اننتناگ / अनन्तनाग
|State||Jammu and Kashmir|
|• Total||2,917 km2 (1,126 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,601 m (5,253 ft)|
|• Density||37/km2 (96/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||JK 03|
|Sex ratio||937 ♂/♀|
Anantnag (əˈnæntˌnæg/nɑːg) (Kashmiri: अनन्तनाग/ اننتناگ /Anaṁtnāg/, meaning abode of springs and lakes), (An-ant=un-ending, Naga=Springs) is a city and a municipality in Anantnag district in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Anantnag is regarded as the commercial and financial capital of the Kashmir valley. It is a large business and trading centre of the valley.
The city is constituted by three main boroughs or towns Viz Anantnag, Khanabal, Mattan and half a dozen small townships. Most of the population of the city resides in the Anantnag borough.
The old city of Anantnag comprises Nagbal, Maliknag, Kadipora, Cheeni Chowk, Doni Pawa, Pehroo, Sarnal Bala, Janglatmandi, Old Port Khanabal, Downtown Martand, & Dangarpora areas and few villages like Haji Danter, Mir Danter etc. The new city consists of the civil lines areas like S.K. Colony, Bakshiabad, Laizbal, Anchidora, Pehroo Iqbalabad, Posh Bilal Colony, Fasilabad, Moomin-Abad, Harnag, Sultan Bah-i-Rum Shah and Mid town areas like hutmara, seer, Bona Checheri Pora, Ruhu, Monghall, Lalan, Furrah, Kamad, Bona Dialgam, Fatehpora, Pethbugh, Ashshjipora, Naibasti, Batpora and Mir Bazaar. Anantnag has quite a population inhabiting several satellite areas like Wanpoh, Dialgam, Nowgam, Seer, Fateh Garh University town and NH 1 A north and east which are rapidly becoming part of Fast expanding Anantnag Metro area.
Near Anantnag exists the confluence of three streams, Arapath, Brengi and Sandran, and the resulting river is named Veth or Jhelum. There are several larger streams such as Brengi. Another stream Lidar joins the river a little downstream and from that point the river becomes navigable. In olden times river Jhelum was the main source of transportation between Anantnag and other towns downstream.
As Anantnag is located centrally, it has a strategic importance as a major centre of trade and commerce. It is a city of various handicrafts and main trading centre and manufacturing place for shawl weaving, gabbah carpet and Namdah (hand-knotted Kashmir rug).
According to ancient mythological stories, the name Anant (infinite or never-ending) Nag (snake) is given to the place because Lord Shiva during his journey to Amarnath cave left all his valuables on the way and Anantnag was the place where he left countless number of serpents residing on his body. The city finds its place in the Bhagavadgita that says "I am Ananta Naga" It is also well mentioned in ancient Naga and Pichash chronicles of ancient aboriginals of the valley. It was also known as Kashyapteshwara in ancient times linking it to the mythology of Rishi Kashyapa. Regarding this second name, no mention is to be found in the old chronicles of Kashmir.
Nag also means water spring in the Kashmiri language. Thus Anantnag is believed to mean numerous springs, because there are many springs, including Nag Bal, Salak Nag and Malik Nag in the town. According to a well known archaeologist, Sir A. Stein, the name of the city comes from the great spring Ananta Nag issuing at the centre of the city.
This is also corroborated by almost all local historians including Kalhana according to whom the city has taken the name of this great spring of Cesha or Ananta Nag, land of countless springs. The spring is mentioned in the Neelmat Purana as a sacred place for the Hindus and Koshur Encyclopedia testifies it.
Anantnag is an ancient city that came into existence as a market town around 5000 BCE making it one of the oldest urban human settlements in the world.
Before the advent of Muslim rule in 1320 CE, Kashmir was divided into three divisions, viz., Maraz in the south, Yamraj in the centre and Kamraj in the north of the Valley. Old chronicles reveal that the division was the culmination of the rift Marhan and Kaman, the two brothers, over the crown of their father. The part of the valley which lies between Pir Panjal and Srinagar, and called the Anantnag, was given to Marhan and named after him as Maraj. While Srinagar is no longer known as Yamraj, the area to its north and south are still called Kamraz and Maraz respectively. Lawrence in his book "The Valley of Kashmir" states that these divisions were later on divided into thirty four sub-divisions which after 1871 were again reduced to five Zilas or districts. According to old map of British India (1836), Anantnag was called Islamabad by some.
Historic sites and remains
Anantnag, like the rest of the Kashmir Valley, has witnessed many vicissitudes and experienced many upheavals from time to time. Charles von Hügel found here some monuments of the Mughal period in ruins when he visited Jammu and Kashmir in 1835. No significant ancient building or archaeological site is found in the district today, except for the Martand temple, as most of the ancient architectural monuments in the area were destroyed during the rule of Sultan Sikander. What must have once been magnificent architectural show pieces like the Martand complex of temples, or the temples of Lalitaditya, the Emperor of Kashmir, and King Awantivarman at Awantipora (which lie midway between Srinagar and Anantnag), are now in grand ruins.
Martand Sun Temple
The Martand temple is one of the important archaeological sites of the country. It was built around 500 AD. This temple has the typical Aryan structure as was present in Aryan Kashmir. The Martand temple (coordinates) or 33.7456817°N and 75.2203792°E is situated at Kehribal, 9 km east-north-east of Anantnag and south of Mattan.
The temple was attacked by Sikander Butshikan. It took one year for Sikander Butshikan to fully damage and destroy this Martand temple.
Even today one gets surprised over art and skill of the builders of this world famous Martand temple by looking at its ruins. Its impressive architecture reveals the glorious past of the area. After Independence, the government developed many beauty spots of the district, but of their noble and magnificent edifices only faint traces survive.
Anantnag features a moderate type climate (Köppen climate classification. Anantnag's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Karakoram to its east and the Pirpanjal range to the south. It can be generally described as cool in the spring and autumn, mild in the summer and cold in the winter. As a large city with a significant differences in geo-location among various localities, the weather is often cooler in the hilly areas of east as compared to the flat northern part of Anantnag.
Summer is usually mild and with a little rain, but relative humidity is generally high and the nights are cool. The precipitation occurs throughout the year but no one month is particularly dry. The hottest month is July (mean minimum temperature 6 °C, mean maximum temperature 32 °C) and the coldest are December–January (mean minimum temperature −15 °C, mean maximum temperature 0 °C).
Although compared with other plain parts of the country Anantnag enjoys a more moderate climate (what does this sentence mean?), weather conditions are unpredictable. The record high temperature is 33 °C and the record low is −18 °C. After years of relatively little snow, on 5–6 January 2012, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures shocked the city covering it in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the to officially declare a state of emergency and calling the following two days (6 and 7 January) off for the whole valley.
Anantnag has seen an increase in the relative humidity and annual precipitation in the last few years. This is most likely because of the commercial afforestation projects which also include expanding parks and green cover. The suburb parts of Anantnag are more lush than the central part. Anantnag district possesses all the typical characteristics of the climate of Kashmir Valley as a whole.
|Climate data for Anantnag (1971–1986)|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||48
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||6.6||7.3||10.2||8.8||8.1||5.7||7.9||6.8||3.5||2.8||2.8||5.1||75.6|
As of 2011[update] India census, Anantnag city had a population of 11 lac, Anantnag Urban Agglomeration had a population of 4,58,785 and Anantnag district had a population of 11,70,144. In Anantnag city, males constituted 51.6% and females 48.4% of the population. Sex ratio was 937 females per 1,000 males compared to national average 940. The sex ratio was worse at 874 for the 0 to 6-year age-group compared to national average 918. Anantnag had an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 64.3%. Male literacy was 71%, and female literacy was 61%. Children under six years of age numbered 18,056 in Anantnag city and were 16.6% of the population in 2011.
Anantnag is the big hub of the economy of the Kashmir Valley, and it has remained a tourist destination for centuries. The valley has attracted travellers from around theworld for a long time and they travelled to the valley and Anantnag to take view of its breath taking beauty.
In 2010 Anantnag was declared as major City of Export excellence with a total GDP of 3.7 billion $. The high GDPof Anantnag is due to the centralised position and presence of high concentration of foreign labours and troops in it. anantnag has a strategic position lying on the main North South Corridor Road and with highest number of tourist destinations it an economic hub of Kashmir Valley. the city suffered heavily during war times of 1990's most roads, bridges, government institutions were reduced to ash . but in recent times it has made a very fast recovery. It has been listed among 100 fastest economically developing cities. The presence of a cheap large foreign labour force has helped it to recover rapidly in post war times
The main area of Anantnag is among the most populous part of the Kashmir valley, and crops like wheat and rice are cultivated for local consumption. Orchards produce a number of fruits, particularly apples. Another significant segment of the economy include handicrafts, weaving of woolen shawls and dress materials, and woodcarving . Anantnag and the surrounding areas serve as collecting points from where fruits and handicraft products are taken to several parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Martand Sun Temple is an important tourist site of Anantnag city.
There are seven temple complexes in the city. Anantnag boosts the highest number of tourist destinations in whole Kashmir valley
with destinatioms like pahalgam, kokernag, verinag, achabal, aharbal, sinthan top,
daksum and city itself
Adventure sports are popular among tourists. Pahalgam has potential for canoeing and water skiing. Water trekking is local name for three to four-day trip along the Jhelum River in a shikara with camping gear. Aru (58 km) and Pahalgam (45 km) are popular destinations for hikers, trekkers and fishermen.
Anantnag has nearly 12 major colleges and 1 university Campus. Since the establishment of Islamia Hanfia Institute in the mid-20th century, a number of institutions of higher education have come up in Anantnag and include University of Kashmir south campus. Some of these institutions have played crucial roles in the unfolding of Kashmir political events.
Srinagar is the nearest airport with scheduled flights from Delhi and Jammu. Awantipur Air Force Station, 20 km away and half-way to Srinagar, does not allow any civilian flights.
Anantnag is a station on the 119 km long Kashmir railway that runs from Baramulla to Banihal. The railway track is connected to Banihal across the Pir Panjal mountains through the newly constructed 11 km long Banihal tunnel by mid-2013 and finally will connect Indian railway network after a few years.
Performing arts of the city include:
- Bhand Pather, a form of traditional folk theatre art form of play and dance, is performed by a group of about ten to fifteen artists. They depict in a satirical style social evils. Performance is accompanied by light music.
- Chakri is a major and popular form of Kashmiri folk music
- Another form of Kashmiri genre of music called Sufiana music is also practiced in the city. It was introduced in the valley in the 15th century from Iran. Over centuries, it has assimilated a number of Indian Ragas, and has established itself as a classical music of the region. The instruments used in the music include santoor, sitar, Kashmiri saz, tabla, and wasool.
- Hafiz Nagma, a form of dance, is performed to the accompaniment of Sufiana music. The dancer is a female while males play different instruments used in Sufiana music.
- Drama and film making
- "History of Anantnag". Government of India. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Anantnag. Fallingrain.com.
- "Shrines of Anantnag Kashmir". PawanKumarPandita. Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
- District Anantnag. Anantnag.gov.in.
- Chander Bhat's Articles. Ikashmir.net (20 March 1960).
- CONVERTED KASHMIR: Memorial of Mistakes. Kashmir-information.com.
- KashmirForum.org: May 2010. Kashmirforumorg.blogspot.com.
- "Climatological Information for Srinigar, India". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2011-05-02.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- Major town of export excelence. Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com (1 December 2010).
- Anantnag. Cuts-citee.org.
- Articles about Anantnag in The Economic Times