|Indian berry (Anamirta cocculus)|
(L.) Wight & Arn., 1834
The plant is large-stemmed (up to 10 cm in diameter); the bark is "corky gray" with white wood. The "small, yellowish-white, sweet-scented" flowers vary between 6 to 10 centimeters across; the fruit produced is a drupe, "about 1 cm in diameter when dry".
The stem and the roots contain quaternary alkaloids, such as berberine, palmatine, magnoflorine and columbamine. The seeds deliver picrotoxin, a sesquiterpene, while the seed shells contain the tertiary alkaloids menispermine and paramenispermine.
Although poisonous, hard multum is a preparation made from Cocculus Indicus, etc., once used (by 19th century brewers) to impart a more intoxicating quality ("giddiness") to beer than provided by the alcoholic content alone. Charles Dickens referred to those engaging in such practices as "brewers and beer-sellers of low degree,... who do not understand the wholesome policy of selling wholesome beverage." Although appearing in many homeopathic volumes and at least two brewers' guides, the use of such preparations was outlawed in England, during the mid-19th century, with fines of £500 for sale and £200 for use of the drug.
The English common names are Indian berry, fishberry, or Levant nut (both referring to the dried fruit, and to the plant by synecdoche) and coca de Levante in Spanish; it is variously known as ligtang, aria (Mindanao), bayati (Tagalog), and variations thereof throughout its natural distribution (the Philippines, East India, Malaysia, and New Guinea).
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- Lucius E. Sayre, B.S. Ph.M. (1907). "MENISPERMACEÆ - Moonseed Family: 25. Cocculus.". A Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: P.Blakinston's Son & Co. p. 100. OCLC 5302717. Retrieved June 9, 2012.