Anarchism in Korea began in 1894, when Japan invaded Korea with the stated intention of protecting it from China. It was from within the exiles who fled to China in the wake of the 1919 independence conflict that the modern anarchist movement in Korea arose. This struggle, which involved 2 million people is referred to as the 3.1 Movement; anarchists played a significant role in this movement. There were 1,500 demonstrations held. 7,500 people were killed and 16,000 wounded and around 700 homes and 47 churches were destroyed. There were three stages in Korea anarchism. Prominent Korean anarchists include Kim Jwa-jin, Ha Ki-Rak, Park Yeol, and Sin Chaeho. Among them, Kim Jwa-jin is known for his organization of the autonomous Shinmin region, which was an underlooked anarcho-communist society encompassing about two million people for three years. Formerly a prefecture of China, it became "the Korean People's Association in Manchuria," with rural collectives, mutual aid banks, a greatly expanded education system, mandated, unprivileged delegates, and a free peasant army.