans. That's not a pleasant business. It's a very serious business. And I suppose, sometimes, people look at my demeanor and say, 'Well, he's the Darth Vader of the administration.'"[45] Jon Stewart put on a Darth Vader helmet to address Dick Cheney as a "kindred spirit" on The Daily Show on January 25, 2007.[46] Cheney's wife, Lynne, presented Stewart with a Darth Vader action figure on her appearance on the show on October 10, 2007. Both Stewart and Stephen Colbert have occasionally referred to Cheney as "Darth Cheney". In the satirical cartoon show Lil' Bush, Dick Cheney's father is portrayed as being Darth Vader. At her presidential campaign event on September 19, 2007, Hillary Rodham Clinton also referred to Cheney as Darth Vader. At the 2008 Washington Radio and Television Correspondents' Association Dinner, Cheney joked that his wife Lynne told him that the Vader comparison "humanizes" him. George Lucas told The New York Times columnist Maureen Dowd, however, that Cheney is more akin to Emperor Palpatine, and that a better stand-in for Vader would be George W. Bush.[47] An issue of Newsweek referenced this quote, and compared Bush and Cheney to Vader and Palpatine, respectively, in a satirical article comparing politicians to various Star Wars and Star Trek characters.[48]

Many films and television series have paid homage to Darth Vader. Marty McFly in Back to the Future (1985), dressed in a radiation suit, calls himself "Darth Vader from the planet Vulcan" to convince the past version of his father to ask his mother to a dance. Rick Moranis plays "Dark Helmet" in the Star Wars parody Spaceballs (1987). In Chasing Amy (1997), Hooper X speaks at a comic convention about Darth Vader being a metaphor for how poorly the science fiction genre treats black people; he is especially offended that Vader, the "blackest brother in the galaxy", reveals himself to be a "feeble, crusty old white man" at the end of Return of the Jedi.

The character has gained much positive reception as a classic film villain. Darth Vader ranked number two on Empire magazine's 2008 list of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters.[49] Premiere magazine also ranked Vader on their list of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time.[50] On their list of the 100 Greatest Fictional Characters, Fandomania.com ranked Vader at number 6.[51] Darth Vader was also the #1 supervillain on the Bravo series Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens and Villains.[52] Darth Vader was also ranked as #1 in IGN's list of top 100 Star Wars characters.[53] Furthermore, Darth Vader's quote in The Empire Strikes Back — "No, I am your father" (often misquoted as "Luke, I am your father"),[54] — is one of the most well known quotes in cinema history. The line was selected as one of the 400 nominees for the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes, a list of the greatest American movie quotes.[55] Vader received the Ultimate Villain recognition at the 2011 Scream Awards.[56]

In 2010, IGN ranked Darth Vader 25th in the "Top 100 Videogames Villains".[57]

In Ukraine the Internet Party of Ukraine regularly lets people named Darth Vader take part in elections.[58][nb 1]

See also

  • "The Imperial March" – the theme music that accompanies Vader's appearances in The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi as well as scenes where Anakin becomes more aggressive and unstable in Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith.

Notes

  1. ^ Two men named Darth Vader were candidate at the 25 May 2014 Kiev mayoral election and the Odessa mayoral election of the same day.[59][60][61] A man named Darth Vader earlier had submitted documents to be registered as a presidential candidate in the 25 May 2014 Ukrainian presidential election; but his registration was refused because his real identity could not be verified.[62] In the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election Darth Vader and Star Wars characters like Chewbacca, Princess Amidala and Yoda ran for seats in the Ukrainian parliament.[58]

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b Bowen 2005, p. 94
  2. ^ Helinski, Keith. ""Revenge" Is Just Too Sweet", moviefreak.com. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
  3. ^ Winzler, Jonathan W. "The Making of Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith (Star Wars)", Powell's Books, April 2005. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
  4. ^ Thornton, Mark. "What is the "Dark Side" and Why Do Some People Choose It?", Ludwig von Mises Institute, May 13, 2005. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
  5. ^ "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains". afi.com. Retrieved May 21, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b Insider Excerpt: Vader Sculptor Brian Muir, StarWars.com, March 24, 2010
  7. ^ a b c d e "Vader, Darth". Databank. Lucasfilm. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  8. ^ a b "Skywalker, Anakin". Databank. Lucasfilm. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  9. ^ Biodrowski, Steve. "Star Wars : The Original Trilogy – Then And Now". Hollywood Gothique. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  10. ^ (Bouzereau 1997, p. 144)
  11. ^ Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (DVD). 20th Century Fox. 2004. 
  12. ^ Kaminski 2008, pp. 120–121
  13. ^ Kaminski 2008, pp. 164–165
  14. ^ "Lawrence Kasdan". Star Wars. Archived from the original on June 6, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  15. ^ Kaminski 2008, pp. 299–300
  16. ^ Bowen 2005, p. 22
  17. ^ Kaminski 2008, pp. 380–384
  18. ^ Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith documentary "Within a Minute" (DVD documentary). 2005. 
  19. ^ Bowen 2005, p. 3
  20. ^ a b Star Wars Episode IV: The New Hope Strikes Back, Special Edition (DVD, 20th Century Fox, 2004), disc 1.
  21. ^ Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, Special Edition (DVD, 20th Century Fox, 2004), disc 1.
  22. ^ Kottler, Jeffrey A.; Leah Brew (2007). Applied Helping Skills: Transforming Lives. SAGE. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-4129-4990-3. 
  23. ^ Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (DVD, 20th Century Fox, 1999), disc 1.
  24. ^ a b Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (DVD, 20th Century Fox, 2005), disc 1.
  25. ^ Bortolin 2005, p. 17
  26. ^ Kapell, Matthew; John Shelton Lawrence (2006). Finding the force of the Star wars franchise: fans, merchandise, & critics. Peter Lang. p. 137. ISBN 0-8204-8808-9. 
  27. ^ Bortolin 2005, p. 115
  28. ^ Bortolin 2005, p. x
  29. ^ a b c Hsu, Jeremy (June 8, 2010). "The Psychology of Darth Vader Revealed". LiveScience (TopTenReviews). Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  30. ^ Nama, Adilifu (2008). Black space: imagining race in science fiction film. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71745-9. 
  31. ^ Bortolin 2005, p. xiii
  32. ^ Bowen 2005, p. 97
  33. ^ "Bush, Cheney and Rumsfeld are now species of slime-mold beetles – but strictly in homage". Cornell News. Cornell University. Retrieved April 27, 2008. 
  34. ^ An architectural Star Wars clash at Sierra Point, San Francisco Chronicle, News Page 4, April 17, 1986
  35. ^ Property Values Reduced,Sun Sentinel, October 27, 1991
  36. ^ Egan, Timothy (June 29, 1986). "Focus: Seattle; Creating An Office Empire". NY Times. Retrieved May 8, 2008. 
  37. ^ "the bell awards – Tom Graff (interview)". Belltown Messenger. June 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2008. 
  38. ^ Day Out Results: BNZ Building.
  39. ^ "Grand Canyon Scale for Wellingtonians" Wayward Wellingtonians, July 11, 2008.
  40. ^ "About Darth Vader". Washington National Cathedral. Retrieved April 27, 2008. 
  41. ^ "Sens' Gerber has new mask, new outlook on season". Tsn.ca. September 24, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Bunky Echohawk". Ethnic Paintings. 
  43. ^ Gunther, Marc (August 22, 2005). "Al Gore Battles Old Cable Demons". CNN. Retrieved April 27, 2008. 
  44. ^ "Harvey Leroy "Lee" Atwater, was a Republican political consultant". Retrieved April 27, 2008. 
  45. ^ "Transcripts". The Situation Room (CNN). Retrieved April 27, 2008. 
  46. ^ "The Daily Show: Cheney Camera 3". Comedy Central. January 25, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2008. 
  47. ^ Dowd, Maureen (April 19, 2009). "The Aura of Arugulance". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2009. 
  48. ^ Newsweek
  49. ^ "Empire's The 100 Greatest Movie Characters". Empire Magazine. Retrieved May 21, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Premiere Magazine's The 100 Greatest Movie Characters". Filmsite.org. Retrieved May 21, 2010. 
  51. ^ "The 100 Greatest Fictional Characters". Fandomania.com. Retrieved May 21, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens and Villains Episode Guide 2005 – Ultimate Super Villains". TVGuide.com. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  53. ^ "Darth Vader/Anakin Skywalker is #1". IGN. Retrieved December 6, 2010. 
  54. ^ Michael French (2003). "The Common Concept of In". TheRaider.net. Retrieved February 26, 2007. 
  55. ^ "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes: Official Ballot". AFI.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010. 
  56. ^ Ford, Rebecca (October 15, 2011). "George Lucas Makes Surprise Appearance at Spike TV Scream Awards". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
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  58. ^ a b Darth Vader Is Running for Prime Minister of Ukraine, Vowing to Take On Putin, Newsweek (10/24/14)
  59. ^ Kyiv Election Commission Registers Darth Vader As Candidate For Kyiv Mayor, Ukrainian News Agency (1 May 2014)
  60. ^ (Ukrainian) Darth Vader candidate for mayor of Odesa, Espreso TV (1 May 2014)
  61. ^ Tsushko to compete for post of Odesa mayor, Interfax-Ukraine (29 March 2014)
  62. ^ Ukraine’s Darth Vader presidency bid rejected, Euronews (4 April 2014)
Bibliography
  • Bortolin, Matthew (2005). The Dharma of Star Wars. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-497-1. 
  • Bowen, Jonathan L. (2005). Anticipation: The Real Life Story of Star Wars: Episode I-The Phantom Menace. iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-34732-2. 
  • Kaminski, Michael (2008). The Secret History of Star Wars. Legacy Works Press. ISBN 0-9784652-3-7. 
Further reading

External links