Anarchism in Poland
|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Polish Wikipedia. (April 2013)|
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Prior to Polish independence, several anarchist organizations emerged within the area that would become the Second Polish Republic. The first of these, known as The Struggle, was formed in Białystok in 1903. In the following years, similar organizations were established in Nieznow, Warsaw, Łódź, Siedlce, Częstochowa, Kielce, and other towns. One of the most active was a group known as International, based in Warsaw. This group, composed of Jewish workers, organized strikes throughout the city during the Polish insurrection of 1905.
The level of despotism of the tsar's authority were high. Many young anarchists were executed without trial and firing on demonstrating workers was common. In January 1906, sixteen members of the International group were arrested and shot without trial. The strong repression of these groups led them to engage in terrorist acts such as assassinating police officers or owners of large factories. Many also robbed banks to gain funds. Meanwhile, anarchists in Poland began to be influenced by anarcho-syndicalism. The followers of anarcho-syndicalism rejected terrorism and organised revolutionary trade-unions and propaganda activity. The most significant Polish theorists of anarchism and anarcho-syndicalism were Edward Abramowski, Jan Wacław Machajski, Augustyn Wróblewski and Rafał Górski.