Anantnag

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This article is about the municipality in Kashmir. For its namesake district, see Anantnag district.
Not to be confused with Anant Nag.
Anantnag
اننتناگ / अनन्तनाग
Town
Anantnag is located in Jammu and Kashmir
Anantnag
Anantnag
Location in Jammu and Kashmir, India
Coordinates: 33°44′N 75°09′E / 33.73°N 75.15°E / 33.73; 75.15Coordinates: 33°44′N 75°09′E / 33.73°N 75.15°E / 33.73; 75.15
Country  India
State  Jammu and Kashmir
District Anantnag
Settled 5000 BCE
Area
 • Total 2,917 km2 (1,126 sq mi)
Elevation 1,601 m (5,253 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,078,692
 • Density 370/km2 (960/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Kashmiri
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 192101
Telephone code 01932
Vehicle registration JK 03
Sex ratio 1000 /927
Literacy 62.69%
Website anantnag.nic.in

Anantnag (əˈnæntˌnæg/nɑːg) (Kashmiri: /Anaṁtnāg/,meaning abode of springs and lakes), (An-ant=un-ending, Naga=Springs), is a city and a municipality in Anantnag in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Anantnag is regarded as the commercial and financial capital of the Kashmir valley. It is a large business and trading centre of the valley. Most of the people of Kashmir valley address the District by the name of "Islamabad".

Etymology[edit]

The name Anantnag is thought to be derived from the Sanskrit term for "Land of countless springs"[1] Nag also means water spring in the Kashmiri language. Thus Anantnag is believed to mean numerous springs, because there are many springs, including Nag Bal, Salak Nag and Malik Nag in the town. According to a well known archaeologist, Sir A. Stein, the name of the city comes from the great spring Ananta Nag issuing at the centre of the city. This is also corroborated by almost all local historians including Kalhana according to whom the city has taken the name of this great spring of Cesha or Ananta Nag, land of countless springs.

History[edit]

Anantnag is an ancient city that came into existence as a market town around 5000 BCE making it one of the oldest urban human settlements in the world[citation needed]. Before the advent of Muslim rule in 1320 CE, Kashmir was divided into three divisions, viz., Maraz in the south, Yamraj in the centre and Kamraj in the north of the Valley. Old chronicles reveal that the division was the culmination of the rift Marhan and Kaman, the two brothers, over the crown of their father. The part of the valley which lies between Pir Panjal and Srinagar, and called the Anantnag, was given to Marhan and named after him as Maraj. While Srinagar is no longer known as Yamraj, the area to its north and south are still called Kamraz and Maraz respectively. Lawrence in his book "The Valley of Kashmir" states that these divisions were later on divided into thirty four sub-divisions which after 1871 were again reduced to five Zilas or districts. According to old map of British India (1836), Anantnag was called Islamabad by some.[2]

General view of Temple and Enclosure of Martand or the Sun. Probable date of temple AD 490–555. Probable date of colonnade AD 693–729. Photograph of the Surya Temple at Martand was taken by John Burke in 1868.

Historic sites and remains[edit]

Anantnag, like the rest of the Kashmir Valley, has witnessed many vicissitudes and experienced many upheavals from time to time. Charles von Hügel found here some monuments of the Mughal period in ruins when he visited Jammu and Kashmir in 1835. No significant ancient building or archaeological site is found in the district today, except for the Martand temple, as most of the ancient architectural monuments in the area were destroyed during the rule of Sultan Sikander. What must have once been magnificent architectural show pieces like the Martand complex of temples, or the temples of Lalitaditya, the Emperor of Kashmir, and King Awantivarman at Awantipora (which lie midway between Srinagar and Anantnag), are now in grand ruins.

Martand Sun Temple[edit]

Main article: Martand Sun Temple

The Martand temple is one of the important archaeological sites of the country. It was built around 500 AD. This temple has the typical Aryan structure as was present in Aryan Kashmir. The Martand temple (coordinates 33°44′44″N 75°13′13″E / 33.7456817°N 75.2203792°E / 33.7456817; 75.2203792) or 33.7456817°N and 75.2203792°E is situated at Kehribal, 9 km east-north-east of Anantnag and south of Mattan.

The temple was attacked by Sikander Butshikan.[3] It took one year for Sikander Butshikan to fully damage and destroy this Martand temple. Even today one gets surprised over art and skill of the builders of this world famous Martand temple by looking at its ruins.[4] Its impressive architecture reveals the glorious past of the area.[citation needed] After Independence, the government developed many beauty spots of the district, but of their noble and magnificent edifices only faint traces survive.[5]

Geography[edit]

Anantnag is located at 33°44′N 75°09′E / 33.73°N 75.15°E / 33.73; 75.15,[6] at an elevation of 5,300 feet (1,600 m) above sea level, at a distance of 53 kilometres (33 mi) from Srinagar

The city is constituted by three main boroughs or towns Viz Anantnag, Khanabal, Mattan, Jammu and Kashmir and half a dozen small townships. Most of the population of the city resides in the Anantnag borough. The old city of Anantnag comprises Nagbal, Maliknag, Kadipora, Cheeni Chowk, Doni Pawa, Pehroo, Sarnal Bala, Janglatmandi, Old Port Khanabal, Downtown Martand, & Dangarpora areas and few villages like Haji Danter, Mir Danter etc. The new city consists of the civil lines areas like S.K. Colony, Bakshiabad, Laizbal, Anchidora, Pehroo Iqbalabad, Posh Bilal Colony, Fasilabad, Moomin-Abad, Harnag, Sultan Bah-i-Rum Shah and Mid town areas like hutmara, seer, Bona Checheri Pora, Ruhu, Monghall, Lalan, Furrah, Kamad, Bona Dialgam, Fatehpora, Pethbugh, Ashajipora, Nai basti (Anantnag), Batpora and Mir Bazaar. Anantnag has quite a population inhabiting several satellite areas like Wanpoh, Dialgam, Nowgam, Seer, Fateh Garh University town and NH 1 A north and east which are rapidly becoming part of Fast expanding Anantnag Metro area.

Near Anantnag exists the confluence of three streams, Arapath, Brengi and Sandran, and the resulting river is named Veth or Jhelum. There are several larger streams such as Brengi. Another stream Lidar joins the river a little downstream and from that point the river becomes navigable. In olden times river Jhelum was the main source of transportation between Anantnag and other towns downstream.

Srinagar is 53 km from Anantnag. The distances of some other towns from Anantnag are: Achabal 10 km, Kokarnag 23 km, Verinag27 km and Pahalgam 39 km.[7]

As Anantnag is located centrally, it has a strategic importance as a major centre of trade and commerce. It is a city of various handicrafts and main trading centre and manufacturing place for shawl weaving, gabbah carpet and Namdah (hand-knotted Kashmir rug).

Climate[edit]

Anantnag features a moderate type climate (Köppen climate classification. Anantnag's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Karakoram to its east and the Pir Panjal Range to the south. It can be generally described as cool in the spring and autumn, mild in the summer and cold in the winter. As a large city with a significant differences in geo-location among various localities, the weather is often cooler in the hilly areas of east as compared to the flat northern part of Anantnag.

Summer is usually mild and with a little rain, but relative humidity is generally high and the nights are cool. The precipitation occurs throughout the year but no one month is particularly dry. The hottest month is July (mean minimum temperature 6 °C, mean maximum temperature 32 °C) and the coldest are December–January (mean minimum temperature −15 °C, mean maximum temperature 0 °C).

Although compared with other plain parts of the country Anantnag enjoys a more moderate climate, weather conditions are unpredictable. The record high temperature is 33 °C and the record low is −18 °C. After years of relatively little snow, on 5–6 January 2012, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures shocked the city covering it in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the to officially declare a state of emergency and calling the following two days (6 and 7 January) off for the whole valley.

Anantnag has seen an increase in the relative humidity and annual precipitation in the last few years. This is most likely because of the commercial afforestation projects which also include expanding parks and green cover. The suburb parts of Anantnag are more lush than the central part. Anantnag district possesses all the typical characteristics of the climate of Kashmir Valley as a whole.

Climate data for Anantnag (1971–1986)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
8.2
(46.8)
14.1
(57.4)
20.5
(68.9)
24.5
(76.1)
29.6
(85.3)
30.1
(86.2)
29.6
(85.3)
27.4
(81.3)
22.4
(72.3)
15.1
(59.2)
8.2
(46.8)
19.7
(67.5)
Average low °C (°F) −2
(28.4)
−0.7
(30.7)
3.4
(38.1)
7.9
(46.2)
10.8
(51.4)
14.9
(58.8)
18.1
(64.6)
17.5
(63.5)
12.1
(53.8)
5.8
(42.4)
0.9
(33.6)
−1.5
(29.3)
7.3
(45.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 48
(1.89)
68
(2.68)
121
(4.76)
85
(3.35)
68
(2.68)
39
(1.54)
62
(2.44)
76
(2.99)
28
(1.1)
33
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
54
(2.13)
710
(27.96)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.6 7.3 10.2 8.8 8.1 5.7 7.9 6.8 3.5 2.8 2.8 5.1 75.6
Source: HKO[8]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census,[9] Anantnag city had a population of 1.1 lac, Anantnag Urban Agglomeration had a population of 4,58,785 and Anantnag district had a population of 11,70,144. In Anantnag city, males constituted 51.6% and females 48.4% of the population. Sex ratio was 937 females per 1,000 males compared to national average 940. The sex ratio was worse at 874 for the 0 to 6-year age-group compared to national average 918. Anantnag had an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 64.3%. Male literacy was 71%, and female literacy was 61%. Children under six years of age numbered 18,056 in Anantnag city and were 16.6% of the population in 2011.

Economy[edit]

Anantnag is the big hub of the economy of the Kashmir Valley,[citation needed] and it has remained a tourist destination for centuries. The valley has attracted travellers from around theworld for a long time and they travelled to the valley and Anantnag to take view of its breath taking beauty.

In 2010 Anantnag was declared as major City of Export excellence with a total GDP of 3.7 billion $.[10] The high GDPof Anantnag is due to the centralised position and presence of high concentration of foreign labours and troops in it. anantnag has a strategic position lying on the main North South Corridor Road and with highest number of tourist destinations it an economic hub of Kashmir Valley. the city suffered heavily during war times of 1990's most roads, bridges, government institutions were reduced to ash . but in recent times it has made a very fast recovery. It has been listed among 100 fastest economically developing cities.[11] The presence of a cheap large foreign labour force has helped it to recover rapidly in post war times

The main area of Anantnag is among the most populous part of the Kashmir valley,[citation needed] and crops like wheat and rice are cultivated for local consumption. Orchards produce a number of fruits, particularly apples. Another significant segment of the economy include handicrafts, weaving of woolen shawls and dress materials, and woodcarving . Anantnag and the surrounding areas serve as collecting points from where fruits and handicraft products are taken to several parts of the Indian subcontinent.

Schools[edit]

Higher education[edit]

  • ITI Heaven Colony, Ashajipora, Anantnag

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joshi, Arun (Sep 2006), "The Day I became a Muslim", A Social History of India, India Research Press, p. 27, ISBN 8183860044 
  2. ^ District Anantnag. Anantnag.gov.in.
  3. ^ Chander Bhat's Articles. Ikashmir.net (20 March 1960).
  4. ^ CONVERTED KASHMIR: Memorial of Mistakes. Kashmir-information.com.
  5. ^ KashmirForum.org: May 2010. Kashmirforumorg.blogspot.com.
  6. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Anantnag. Fallingrain.com.
  7. ^ "Anantnag Pin code". citypincode.in. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  8. ^ "Climatological Information for Srinigar, India". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2011-05-02. 
  9. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  10. ^ Major town of export excelence. Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com (1 December 2010).
  11. ^ Anantnag. Cuts-citee.org.

External links[edit]